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  • 1. Abele, S
    et al.
    Sjöberg, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Hamaide, T
    Zicmanis, A
    Guyot, A
    Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization. 10. Characterization of the surface activity of new polymerizable surfactants derived from maleic anhydride1997In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 13, p. 176-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterization of the surface activity of previously obtained polymerizable dialkyl maleates is performed to find out the relation between the structure of surfactants and their performances. The given polymerizable surfactants were synthesized for using in the emulsion polymerization. Three groups of dialkyl maleates-nonionic, cationic and zwitterionic-with different chain lengths of hydrophobic alkyl groups are investigated. Critical micelle concentration (cmc) values are determined for water soluble surfactants. It is found that cmc decreases with increasing chain length of the hydrophobic alkyl group. For nonionic and cationic surfactants interfacial tension at the interface between water and dodecane is measured. Droplet size in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is determined for all given surfactants. Cationic and zwitterionic dialkyl maleates with the longest investigated alkyl chain (R=C16H33, C17H35) provide good stability of O/W emulsions. In order to compare the obtained results, measurements with well-known surfactants-nonionic nonylphenol-poly(ethylene oxide) (NPEO10) and cationic hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-are performed.

  • 2.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel..
    Kam, Doron
    The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel..
    Levi-Kalisman, Yael
    The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel..
    Gray, Derek G
    McGill University, Canada.
    Shoseyov, Oded
    The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel..
    Surface Charge Influence on the Phase Separation and Viscosity of Cellulose Nanocrystals.2018In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 34, no 13, p. 3925-3933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    counterions in the suspensions. The results suggest that there is a threshold surface charge density (∼0.3%S) above which effective volume considerations are dominant across the concentration range relevant to liquid crystalline phase formation. Above this threshold value, phase separation occurs at the same effective volume fraction of CNCs (∼10 vol %), with a corresponding increase in critical concentration due to the decrease in effective diameter that occurs with increasing surface charge. Below or near this threshold value, the formation of end-to-end aggregates may favor gelation and interfere with ordered phase formation.

  • 3. Abraham, T
    et al.
    Kumpulainen, A
    Xu, Z
    Rutland, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Claesson, PM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Masliyah, J
    Polyelectrolyte-mediated interaction between similarly charged surfaces: Role of divalent counter ions in tuning surface forces2001In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 17, p. 8321-8327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of divalent salts (CaCl2, MgCl2 and BaCl2) in promoting the adsorption of weakly charged polyelectrolyte (polyacrylic acid), PAA, Mw ~ 250000 g/mol) on mica surfaces and their role in tuning the nature of interactions between such adsorbed polyelectrolyte layers were studied using the interferometric surface forces apparatus. With mica surfaces in 3 mM MgCl2 solutions at pH ~8.0-9.0, the addition of 10 ppm PAA resulted in a long-range attractive bridging force and a short-range repulsive steric force. This force profile indicates a low surface coverage and weak adsorption. The range of the force can be related to the characteristic length scale RG of polyelectrolyte chains using a scaling description. An increase of the PAA concentration to 50 ppm changed the attractive force profile to a monotonic, long-range repulsive interaction extending up to 600 Å due to the increased surface coverage of polyelectrolyte chains on the mica surfaces. Comparison of the measured forces with a scaling mean field model suggests that the adsorbed polyelectrolyte chains are stretched, which eventually give rise to the polyelectrolyte brush like structure. When the mica surfaces were preincubated in 3 mM CaCl2 at pH ~8.0-9.0, in contrast to the case of 3 mM MgCl2, the addition of 10 ppm PAA resulted in a more complex force profile: long-range repulsive forces extending up to 800 Å followed by an attractive force regime and a second repulsive force regime at shorter separations. The long-range electrosteric forces can be attributed to strong adsorption of polyelectrolyte chains on mica surfaces (high surface coverage) which is facilitated by the presence of Ca2+ ions, while the intermediate range attractive forces can be ascribed to Ca2+ assisted bridging between adsorbed polyelectrolyte chains. Also interesting is to note various relaxation processes present in this system. In contrast to both MgCl2 and CaCl2 systems, with mica surfaces in 3 mM BaCl2 solution at pH ~8.0-9.0, the addition of 10 ppm PAA resulted in precipitation of polyelectrolyte chains on mica surfaces, resulting in an extremely long-range monotonic repulsive force profile. In summary, our study showed that divalent counterions (Mg2+, Ca2+, and Ba2+) exhibit significantly different behavior in promoting PAA adsorption on mica surfaces, modifying and controlling various surface interactions.

  • 4. Alexandrova, L
    et al.
    Pugh, RJ
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Tiberg, F
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Grigorov, L
    Confirmation of the heterocoagulation theory of flotation1999In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 15, p. 7464-7471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To model the flotation process, we have used the microscopic method developed by Scheludko to study the stability of an aqueous thin film containing tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide ( C14TAB ) between an air bubble and a silica substrate. Experiments were performed at a range of C14TAB concentrations and pH values. Spontaneous rupture of the thin aqueous film was interpretated in terms of heterocoagulation resulting from the preferential adsorption of relatively low surfactant concentrations at the vapour/solution interface causing a net positive charge while the solution/silica interface remained negatively charged. In addition, during the the three-phase-contact (TPC) expansion or de-wetting step following film rupture, the movement of TPC across the silica substrate leads to transfer of amine from the vapour/solution interface to the vapour/silica. This process resembles a Langmuir-Blodgett deposition process and emphasized the importance of the solution/vapour interface in the de-wetting process.

  • 5.
    Altskär, Annika
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Wallin, M.
    Nordstierna, L.
    Andersson, M.
    Meso-ordered PEG-based particles2015In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 31, p. 13-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the formation of meso-ordered hydrogel particles by cross-linking poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) in the presence of surfactants in a confined environment. The results demonstrated that well-ordered mesoporous hydrogel particles having a pore size of about 5 nm could be formed. It is suggested that these meso-ordered hydrogel particles might have unique drug-delivery capabilities

  • 6.
    An, Jungxue
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jin, Chunsheng
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dėdinaitė, Andra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Holgersson, Jan
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Niclas G.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of Glycosylation on Interfacial Properties of Recombinant Mucins: Adsorption, Surface Forces, and Friction2017In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 33, no 18, p. 4386-4395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interfacial properties of two brush-with-anchor mucins, C-P55 and C-PSLex, have been investigated at the aqueous solution/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) interface. Both are recombinant mucin-type fusion proteins, produced by fusing the glycosylated mucin part of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSLG-1) to the Fc part of a mouse immunoglobulin in two different cells. They are mainly expressed as dimers upon production. Analysis of the O-glycans shows that the C-PSLex mucin has the longer and more branched side chains, but C-P55 has slightly higher sialic acid content. The adsorption of the mucins to PMMA surfaces was studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. The sensed mass, including the adsorbed mucin and water trapped in the layer, was found to be similar for these two mucin layers. Atomic force microscopy with colloidal probe was employed to study surface and friction forces between mucin-coated PMMA surfaces. Purely repulsive forces of steric origin were observed between mucin layers on compression, whereas a small adhesion was detected between both mucin layers on decompression. This was attributed to chain entanglement. The friction force between C-PSLex-coated PMMA is lower than that between C-P55-coated PMMA at low loads, but vice versa at high loads. We discuss our results in terms of the differences in the glycosylation composition of these two mucins.

  • 7. Andersson, N
    et al.
    Kronberg, B
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Corkery, R
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Alberius, P
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Combined emulsion and solvent evaporation (ESE) synthesis route to well-ordered mesoporous materials2007In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 1459-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control over morphology and internal mesostructure of surfactant templated silicas remains a challenge, especially when considering scaling laboratory syntheses up to industrial volumes. Herewereport a method combining emulsification with the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method for preparing spherical, mesoporous silica particles. This emulsion and solvent evaporation (ESE) method has several potential advantages over classic precipitation routes: it is easily scaled while providing superior control over stoichiometric homogeneity of templating surfactants and inorganic precursors, and particle sizes and distributions are determined by principles developed for manipulating droplet sizes within water-in-oil emulsions. To demonstrate the method, triblock copolymer P104 is used as a templating amphiphile, generating unusually well-ordered 2D hexagonal (P6mm) mesoporous silica, while particle sizes and morphologies were controlled by varying the type of emulsifier and the method for emulsification

  • 8.
    Arleth, L
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Bergström, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Pedersen, JS
    Small-angle neutron scattering study of the growth behavior, flexibility, and intermicellar interactions of wormlike SDS micelles in NaBr aqueous solutions2002In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 18, p. 5343-5353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SDS wormlike micelles in water with NaBr are studied using small-angle neutron scattering. SDS concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 8.6 % vol in NaBr aqueous solutions at salinities from 0.6 to 1.0 M are covered. The scattering data are analyzed using a novel approach based on polymer theory and the results of Monte Carlo simulations. The method makes it possible to give a full interpretation of the scattering data, even for the entangled micellar solutions occurring at high concentrations and high salinities. Analysis of the scattering data at zero scattering angle demonstrates that the length of the micelles increases according to a power law as a function of concentration in the studied interval. The analysis furthermore shows that the length of the micelles increases exponentially with increasing salinity. The scattering data in the full range of scattering angles are analyzed using a model for polydisperse wormlike micelles where excluded volume effects are taken into account via an expression based on the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM). This part of the analysis show that the micelles become more flexible as the salinity increases, which is due to an increased screening of the ionic micelles

  • 9. Asencio, RA
    et al.
    Cranston, ED
    Atkin, R
    Rutland, Mark W
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Ionic liquid nanotribology: Stiction suppression and surface induced shear thinning2012In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 28, no 26, p. 9967-9976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The friction and adhesion between pairs of materials (silica, alumina, and polytetrafluoroethylene) have been studied and interpreted in terms of the long-ranged interactions present. In ambient laboratory air, the interactions are dominated by van der Waals attraction and strong adhesion leading to significant frictional forces. In the presence of the ionic liquid (IL) ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) the van der Waals interaction is suppressed and the attractive/adhesive interactions which lead to "stiction" are removed, resulting in an at least a 10-fold reduction in the friction force at large applied loads. The friction coefficient for each system was determined; coefficients obtained in air were significantly larger than those obtained in the presence of EAN (which ranged between 0.1 and 0.25), and variation in the friction coefficients between systems was correlated with changes in surface roughness. As the viscosity of ILs can be relatively high, which has implications for the lubricating properties, the hydrodynamic forces between the surfaces have therefore also been studied. The linear increase in repulsive force with speed, expected from hydrodynamic interactions, is clearly observed, and these forces further inhibit the potential for stiction. Remarkably, the viscosity extracted from the data is dramatically reduced compared to the bulk value, indicative of a surface ordering effect which significantly reduces viscous losses.

  • 10. Attard, P
    et al.
    Carambassis, A
    Rutland, MW
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Dynamic surface force measurement. 2. Friction and the atomic force microscope1999In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 15, p. 553-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism and geometry of force measurement with the atomic force microscope are analyzed in detail. The effective spring constant to be used in force measurement is given in terms of the cantilever spring constant. Particular attention is paid to possible dynamic effects. Theoretical calculations show that inertial effects may be neglected in most regimes, the exception being when relatively large colloidal probes are used. Model calculations of the effects of friction show that it can cause hysteresis in the constant compliance region and a shift in the zero of separation. Most surprising, friction can cause a significant diminution of the measured precontact force, and, if it actually pins the surfaces, it can change the sign of the calibration factor for the cantilever deflection, which would cause a precontact attraction to appear as a repulsion. Measurements are made of the van der Waals force between a silicon tip and a glass substrate in air. The evidence for friction and other dynamic effects is discussed. Interferometry is used to characterize the performance of the piezoelectric drive motor and position detector used in the atomic force microscope. It is shown that hysteresis in the former, and backlash in the latter, preclude a quantitative measurement of friction effects. The experimental data appear to underestimate the van der Waals attraction at high driving velocities, in qualitative agreement with the model friction calculations.

  • 11. Aulin, C.
    et al.
    Varga, I.
    Claesson, P. M.
    Wågberg, L.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Buildup of polyelectrolyte multilayers of polyethyleneimine and microfibrillated cellulose studied by in situ dual-polarization interferometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation2008In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 2509-2518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyethyleneimine (PEI) and Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) have been used to buildup polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) on silicone oxide and silicone oxynitride surfaces at different pH values and with different electrolyte and polyelectrolyte/colloid concentrations of the components. Consecutive adsorption on these surfaces was studied by in situ dual-polarization interferometry (DPI) and quartz crystal microbalance measurements. The adsorption data obtained from both the techniques showed a steady buildup of multilayers. High pH and electrolyte concentration of the PEI solution was found to be beneficial for achieving a high adsorbed amount of PEI, and hence of MFC, during the buildup of the multilayer. On the other hand, an increase in the electrolyte concentration of the MFC dispersion was found to inhibit the adsorption of MFC onto PEL The adsorbed amount of MFC was independent of the bulk MFC concentration in the investigated concentration range (15-250 mg/L). Atomic force microscopy measurements were used to image a MFC-treated silicone oxynitride chip from DPI measurements. The surface was found to be almost fully covered by randomly oriented microfibrils after the adsorption of only one bilayer of PEI/MFC. The surface roughness expressed as the rms-roughness over 1 ÎŒm2 was calculated to be 4.6 nm (1 bilayer). The adsorbed amount of PEI and MFC and the amount of water entrapped by the individual layers in the multilayer structures were estimated by combining results from the two analytical techniques using the de Feijter formula. These results indicate a total water content of ca. 41% in the PEM.

  • 12. Aulin, C
    et al.
    Varga, I
    Claesson, PM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Wågberg, L
    Lindström, T
    Buildup of polyelectrolyte multilayers of polyethyleneimine and microfibrillated cellulose studied by in situ dual-polarization interferometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation2008In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 24, p. 2509-2518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyethyleneimine (PEI) and Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) have been used to buildup polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) on silicone oxide and silicone oxynitride surfaces at different pH values and with different electrolyte and polyelectrolyte/colloid concentrations of the components. Consecutive adsorption on these surfaces was studied by in situ dual-polarization interferometry (DPI) and quartz crystal microbalance measurements. The adsorption data obtained from both the techniques showed a steady buildup of multilayers. High pH and electrolyte concentration of the PEI solution was found to be beneficial for achieving a high adsorbed amount of PEI, and hence of MFC, during the buildup of the multilayer. On the other hand, an increase in the electrolyte concentration of the MFC dispersion was found to inhibit the adsorption of MFC onto PEI. The adsorbed amount of MFC was independent of the bulk MFC concentration in the investigated concentration range (15-250 mg/L). Atomic force microscopy measurements were used to image a MFC-treated silicone oxynitride chip from DPI measurements. The surface was found to be almost fully covered by randomly oriented microfibrils after the adsorption of only one bilayer of PEI/MFC. The surface roughness expressed as the rms-roughness over 1 m2 was calculated to be 4.6 nm (1 bilayer). The adsorbed amount of PEI and MFC and the amount of water entrapped by the individual layers in the multilayer structures were estimated by combining results from the two analytical techniques using the de Feijter formula. These results indicate a total water content of ca. 41% in the PEM.

  • 13.
    Badal Tejedor, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Schuleit, Michael
    Novartis Pharma AG, Switzerland.
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    AFM Colloidal Probe Measurements Implicate Capillary Condensation in Punch-Particle Surface Interactions during Tableting2017In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 33, no 46, p. 13180-13188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesion of the powders to the punches is a common issue during tableting. This phenomenon is known as sticking and affects the quality of the manufactured tablets. Defective tablets increase the cost of the manufacturing process. Thus, the ability to predict the tableting performance of the formulation blend before the process is scaled-up is important. The adhesive propensity of the powder to the tableting tools is mostly governed by the surface-surface adhesive interactions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe is a surface characterization technique that allows the measurement of the adhesive interactions between two materials of interest. In this study, AFM steel colloidal probe measurements were performed on ibuprofen, MCC (microcrystalline cellulose), α-lactose monohydrate, and spray-dried lactose particles as an approach to modeling the punch-particle surface interactions during tableting. The excipients (lactose and MCC) showed constant, small, attractive, and adhesive forces toward the steel surface after a repeated number of contacts. In comparison, ibuprofen displayed a much larger attractive and adhesive interaction increasing over time both in magnitude and in jump-in/jump-out separation distance. The type of interaction acting on the excipient-steel interface can be related to a van der Waals force, which is relatively weak and short-ranged. By contrast, the ibuprofen-steel interaction is described by a capillary force profile. Even though ibuprofen is not highly hydrophilic, the relatively smooth surfaces of the crystals allow "contact flooding" upon contact with the steel probe. Capillary forces increase because of the "harvesting" of moisture - due to the fast condensation kinetics - leaving a residual condensate that contributes to increase the interaction force after each consecutive contact. Local asperity contacts on the more hydrophilic surface of the excipients prevent the flooding of the contact zone, and there is no such adhesive effect under the same ambient conditions. The markedly different behavior detected by force measurements clearly shows the sticky and nonsticky propensity of the materials and allows a mechanistic description.

  • 14.
    Badal Tejedor, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces.
    Schuleit, Michael
    Novartis Pharma AG, Switzerland.
    Pazesh, Samaneh
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Alderborn, Göran
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Determination of interfacial amorphicity in functional powders2017In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 920-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of the surfaces of particles of pharmaceutical ingredients, food powders, and polymers is a determining factor for their performance in for example tableting, powder handling, or mixing. Changes on the surface structure of the material will impact the flow properties, dissolution rate, and tabletability of the powder blend. For crystalline materials, surface amorphization is a phenomenon which is known to impact performance. Since it is important to measure and control the level of amorphicity, several characterization techniques are available to determine the bulk amorphous content of a processed material. The possibility of characterizing the degree of amorphicity at the surface, for example by studying the mechanical properties of the particles' surface at the nanoscale, is currently only offered by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM PeakForce QNM technique has been used to measure the variation in energy dissipation (eV) at the surface of the particles which sheds light on the mechanical changes occurring as a result of amorphization or recrystallization events. Two novel approaches for the characterization of amorphicity are presented here. First, since particles are heterogeneous, we present a methodology to present the results of extensive QNM analysis of multiple particles in a coherent and easily interpreted manner, by studying cumulative distributions of dissipation data with respect to a threshold value which can be used to distinguish the crystalline and amorphous states. To exemplify the approach, which is generally applicable to any material, reference materials of purely crystalline α-lactose monohydrate and completely amorphous spray dried lactose particles were compared to a partially amorphized α-lactose monohydrate sample. Dissipation data are compared to evaluations of the lactose samples with conventional AFM and SEM showing significant topographical differences. Finally, the recrystallization of the surface amorphous regions in response to humidity was followed by studying the dissipation response of a well-defined surface region over time, which confirms both that dissipation measurement is a useful measure of surface amorphicity and that significant recrystallization occurs at the surface in response to humidity.

  • 15. Bastardo, L
    et al.
    Claesson, P
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Brown, W
    Interactions between mucin and alkyl sodium sulfates in solution. A light scattering study2002In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 18, p. 3848-3853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of negatively charged mucin in aqueous solutions and its interaction with anionic sodium alkyl sulfates with different hydrocarbon chain lengths were studied by means of dynamic light scattering. It was observed that mucin forms aggregates in aqueous solutions with a hydrodynamic radius above 500 nm. These aggregates dissolve when sodium dodecyl sulfate or sodium decyl sulfate is present at sufficiently high concentration, above about 0.2 cmc (critical micellar concentration). On the other hand, sodium octyl sulfate is not very effective in dissolving the mucin aggregates. The hydrodynamic radius of the dissolved mucin, decorated with some associated surfactant, is found to be in the range of 40-90 nm. The observation that the dissolving power of the sodium alkyl sulfates decreases with decreasing surfactant chain length suggests that the association between the surfactant and mucin is hydrophobically driven. The kinetics of the dissolution process depends on the surfactant concentration, a higher surfactant concentration giving rise to a more rapid dissolution of the aggregates. It was also observed that when the ionic strength is increased, the surfactant concentration needed to dissolve the mucin aggregates decreases. This can be explained by reduction of repulsive electrostatic forces by the salt.

  • 16. Berg, JM
    et al.
    Eriksson, LGT
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Mixed monolayers and Langmuir-Blodgett films consisting of a fatty amine and a bipolar substance1994In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 10, p. 1213-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of two types of two-component spread monolayers at the air/water interface, docosanedioic acid/eicosylamine (DDA/EA) and 1,22-docosanediol/eicosylamine (DDO/EA), were investigated at different mixing ratios. The monolayers were studied by surface pressure-area isotherms, constant surface pressure-area relaxation isotherms and deposition onto muscovite mica with subsequent contact angle measurements. The two types of monolayers were found to behave very differently, but in both cases one of the polar groups of the bipolar substance was situated at the air side of the monolayer after compression. At moderate DDA ratios, the surface pressure-area isotherms of DDA/EA displayed a plateau, low mean molecular area for the condensed phase, and the relaxation isotherms at low surface pressures had an unusually long induction time. DDO/EA showed much less complexity in its behaviour. These differences are explained by the difference in headgroup interaction strength, which are strong for DDA/EA case (acid-amine) and weak for DDO/EA (hydroxy-amine). Due to the increased polarity/low contact angle during the deposition, the DDA/EA monolayers at DDA ratios above 50 % deposited as Z-type Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers onto mica.

  • 17. Berg, JM
    et al.
    Eriksson, LGT
    Claesson, PM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Nordli Børve, KG
    Three-component Langmuir-Blodgett films with a controllable degree of polarity1994In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 10, p. 1225-1234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different series of mixed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films with a controllable degree of polarity, deposited on mica, have been studied by wetting and surface force techniques. Both series contain of 50% eicosylamine (EA). Films of one series consist of EA, arachidic acid and docosanedioic acid, while those of the other consist of EA, 1-eicosanol and 1,22-docosanediol. Carboxylic acid groups give lower contact angles than hydroxy groups. Concerning the stability of the LB films in aqueous solutions, repeated exposure to a three-phase line and high salt solutions were found to cause breakdown. Surface force measurements on carboxylic acid-containing films show that films with a 0% (contact angle = 113°) and 25% (contact angle ≈ 90°) content of diacid interact with a long-range (hydrophobic) attraction across water. No similar long-range attraction is observed for the 50% case (contact angle ≈ 65°). Surface force measurements also detected instabilities and imperfections of the films.

  • 18. Bergeron, V
    et al.
    Waltermo, Å
    Claesson, PM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Disjoining pressure measurements for foam films stabilized by a nonionic sugar-based surfactant1996In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 12, p. 1336-1342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disjoining pressure isotherms for foam films made from a nonionic surfactant, octyl b-glucoside, are measured at different surfactant concentrations, ionic strengths and solution pH values. Below the cmc an electrostatic double-layer repulsion is present and dominates the long-range interaction. The decay length of the forces agrees with the expected Debye length and the measured long-range interactions are consistent with solutions to the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation using constant charge conditions. The deduced surface charge densities increase with pH and ionic strength but decrease with increasing surfactant concentration. At, or just above, the cmc, surfactant covers the interface and suppresses the charge sufficiently to induce a transition from a common black film to a Newton black film. Ultimately, the film stability is determined by both surface forces and elasticity. Combining both, via an overall film tension, leads to a general expression for the film elasticity.

  • 19.
    Berglin, M
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Pinori, E
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Sellborn, A
    Andersson, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Hulander, M
    Elwing, H
    Fibrinogen Adsorption and Conformational Change on Model Polymers: Novel Aspects of Mutual Molecular Rearrangement2009In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 5602-5608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), the organic mass, water content, and corresponding protein film structure of fibrinogen adsorbed to acrylic polymeric substrates with varying polymer chain flexibility was investigated. Albumin and immunoglobulin G were included as reference proteins. For fibrinogen, the QCM-D model resulted in decreased adsorbed mass with increased polymer chain flexibility. This stands in contrast to the SPR model, in which the adsorbed mass increased with increased polymer chain flexibility. As the QCM-D model includes the hydrodynamically coupled water, we propose that on the nonflexible polymer significant protein conformational change with water incorporation in the protein film takes place. Fibrinogen maintained a more native conformation on the flexible polymer, probably due to polymer chain rearrangement rather than protein conformational change. In comparison with immunoglobulin G and albumin, polymer chain flexibility had only minor impact on adsorbed mass and protein structure. Understanding the adsorption and corresponding conformational change of a protein together with the mutual rearrangement of the polymer chain upon adsorption not only has implications in biomaterial science but could also increase the efficacy of molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs).

  • 20.
    Bergström, LM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bending elasticity of nonionic surfactant layers2009In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1949-1960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach to evaluate the bending elasticity of monolayers formed by nonionic surfactants with a rigid head group is introduced by means of considering head group repulsion as derived from the free energy of mixing rigid hydrophilic head groups with surrounding solvent molecules as well as contributions related to the hydrophobic tails. Explicit expressions for the spontaneous curvature (H0), bending rigidity (kc) and saddle-splay constant (k̄c) have been derived for the constraint of constant chemical potential of free surfactant (thermodynamically open layers) as well as the constraint of constant aggregation number (thermodynamically closed layers). Most interestingly, it is demonstrated that kc for thermodynamically open layers formed by a nonionic surfactant with rigid tail and head group always must be zero. However, kc for surfactants with a flexible tail as a function of the head group-to-tail volume ratio is found to go through a maximum at some large, positive value of k c and H0 ≈ 0. Eventually, kc falls below zero as the head group volume increases above a certain value. Hence, we may conclude that nonionic surfactants with a rigid head group may form thermodynamically stable fluid layers or aggregates only insofar the hydrophobic part is flexible with respect to chain conformational degrees of freedom and the head group is not too voluminous. It is found that the head group repulsion contribution to kcH0 is always positive whereas the corresponding contribution to k̄c may be positive or negative depending on whether the hydrophobic layer of the film is thicker or thinner than the hydrophilic layer.

  • 21.
    Bergström, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Molecular interpretation of the mean bending constant for a thermodynamically open vesicle bilayer2001In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 17, p. 7675-7686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expressions for the various molecular contributions to the mean bending constant kc of a thermodynamically open vesicle bilayer have been derived, from which kc may be calculated from an appropriate molecular-thermodynamic model as a function of the structure of the surfactants making up the aggregates as well as the solution state. It is demonstrated that kc determines the shape of a vesicle bilayer insofar as spherical vesicles form when kc is large and positive whereas nonspherical vesicles predominate at values of kc close to or below zero. It is found that contributions due to electrostatics and residual headgroup effects, which are present for one-component as well as mixed aggregates, mainly give rise to a positive value of kc whereas geometrical packing constraints are less important. However, the mixing of two or more surfactants can significantly reduce kc to values where nonspherical vesicles may begin to form. The magnitude of the reduction of kc due to mixing increases with increasing asymmetry with respect to headgroup cross-section area, charge number, and hydrocarbon tail volume between two surfactants in a binary surfactant mixture. The asymmetry is most pronounced for a binary mixture where the surfactant that carries the charge has the larger headgroup and the smaller tail. The reduction of kc due to mixing is, however, expected to be less than the corresponding effect for the bilayer bending constant of a spherical vesicle as a result of an additional positive contribution in the expression for the compositional contribution to kc

  • 22.
    Bergström, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Synergistic effects in mixtures of an anionic and a cationic surfactant2000In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 17, p. 993-998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synergistic effects in mixtures of an anionic and a cationic surfactant have been theoretically investigated. We derive an explicit expression for the critical micelle concentration (cmc) as a function of the aggregate composition from the Poisson-Boltzmann mean field theory and, thus, demonstrate that the conspicuously large synergistic effects that have been experimentally observed can be rationalized without the need of invoking any specific interactions between the surfactant headgroups. The simple relation = -4el/kT is derived, i.e., the "interaction parameter" is directly related to the electrostatic free energy contribution el for the pure surfactant, implying, among other things, that the magnitude of decreases with increasing cmc for the pure surfactant in agreement with experimental observations. We furthermore demonstrate that the aggregate composition is close to equimolar composition (x1 = 0.5) at cmc in almost the entire regime of overall surfactant compositions and that the free monomer concentration of the surfactant in excess is generally much larger than the corresponding quantity for the surfactant in deficit.

  • 23.
    Bergström, M
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Eriksson, JC
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    A theoretical analysis of synergistic effects in mixed surfactant systems2000In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 16, p. 7173-7181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synergistic effects in mixed binary surfactant systems have been investigated by analyzing the main contributions to the free energy of forming a mixed surfactant aggregate. We show that a nonlinear behavior of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) with respect to the surfactant composition of the aggregates is determined by a nonlinear behavior of the free energy per aggregated surfactant. It appears that synergistic effects are due mainly to entropic free energy contributions related with the surfactant headgroups. For a mixture of a monovalent ionic and a nonionic surfactant in the absence of added salt we obtain, entirely because of electrostatic reasons, a negative deviation from ideal behavior of the cmc vs the aggregate composition corresponding to an interaction parameter -1, whereas values on the order of -5 or even less can arise for mixtures of two ionic surfactants with the same charge number but with different hydrocarbon moieties. Moreover, we introduce a novel expression for the free energy of mixing aggregated surfactant headgroups with surrounding solvent molecules. Accordingly, synergistic effects arise as a result of different headgroup cross-section areas in mixtures of two nonionic surfactants with rigid headgroups. These effects are found to be rather small, with 0 > > -1, when the difference in headgroup size is modest but can become more significant when the size difference is larger. In mixtures of an ionic and a nonionic surfactant with different headgroup cross-section areas the two contributions to synergistic effects always enhance one another and, hence, values below -1 are obtained. Generally, the synergistic effects tend to increase with increasing asymmetry between the two surfactants.

  • 24.
    Bergström, M
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Jonsson, P
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Persson, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Eriksson, JC
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    A model independent evaluation of experimental data, and comparison with theory, of synergistic effects in mixtures of an ionic and a nonionic surfactant2003In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 19, p. 10719-10725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical micelle concentrations for mixtures of an anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and a nonionic (decyl β-glucoside) surfactant was obtained from surface tension measurements at different concentrations of added NaCl. The observed synergistic effects were analyzed by means of introducing a novel model-independent synergy parameter. The model-independent evaluation has enabled the comparison of experimental results with a theoretical model based on the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) mean field theory for spherical, cylindrical, and planar geometries, respectively. We found that best agreement with experimental data was obtained for largely curved structures (spherical and cylindrical micelles) at all [NaCl], which is consistent with the fact that rather small micelles, as a rule, form at the critical micelle concentration. Moreover, the PB theory was found to better describe synergistic behavior of the experimental data than the more conventional regular mixture theory, in particular at low electrolyte concentrations. The magnitude of the observed synergistic effects was found to increase as a small amount of NaCl was added and reach a maximum at [NaCl] = 10 mM, in agreement with the PB theory. As expected, synergism was observed to decrease in magnitude upon further addition of NaCl.

  • 25.
    Besharat, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yazdi, Milad Ghadami
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wakeham, Deborah
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gothelid, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gronbeck, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Se-C Cleavage of Hexane Selenol at Steps on Au(111)2018In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 2630-2636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selenols are considered as an alternative to thiols in self-assembled monolayers, but the Se-C bond is one limiting factor for their usefulness. In this study, we address the stability of the Se-C bond by a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of gas phase-deposited hexane selenol (CH3(CH2)(5)SeH) on Au(111) using photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory (DFT). Experimentally, we find that initial adsorption leaves atomic Se on the surface without any carbon left on the surface, whereas further adsorption generates a saturated selenolate layer. The Se 3d component from atomic Se appears at 0.85 eV lower binding energy than the selenolate-related component. DFT calculations show that the most stable structure of selenols on Au(111) is in the form of RSe-Au-SeR complexes adsorbed on the unreconstructed Au(111) surface. This is similar to thiols on Au(111). Calculated Se 3d core-level shifts between elemental Se and selenolate in this structure nicely reproduce the experimentally recorded shifts. Dissociation of RSeH and subsequent formation of RH are found to proceed with high barriers on defect-free Au(111) terraces, with the highest barrier for scissoring R-Se. However, at steps, these barriers are considerably lower, allowing for Se-C bond breaking and hexane desorption, leaving elemental Se at the surface. Hexane is the selenol to selenolate formed by replacing the Se-C bond with a H-C bond by using the hydrogen liberated from transformation.

  • 26.
    Blomberg, E
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Claesson, PM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Fröberg, JC
    Tilton, RD
    Interaction between adsorbed layers of lysozyme studied with the surface force technique1994In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 10, p. 2325-2334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface force technique was employed to investigate the adsorption of positively charged lysozyme onto negatively charged mica surfaces in 10-3 M NaCl at pH 5.6 at lysozyme concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 0.2 mg/ml. At equilibrium the adsorbed lysozyme nearly neutralizes the surface charge of the mica at all bulk lysozyme concentrations investigated. Prior to charge neutralization the decay length of the longrange force is consistent with the electrostatic double-layer force predicted by the DLVO theory. At low concentration, 0.002 mg/ml, a densely packed side-on oriented layer adsorbs on the mica surface. Above 0.02 mg lysozyme/ml, a rather thick layer is adsorbed onto the surface. It consists of an inner, strongly bound layer of both side-on and end-on adsorbed proteins and outer, weakly adsorbed proteins. An adhesion force is established upon contact of the adsorbed protein layers. The force measured between one lysozyme coated surface and one bare mica surface is attractive at short separations. It was demonstrated that at a concentration of 0.02 mg/ml, lysozyme adsorbs "irreversibly" with respect to dilution with 10-3 M NaCl.

  • 27.
    Blomberg, E
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Claesson, PM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Konradsson, P
    Liedberg B,
    Globotriose- and Oligo(ethylene glycol)-Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers: Surface forces, wetting, and surfactant adsorption2006In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 22, p. 10038-10046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated and globotriose-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) has been prepared on gold substrates. Such model surfaces are well defined and have good stability due to the strong binding of thiols and disulfides to the gold substrate. They are thus very suitable for addressing questions related to effects of surface composition on wetting properties, surface interactions, and surfactant adsorption. These issues are addressed in this report. Accurate wetting tension measurements have been performed as a function of temperature using the Wilhelmy plate technique. The results show that the nonpolar character of oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated SAMs increases slightly but significantly with temperature in the range 20-55 C. On the other hand, globotriose-terminated SAMs are fully wetted by water at room temperature. Surface forces measurements have been performed and demonstrated that the interactions between oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated SAMs are purely repulsive and similar to those determined between adsorbed surfactant layers with the same terminal headgroup. On the other hand, the interactions between globotriose-terminated SAMs include a short-range attractive force component that is strongly affected by the packing density in the layer. In some cases it is found that the attractive force component increases with contact time. Both these observations are rationalized by an orientation- and conformation-dependent interaction between globotriose headgroups, and it is suggested that hydrogen-bond formation, directly or via bridging water molecules, is the molecular origin of these effects.

  • 28.
    Blomberg, E
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Gölander, C-G
    Adhesion of trimyristin fat to radio frequency plasma treated PVC and chromium1990In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 6, p. 1499-1504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing belief in the use of surface modification techniques to reduce the adhesion of soil to surface so that only weak detergents or mechanical means is required for the soil removal. In this work, we have studied how the soil adhesion is affected by controlled and well-defined modification of thr surface. Various surfaces were prepared by radio frequency plasma treatment combined with surface derivatization techninques. Adsorption and displacement of trimyristin , a model soil, were investigated by ellipsometry. Two fundametally different and succesful approaches to realize a good soil-repellant surface werw found:(i) strongly polar surfaces of poly(ethylene oxide) that interact strongly with water or (ii) surfaces which contain cross-linked fluorocarbon moieties.

  • 29.
    Blomberg, E
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Kumpulainen, A
    David, C
    Amiel, C
    Polymer bilayer formation due to specific interactions between β-cyclodextrin and adamantane: A surface force study2004In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 20, p. 10449-10454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purposes of this study are to utilize the interactions between an adamantane end-capped poly-(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and a cationic polymer of β-cyclodextrin to build polymer bilayers on negatively charged surfaces, and to investigate the interactions between such layers. The association of this system in solution has been studied by rheology, light scattering, and fluorescence measurements. It was found that the adamantane-terminated PEO (PEO-Ad) mixed with the β-cyclodextrin polymer gives complexes where the interpolymer links are formed by specific inclusion of the adamantane groups in the β-cyclodextrin cavities. This results in a higher viscosity of the solution and growth of intermolecular clusters. The interactions between surfaces coated with a cationized β-cyclodextrin polymer across a water solution containing PEO-Ad polymers were studied by employing the interferometric surface force apparatus (SFA). In the first step, the interaction between mica surfaces coated with the cationized β-cyclodextrin polymer in pure water was investigated. It was found that the β-cyclodextrin polymer adsorbs onto mica and almost neutralizes the surface charge. The adsorbed layers of the β-cyclodextrin polymer are rather compact, with a layer thickness of about 60Å(30Å per surface). Upon separation, a very weak attractive force is observed. The β-cyclodextrin solution was then diluted by pure water by a factor of 3000 and a PEO-Ad polymer was introduced into the solution. Two different architectures of the PEO-Ad polymer were investigated: a four-arm structure and a linear structure. After the adsorption of the PEO polymer onto the β-cyclodextrin layer reached equilibrium, the forces were measured again. It was found that the weak repulsive longrange force had disappeared and an attractive force caused the surfaces to jump into contact, and that the compressed layer thickness had increased. The attractive force is interpreted as being due to a specific recognition between the hydrophobic adamantane groups on the PEO-Ad polymer and the hydrophobic cavity in the β-cyclodextrin molecules. Furthermore, the attractive force observed on separation has increased significantly, which is a further indication of a specific interaction between the β-cyclodextrin polymer and the adamantane groups

  • 30.
    Blomberg, E
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Poptoshev, E
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Caruso, F
    Surface interactions during polyelectrolyte multilayer build-up. 2. The effect of ionic strength on the structure of preformed multilayers2006In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 4153-4157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between surfaces bearing multilayer films of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly-(styrenesulfonate sodium salt) (PSS) were investigated across a range of aqueous KBr solutions. Three layer films (PAH/PSS/PAH) were preassembled on mica surfaces, and the resulting interactions were measured with the interferometric surface force apparatus (SFA). Increasing the ionic strength of the medium resulted in a progressive swelling of the multilayer films. Interactions in solutions containing more than 10-3 M KBr were dominated by a long-ranged steric repulsion originating from compression of polyelectrolyte segments extending into solution. In 10-1 M KBr, repeated measurements at the same contact position showed a considerable reduction of the range and the strength of the steric force, indicating a flattening of the film during initial approach. Furthermore, this flattening was irreversible on the time scale of the experiments, and measurements performed up to 72 h after the initial compression showed no signs of relaxation. These studies aid in understanding the dominant interactions between polyelectrolyte multilayers, including polyelectrolyte films deposited on colloidal particles, which is important for the preparation of colloidally stable nanoengineered particles.

  • 31.
    Blomberg, E
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Poptoshev, E
    Claesson, PM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Caruso, F
    Surface interactions during polyelectrolyte multilayer buildup. 1. Interactions and layer structure in dilute electrolyte solutions2004In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 20, p. 5432-5438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the investigation of surface forces between polyelectrolyte multilayers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(styrenesulfonate sodium salt) (PSS) assembled on mica surfaces during film buildup using a surface force apparatus. Up to four polyelectrolyte layers were prepared on each surface ex situ, and the surface interactions were measured in 10-4 M KBr solutions. The film thickness under high compressive loads (above 2000 μN/m) increased linearly with the number of deposited layers. In all cases, the interaction between identical surfaces at large separations (>100 Å from contact) was dominated by electrostatic double-layer repulsion. By fitting DLVO theory to the experimental force curves, the apparent double-layer potential of the interacting surfaces was calculated. At shorter separations, an additional non-DLVO repulsion was present due to polyelectrolyte chains extending some distance from the surface into solution, thus generating an electrosteric type of repulsion. Forces between dissimilar multilayers (i.e., one of the multilayers terminated with PSS and the other with PAH) were attractive at large separations (30-400 Å) owing to a combination of electrostatic attraction and polyelectrolyte bridging.

  • 32.
    Blomberg, E
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Verrall, R
    Claesson, PM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Interactions between adsorbed layers of cationic gemini surfactants2008In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 1133-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forces acting between glass and between mica surfaces in the presence of two cationic gemini surfactants, 1,4 diDDAB (1,4-butyl-bis(dimethyldodecylammonium bromide)) and 1,12 diDTDAB (1,12-dodecyl-bis(dimethyldodecylammonium bromide)), have been investigated below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the surfactants using two different surface force techniques. In both cases, it was found that a recharging of the surfaces occurred at a surfactant concentration of about 0.1 x cmc, and at all surfactant concentrations investigated repulsive double-layer forces dominated the interaction at large separations. At smaller separations, attractive forces, or regions of separation with (close to) constant force, were observed. This was interpreted as being due to desorption and rearrangement in the adsorbed layer induced by the proximity of a second surface. Analysis of the decay length of the repulsive double-layer force showed that the majority of the gemini surfactants were fully dissociated. However, the degree of ion pair formation, between a gemini surfactant anda bromide counterion, increased with increasing surfactant concentration and was larger for the gemini surfactant with a shorter spacer length.

  • 33.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Adsorption of lysozyme on silver and its influence on silver release2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 46, p. 13877-13889Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Bodvik, R
    et al.
    Karlson, L
    Edwards, K
    Eriksson, J
    Thormann, E
    Claesson, Per M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Aggregation of modified celluloses in aqueous solution: Transition from methylcellulose to hydroxypropylmethylcellulose solution properties induced by a low-molecular-weight oxyethylene additive2012In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 28, no 38, p. 13652-13569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature effects on the viscosity and aggregation behavior of aqueous solutions of three different cellulose ethers-methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), and ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose (EHEC)-were investigated using viscosity and dynamic light scattering measurements as well as cryo-TEM. In all cases, increasing temperature reduces the solvent quality of water, which induces aggregation. It was found that the aggregation rate followed the order EHEC > HPMC > MC, suggesting that cellulose ethers containing some bulky and partially hydrophilic substituents assemble into large aggregates more readly than methylcellulose. This finding is discussed in terms of the organization of the structures formed by the different cellulose ethers. The temperature-dependent association behavior of cellulose ethers was also investigated in a novel way by adding diethyleneglycolmonobutylether (BDG) to methylcellulose aqueous solutions. When the concentration of BDG was at and above 5 wt %, methylcellulose adopted HPMC-like solution behavior. In particular, a transition temperature where the viscosity was decreasing, prior to increasing at higher temperatures, appeared, and the aggregation rate increased. This observation is rationalized by the ability of amphiphilic BDG to accumulate at nonpolar interfaces and thus also to associate with hydrophobic regions of methylcellulose. In effect, BDG is suggested to act as a physisorbed hydrophilic and bulky substituent inducing constraints on aggregation similar to those of the chemically attached hydroxypropyl groups in HPMC and oligo(ethyleneoxide) chains in EHEC.

  • 35. Bodvik, Rasmus
    et al.
    Macakova, Lubica
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Karlson, Leif
    Thormann, Esben
    Claesson, Per
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Temperature-dependent competition between adsorption and aggregation of a cellulose ether-simultaneous use of optical and acoustical techniques for investigating surface properties2012In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 28, no 25, p. 9515-9525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorption of the temperature-responsive polymer hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) from an aqueous solution onto hydrophobized silica was followed well above the bulk instability temperature (T 2) in temperature cycle experiments. Two complementary techniques, QCM-D and ellipsometry, were utilized simultaneously to probe the same substrate immersed in polymer solution. The interfacial processes were correlated with changes in polymer aggregation and viscosity of polymer solutions, as monitored by light scattering and rheological measurements. The simultaneous use of ellipsometry and QCM-D, and the possibility to follow layer properties up to 80 °C, well above the T 2 temperature, are both novel developments. A moderate increase in adsorbed amount with temperature was found below T 2, whereas a significant increase in the adsorbed mass and changes in layer properties were observed around the T 2 temperature where the bulk viscosity increases significantly. Thus, there is a clear correlation between transition temperatures in the adsorbed layer and in bulk solution, and we discuss this in relation to a newly proposed model that considers competition between aggregation and adsorption/deposition. A much larger temperature response above the T 2 temperature was found for adsorbed layers of HPMC than for layers of methyl cellulose. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  • 36. Bogdanovic, G
    et al.
    Tiberg, F
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Rutland, MW
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Sliding friction between cellulose and silica surfaces2001In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 17, p. 5911-5916Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Boge, Lukas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. Department of Chemical and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bysell, Helena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Ringstad, Lovisa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Wennman, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Process Development, Analys och fastfas.
    Umerska, A.
    Cassisa, V.
    Eriksson, J.
    Joly-Guillou, M. -L
    Edwards, K.
    Andersson, M.
    Lipid-based liquid crystals as carriers for antimicrobial peptides: Phase behavior and antimicrobial effect2016In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 32, no 17, p. 4217-4228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is increasing worldwide, and the demand for novel antimicrobials is constantly growing. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could be an important part of future treatment strategies of various bacterial infection diseases. However, AMPs have relatively low stability, because of proteolytic and chemical degradation. As a consequence, carrier systems protecting the AMPs are greatly needed, to achieve efficient treatments. In addition, the carrier system also must administrate the peptide in a controlled manner to match the therapeutic dose window. In this work, lyotropic liquid crystalline (LC) structures consisting of cubic glycerol monooleate/water and hexagonal glycerol monooleate/oleic acid/water have been examined as carriers for AMPs. These LC structures have the capability of solubilizing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, as well as being biocompatible and biodegradable. Both bulk gels and discrete dispersed structures (i.e., cubosomes and hexosomes) have been studied. Three AMPs have been investigated with respect to phase stability of the LC structures and antimicrobial effect: AP114, DPK-060, and LL-37. Characterization of the LC structures was performed using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering, ζ-potential, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and peptide loading efficacy by ultra performance liquid chromatography. The antimicrobial effect of the LCNPs was investigated in vitro using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and time-kill assay. The most hydrophobic peptide (AP114) was shown to induce an increase in negative curvature of the cubic LC system. The most polar peptide (DPK-060) induced a decrease in negative curvature while LL-37 did not change the LC phase at all. The hexagonal LC phase was not affected by any of the AMPs. Moreover, cubosomes loaded with peptides AP114 and DPK-060 showed preserved antimicrobial activity, whereas particles loaded with peptide LL-37 displayed a loss in its broad-spectrum bactericidal properties. AMP-loaded hexosomes showed a reduction in antimicrobial activity.

  • 38.
    Boschkova, K
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Feiler, A
    Kronberg, B
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Stålgren, JJR
    Adsorption and frictional properties of Gemini surfactants at solid surfaces2002In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 18, p. 7930-7935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption and frictional properties of gemini surfactants at hydrophilic gold surfaces were measured using QCM-D (quartz crystal microbalance dissipation) and AFM. The molecular packing of a series of gemini surfactants was determined from QCM-D measurements, and the frictional behaviors of the surfactant films were characterized by employing atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that by changing the length of the spacer group from 3 to 12 a systematic change in the molecular packing at the surface is obtained. Furthermore, the molecular packing is seen to correlate to the frictional behavior of the surfactant film. A linear relation between the spacer group length, the adsorbed amount, and the frictional properties of the layer at the solid surface is found. This is discussed in terms of the critical packing parameter (CPP) of the surfactant, and a relation between CPP and frictional behavior is proposed. No correlation between spacer length and viscoelasticity of the adsorbed surfactant layer was detected using QCM-D. This indicates that the resolution of the dissipation factor from QCM-D measurements is not sufficient to describe the viscoelastic character of the thin surfactant film.

  • 39. Boschkova, K
    et al.
    Kronberg, B
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Stålgren, JJR
    Persson, K
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Ratoi Salagean, M
    Lubrication in aqueous solutions using cationic surfactants – a study of static and dynamic forces2002In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 18, p. 1680-1687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns lubrication in aqueous surfactant systems where the surfactants adsorb at surfaces, in relative motion, forming either a surfactant monolayer or a multi- (liquid crystalline) layer. The surfactants were of two kinds, viz., a double chain cationic surfactant, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide, DDAB, and a single chain cationic surfactant, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, DTAB. Excellent film forming capability was shown for DDAB and interpreted as the result of good packing of the surfactant molecules at the surfaces, i.e., the inherent ability of the surfactant molecules to form liquid crystalline structures at the surface, resulting in good load-carrying capability. This is also reflected in the bulk properties of the surfactants, where DDAB show lamellar liquid crystalline phases at concentrations much lower than DTAB, which does not show good lubrication properties. The results are discussed in terms of film stability of a surfactant layer adsorbed at the surface, which in turn is correlated to the critical packing parameter of the surfactant, in analogy with the Kabalnov-Wennerström theory of emulsion droplet coalescence (Kabalnov, A.; Wennerström, H. Langmuir 1996, 12, 276). The systems were characterized using (i) the surface force apparatus determining the interaction forces between the adsorbed layers at the surfaces and (ii) the EHD rig (elastohydrodynamic rig) determining film formation under shear. The adsorption kinetics and composition at the surface were determined by a quartz crystal microbalance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  • 40.
    Boschkova, K
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Stålgren, JJR
    Cationic and non-ionic surfactant adsorption on thiol surfaces with controlled wettability2002In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 18, p. 6802-6806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have shown that thiolated surfaces work very well as model substrates in adsorption measurements using the quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation. Functionalized self-assembled monolayers were prepared from mixtures of hydrophobically, SH-C16, and hydrophilically, SH-C16OH, terminated thiols, which allowed the interfacial energy of the surfaces to be changed in a systematic way. The prepared thiol surfaces were used as substrates for adsorption of a cationic (DTAB, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide) and a nonionic (C12EO8, octa(ethylene oxide) mono(n-dodecyl ether)) surfactant. When the fraction of methyl groups at the surfaces was increased, the adsorption for both DTAB and C12EO8 was increased. In particular, there is a transition from a micellar surfactant layer to a surfactant monolayer at 25-50% surface coverage of SH-C16 groups. In addition, the role of the counterion in the adsorbed surfactant layer for the charged surfactant is discussed in terms of contribution to the mass and viscoelastic response determined by the quartz crystal microbalance.

  • 41.
    Brinck, J
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Jönsson, B
    Tiberg, F
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Influence of long-chain alcohols on the adsorption of nonionic surfactants to silica1999In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 15, p. 7719-7724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption of surfactant-alcohol mixtures at the silica-water interface was studied by means of ellipsometry. The results show that addition of even small amounts of alcohol can have large effects on the characteristics of the adsorbed layer. For example, a 20% replacement of the octa(ethylene glycol) dodecyl (C12E8) surfactants by dodecanol results in an increase in the total surface excess of 80%. The thickness of the adsorbed layer, on the other hand, is virtually unaffected by the alcohol being added. Hence, as the alcohol content increases, the adsorbed surfactant aggregates at the silica-water interface mainly grow in the surface plane. A surfactant such as C12E5, which forms relatively large surface aggregates from the start, can only solubilize a small fraction of the long-chain alcohols before the system phase separates. This fraction was found not to result in any major structural changes in the surface layer. These findings are discussed in terms of surfactant packing and in relation to observations in bulk solutions reported earlier. Our study also includes measurements of adsorption and desorption kinetics for both the surfactant and the surfactant-alcohol systems. The main finding is that the effect of alcohol is most obvious in the desorption kinetics. We conclude that the effects observed are due to differences between the surfactant and the alcohol in monomer solubility.

  • 42. Brinck, J
    et al.
    Jönsson, B
    Tiberg, F
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Kinetics of nonionic surfactant adsorption and desorption at the silica-water interface: Binary systems1998In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 14, p. 5863-5876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is the second of two dealing with the adsorption and desorption kinetics of nonionic surfactants at a solid-liquid interface. The first paper described a model of the kinetics of single nonionic surfactant adsorption.1 This work is now being completed by extending the theoretical model to cover binary surfactant systems. The evolution of the total surface excess during the adsorption and desorption has been modeled and compared with experimental results obtained by in situ null ellipsometry. In this comparison, the surface behavior of the two nonionic surfactant pairs C14E6-C10E6 and C12E5-C12E8 at a planar silica-water interface was studied. These binary systems represent two different types of polydispersity: different lengths of the hydrocarbon chains and unequal numbers of ethylene oxide groups in the hydrophilic headgroups. The critical micelle concentrations (cmcs) of the surfactants in the former pair therefore differ a great deal, whereas those of the surfactants in the latter pair are similar. A comparison between experiments and simulations showed good agreement. In an attempt to further analyze the experimental results, individual amounts adsorbed and concentration profiles were calculated. The results of these simulations showed that each surfactant in a given pair has a characteristic adsorption and desorption path. According to the model, this path is determined mainly by the mutual relationship between their cmcs.

  • 43. Brinck, J
    et al.
    Jönsson, B
    Tiberg, F
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Kinetics of nonionic surfactant adsorption and desorption at the silica-water interface: One component1998In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 14, p. 1058-1071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a theoretical model which describes the kinetics of adsorption and desorption from a micellar solution of nonionic surfactants at a silica surface. Numerical calculations based on this model have been compared with experimental results of CnEm surfactant adsorption, obtained by ellipsometry, and show good agreement. The aim of this work was to develop a model for adsorption through a stagnant layer onto a solid, hydrophilic surface. The surface is considered to be planar and homogeneous. Outside the surface there is a micellar solution of a pure nonionic surfactant. Both monomers and micelles are considered to be able to adsorb. To facilitate the evaluation of the model, a computer program was written which solves the mathematical equations numerically. The course of adsorption and desorption of a number of short-chain CnEm surfactants has been simulated with this program. The results obtained, in terms of amounts adsorbed as a function of time, were compared with experimental data determined by time-resolved null ellipsometry. The same program was used to calculate concentration profiles outside the silica surface. Not only has this model made it possible for us to explain and better understand experimental results, but it has also allowed us to gain an understanding of how the course of adsorption and desorption is affected by parameters which are difficult to vary experimentally in a controlled way. Two examples of this, which will be discussed in this paper, are the effects of stagnant layer thickness and the relation between critical surface aggregation concentration (csac) and critical micelle concentration (cmc).

  • 44. Bäverbäck, P
    et al.
    Oliveira, CLP
    Garamus, VM
    Varga, I
    Claesson, PM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Pedersen, JS
    Structural properties of β-dodecylmaltoside and C12E 6 mixed micelles2009In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 25, no 13, p. 7296–7303-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed micelles formed in aqueous solutions of nonionic surfactants n-dodecyl-hexaethylene-glycol (C12E6) and n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (C12G2) have been studied using small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS) and static light scattering (SLS). Apparent micelle molar masses obtained with SLS were analyzed with a model taking into account both micelle growth and interference effects. The analysis shows that pure C12G2 forms small globular micelles whereas C12E6 and the mixtures form elongated micelles of much higher molar mass. The elongated micelles grow with increased concentration according to mean-field theory, and the masses are larger for increasing amounts of C12E6. To describe the SANS and SAXS data for C12E6 and the mixtures, it was necessary to employ a model with coexisting spherical and spherocylindrical micelles. The SANS and SAXS data were fitted simultaneously using this model with core-shell particles and molecular constraints. All mixtures, as well as pure C12E6, can be described by this model, demonstrating the coexistence of spherical and cylindrical micelles. The spherical micelles are the same size in all samples, whereas the cylindrical micelles grow in length with the fraction of C12E6 in the samples, as well as with concentration, in agreement with the SLS analysis. The mass fraction of surfactant in cylindrical aggregates also increases with the fraction of C12E6 and with overall concentration. The analysis of the SAXS and SANS data for pure C12G2 shows that the micelles are disk-shaped. The presence of elongated micelles in pure C12E6 and in the mixtures demonstrates that the behavior of the mixtures is dominated by C12E6.

  • 45. Carambassis, A
    et al.
    Rutland, MW
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Interactions of cellulose surfaces: Effect of electrolyte1999In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 15, p. 5584-5590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forces between spherical particles of cellulose (20-30 m) have been measured in different solutions using an atomic force microscope, with a view to understanding the interactions in a model papermaking system. At low ionic strength (0.1 mM KBr), the interaction profile is dominated by a long range double layer force and shorter ranged electrosteric force. A qualititatively similar profile is observed at high pH, but in this case both the double layer force and electrosteric force increase as a consequence of cellulose charging. Conversely, the two force contributions both decrease in the presence of calcium ions. At high ionic strength (10 mM KBr) the electrosteric force is absent and the forces appear to be due solely to double layer forces. Overall, the results show that the surface is composed of looser chains that extend out into the solution, the conformation of which is highly sensitive to the solution conditions.

  • 46.
    Carlsson, CMG
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Ström, G
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Reduction and oxidation of cellulose surfaces by means of cold plasma1991In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 7, p. 2492-2497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen and oxygen plasma treatment of two cellulose materials, a filter paper of pure cellulose and a greaseproof paper with a fairly high surface content of wood resin, has been studied with ESCA as well as by contact angle or water adsorption. The hydrogen plasma treatment reduces the hydroxyl groups on the cellulose and creates low molecular weight materials. Due to the lower polarity, water adsorption is reduced. The oxygen plasma treatment of the pure cellulose both oxidizes and reduces the surface. The resin-rich paper, which has a hydrophobic nature, shows improved water wettability after both hydrogen and oxygen plasma treatments.

  • 47. Carrick, C.
    et al.
    Lindström, S.B.
    Larsson, P.T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wågberg, L.
    Lightweight, highly compressible, noncrystalline cellulose capsules2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 26, p. 7635-6744Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Claesson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Direct measurement of colloidal interactions between polyaniline surfaces in a uv-curable coating formulation: The effect of surface hydrophilicity/ hydrophobicity and resin composition2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 1045-1054Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Claesson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part I. Molecular insight into the formation of chitosan and poly(acrylic acid) multilayers2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 29, p. 8866-8877Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Claesson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 29, p. 8878-8888Article in journal (Refereed)
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