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  • 1.
    Berktas, Ilayda
    et al.
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Fontana, Patrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Caputcu, Ayten
    Cimsa Cimento Sanayi AS, Turkey.
    Menceloglu, Yusuf
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Okan, Burcu
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Facile synthesis of graphene from waste tire/silica hybrid additives and optimization study for the fabrication of thermally enhanced cement grouts2020In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 25, no 4, article id 886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work evaluates the effects of newly designed graphene/silica hybrid additives on the properties of cementitious grout. In the hybrid structure, graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) obtained from waste tire was used to improve the thermal conductivity and reduce the cost and environmental impacts by using recyclable sources. Additionally, functionalized silica nanoparticles were utilized to enhance the dispersion and solubility of carbon material and thus the hydrolyzable groups of silane coupling agent were attached to the silica surface. Then, the hybridization of GNP and functionalized silica was conducted to make proper bridges and develop hybrid structures by tailoring carbon/silica ratios. Afterwards, special grout formulations were studied by incorporating these hybrid additives at different loadings. As the amount of hybrid additive incorporated into grout suspension increased from 3 to 5 wt%, water uptake increased from 660 to 725 g resulting in the reduction of thermal conductivity by 20.6%. On the other hand, as the concentration of GNP in hybrid structure increased, water demand was reduced, and thus the enhancement in thermal conductivity was improved by approximately 29% at the same loading ratios of hybrids in the prepared grout mixes. Therefore, these developed hybrid additives showed noticeable potential as a thermal enhancement material in cement-based grouts. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 2.
    Ehman, Nanci Vanesa
    et al.
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Ita-Nagy, Diana
    Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Felissia, Fernando Esteban
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Vallejos, María Evangelina
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Quispe, Isabel
    Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Area, María Cristina
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Biocomposites of Bio-Polyethylene Reinforced with a Hydrothermal-Alkaline Sugarcane Bagasse Pulp and Coupled with a Bio-Based Compatibilizer.2020In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 25, no 9, article id E2158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-polyethylene (BioPE, derived from sugarcane), sugarcane bagasse pulp, and two compatibilizers (fossil and bio-based), were used to manufacture biocomposite filaments for 3D printing. Biocomposite filaments were manufactured and characterized in detail, including measurement of water absorption, mechanical properties, thermal stability and decomposition temperature (thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA)). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed to measure the glass transition temperature (Tg). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to assess the fracture area of the filaments after mechanical testing. Increases of up to 10% in water absorption were measured for the samples with 40 wt% fibers and the fossil compatibilizer. The mechanical properties were improved by increasing the fraction of bagasse fibers from 0% to 20% and 40%. The suitability of the biocomposite filaments was tested for 3D printing, and some shapes were printed as demonstrators. Importantly, in a cradle-to-gate life cycle analysis of the biocomposites, we demonstrated that replacing fossil compatibilizer with a bio-based compatibilizer contributes to a reduction in CO2-eq emissions, and an increase in CO2 capture, achieving a CO2-eq storage of 2.12 kg CO2 eq/kg for the biocomposite containing 40% bagasse fibers and 6% bio-based compatibilizer.

  • 3.
    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Moody, Thomas
    Almac Sciences Ltd, UK.
    Taylor, Steve
    Arran Chemical Company Ltd, Ireland.
    Recent trends in enzyme immobilization—concepts for expanding the biocatalysis toolbox2021In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 26, no 9, article id 2822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzymes have been exploited by humans for thousands of years in brewing and baking, but it is only recently that biocatalysis has become a mainstream technology for synthesis. Today, enzymes are used extensively in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, food, fine chemicals, flavors, fragrances and other products. Enzyme immobilization technology has also developed in parallel as a means of increasing enzyme performance and reducing process costs. The aim of this review is to present and discuss some of the more recent promising technical developments in enzyme immobilization, including the supports used, methods of fabrication, and their application in synthesis. The review highlights new support technologies such as the use of well-established polysaccharides in novel ways, the use of magnetic particles, DNA, renewable materials and hybrid organic–inorganic supports. The review also addresses how immobilization is being integrated into developing biocatalytic technology, for example in flow biocatalysis, the use of 3D printing and multi-enzymatic cascade reactions. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 4. Kang, W.
    et al.
    Muhlack, R. A.
    Bindon, K. A.
    Smith, P. A.
    Niimi, Jun
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    Potato protein fining of phenolic compounds in red wine: A study of the kinetics and the impact of wine matrix components and physical factors2019In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 24, no 24, article id 4578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Producing wines within an acceptable range of astringency is important for quality and consumer acceptance. Astringency can be modified by fining during the winemaking process and the use of vegetable proteins (especially potato proteins) as fining agents has gained increasing interest due to consumers’ requirements. The research presented was the first to investigate the effect of a potato protein dose on the kinetics of tannin and phenolic removal compared to gelatin for two unfined Cabernet Sauvignon wines. To further understand the results, the influence of the wine matrix and fining parameters (including pH, ethanol concentration, sugar concentration, temperature, and agitation) were tested according to a fractional 25-1 factorial design on one of the Cabernet Sauvignon wines using potato proteins. The results from the factorial design indicate that potato protein fining was significantly influenced by wine pH, ethanol concentration, fining temperature as well as an interaction (pH × ethanol) but not by sugar content or agitation. Insights into the steps required for the optimisation of fining were gained from the study, revealing that potato protein fining efficiency could be increased by treating wines at higher temperatures (20 ◦C, rather than the conventional 10–15 ◦C), and at both a lower pH and/or alcohol concentration. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 5.
    Karalė, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bollmark, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Stulz, Rouven
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Honcharenko, Dmytro
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Tedebark, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Strömberg, Roger
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    A study on synthesis and upscaling of 2′-o-aecm-5-methyl pyrimidine phosphoramidites for oligonucleotide synthesis2021In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 26, no 22, article id 6927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    2′-O-(N-(Aminoethyl)carbamoyl)methyl-modified 5-methyluridine (AECM-MeU) and 5-methylcytidine (AECM-MeC) phosphoramidites are reported for the first time and prepared in multigram quantities. The syntheses of AECM-MeU and AECM-MeC nucleosides are designed for larger scales (approx. 20 g up until phosphoramidite preparation steps) using low-cost reagents and minimizing chromatographic purifications. Several steps were screened for best conditions, focusing on the most crucial steps such as N3 and/or 2′-OH alkylations, which were improved for larger scale synthesis using phase transfer catalysis (PTC). Moreover, the need of chromatographic purifications was substantially reduced by employing one-pot synthesis and improved work-up strategies. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 6.
    Kostag, Marc
    et al.
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Achtel, Christian
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Heinze, Thomas
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    El Seoud, Omar A
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Recent Advances in Solvents for the Dissolution, Shaping and Derivatization of Cellulose: Quaternary Ammonium Electrolytes and their Solutions in Water and Molecular Solvents.2018In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 23, no 3, article id E511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a sustained interest in developing solvents for physically dissolving cellulose, i.e., without covalent bond formation. The use of ionic liquids, ILs, has generated much interest because of their structural versatility that results in efficiency as cellulose solvents. Despite some limitations, imidazole-based ILs have received most of the scientific community's attention. The objective of the present review is to show the advantages of using quaternary ammonium electrolytes, QAEs, including salts of super bases, as solvents for cellulose dissolution, shaping, and derivatization, and as a result, increase the interest in further investigation of these important solvents. QAEs share with ILs structural versatility; many are liquids at room temperature or are soluble in water and molecular solvents (MSs), in particular dimethyl sulfoxide. In this review we first give a historical background on the use of QAEs in cellulose chemistry, and then discuss the common, relatively simple strategies for their synthesis. We discuss the mechanism of cellulose dissolution by QAEs, neat or as solutions in MSs and water, with emphasis on the relevance to cellulose dissolution efficiency of the charge and structure of the cation and. We then discuss the use of cellulose solutions in these solvents for its derivatization under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. The products of interest are cellulose esters and ethers; our emphasis is on the role of solvent and possible side reactions. The final part is concerned with the use of cellulose dopes in these solvents for its shaping as fibers, a field with potential commercial application.

  • 7.
    Michel, Bastien
    et al.
    Univeristy Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Bras, Julien
    Univeristy Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Dufresne, Alain
    Univeristy Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. NTNU, France.
    Production and mechanical characterisation of TEMPO-oxidised cellulose nanofibrils/β-cyclodextrin films and cryogels2020In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 25, no 10, article id 2381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood-based TEMPO-oxidised cellulose nanofibrils (toCNF) are promising materials for biomedical applications. Cyclodextrins have ability to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules and are considered as a method to bring new functionalities to these materials. Water sorption and mechanical properties are also key properties for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and tissue engineering. In this work, we report the modification with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) of toCNF samples with different carboxyl contents viz. 756 ± 4 μmol/g and 1048 ± 32 μmol/g. The modification was carried out at neutral and acidic pH (2.5) to study the effect of dissociation of the carboxylic acid group. Films processed by casting/evaporation at 40 °C and cryogels processed by freeze-drying were prepared from βCD modified toCNF suspensions and compared with reference samples of unmodified toCNF. The impact of modification on water sorption and mechanical properties was assessed. It was shown that the water sorption behaviour for films is driven by adsorption, with a clear impact of the chemical makeup of the fibres (charge content, pH, and adsorption of cyclodextrin). Modified toCNF cryogels (acidic pH and addition of cyclodextrins) displayed lower mechanical properties linked to the modification of the cell wall porosity structure. Esterification between βCD and toCNF under acidic conditions was performed by freeze-drying, and such cryogels exhibited a lower decrease in mechanical properties in the swollen state. These results are promising for the development of scaffold and films with controlled mechanical properties and added value due to the ability of cyclodextrin to form an inclusion complex with active principle ingredient (API) or growth factor (GF) for biomedical applications. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 8.
    Rasheed, Masrat
    et al.
    Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Jawaid, Mohammad
    Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Karim, Zoheb
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. South Ural State University, Russia.
    Abdullah, Luqman
    Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Morphological, Physiochemical and Thermal Properties of Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) Extracted from Bamboo Fiber2020In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 25, no 12, article id 2824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bamboo fibers are utilized for the production of various structures, building materials, etc. and is of great significance all over the world especially in southeast Asia. In this study, the extraction of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was performed using bamboo fibers through acid hydrolysis and subsequently different characterizations were carried out using various advanced techniques. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis has indicated the removal of lignin from MCC extracted from bamboo pulp. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed rough surface and minor agglomeration of the MCC. Pure MCC, albeit with small quantities of impurities and residues, was obtained, as revealed by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates the increase in crystallinity from 62.5% to 82.6%. Furthermore, the isolated MCC has slightly higher crystallinity compared to commercial available MCC (74%). The results of thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrate better thermal stability of isolated MCC compared to its starting material (Bamboo fibers). Thus, the isolated MCC might be used as a reinforcing element for the production of green composites and it can also be utilized as a starting material for the production of crystalline nanocellulose in future. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 9.
    Sain, Sunanda
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öman, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Spruce bark‐extracted lignin and tannin‐based bioresin‐adhesives: Effect of curing temperatures on the thermal properties of the resins2021In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 26, no 12, article id 3523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, formaldehyde‐free bioresin adhesives were synthesised from lignin and tannin, which were obtained from softwood bark. The extraction was done via organosolv treatment and hot water extraction, respectively. A non‐volatile, non‐toxic aldehyde, glyoxal, was used as a substitute for formaldehyde in order to modify the chemical structure of both the lignin and tannin. The glyoxal modification reaction was confirmed by ATR–FTIR spectroscopy. Three different resin formulations were prepared using modified lignin along with the modified tannin. The thermal properties of the modified lignin, tannin, and the bioresins were assessed by DSC and TGA. When the bioresins were cured at a high temperature (200 ℃) by compression moulding, they exhibited higher thermal stability as well as an enhanced degree of cross‐linking compared to the low temperature‐cured bioresins. The thermal properties of the resins were strongly affected by the compositions of the resins as well as the curing temperatures. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 10.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Qureshi, Muhammad
    VTT, Finland.
    Wennebro, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Lindfors, Christian
    VTT, Finland.
    Ohra-Aho, Taina
    VTT, Finland.
    Shafaghat, Hoda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Entrained flow gasification of polypropylene pyrolysis oil2021In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 26, no 23, article id 7317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Petrochemical products could be produced from circular feedstock, such as waste plastics. Most plants that utilize syngas in their production are today equipped with entrained flow gasifiers, as this type of gasifier generates the highest syngas quality. However, feeding of circular feedstocks to an entrained flow gasifier can be problematic. Therefore, in this work, a two-step process was studied, in which polypropylene was pre-treated by pyrolysis to produce a liquid intermediate that was easily fed to the gasifier. The products from both pyrolysis and gasification were thoroughly characterized. Moreover, the product yields from the individual steps, as well as from the entire process chain, are reported. It was estimated that the yields of CO and H2 from the two-step process were at least 0.95 and 0.06 kg per kg of polypropylene, respectively, assuming that the pyrolysis liquid and wax can be combined as feedstock to an entrained flow gasifier. On an energy basis, the energy content of CO and H2 in the produced syngas corresponded to approximately 40% of the energy content of the polypropylene raw material. This is, however, expected to be significantly improved on a larger scale where losses are proportionally smaller. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 11.
    Zander, Thomas
    et al.
    Institute of Materials Research, Germany.
    Garamus, Vasil
    Institute of Materials Research, Germany.
    Dédinaité, Andra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bełdowski, Piotr
    University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Górny, Krzysztof
    University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland.
    Dendzik, Zbigniew
    University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland.
    Wieland, Florian
    Institute of Materials Research, Germany.
    Willumeit-Römer, Regine
    Institute of Materials Research, Germany.
    Influence of the Molecular Weight and the Presence of Calcium Ions on the Molecular Interaction of Hyaluronan and DPPC2020In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 25, no 17, article id 3907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyaluronan is an essential physiological bio macromolecule with different functions. One prominent area is the synovial fluid which exhibits remarkable lubrication properties. However, the synovial fluid is a multi-component system where different macromolecules interact in a synergetic fashion. Within this study we focus on the interaction of hyaluronan and phospholipids, which are thought to play a key role for lubrication. We investigate how the interactions and the association structures formed by hyaluronan (HA) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) are influenced by the molecular weight of the bio polymer and the ionic composition of the solution. We combine techniques allowing us to investigate the phase behavior of lipids (differential scanning calorimetry, zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility) with structural investigation (dynamic light scattering, small angle scattering) and theoretical simulations (molecular dynamics). The interaction of hyaluronan and phospholipids depends on the molecular weight, where hyaluronan with lower molecular weight has the strongest interaction. Furthermore, the interaction is increased by the presence of calcium ions. Our simulations show that calcium ions are located close to the carboxylate groups of HA and, by this, reduce the number of formed hydrogen bonds between HA and DPPC. The observed change in the DPPC phase behavior can be attributed to a local charge inversion by calcium ions binding to the carboxylate groups as the binding distribution of hyaluronan and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine is not changed.

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