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  • 1. Claudino, Mauro
    et al.
    van der Meulen, Inge
    Trey, Stacy
    SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Jonsson, Mats
    Heise, Andreas
    Johansson, Mats
    Photoinduced thiol–ene crosslinking of globalide/ε-caprolactone copolymers: Curing performance and resulting thermoset properties2012In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 16-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Boyer, Antoine
    Sinigoi, Loris
    Trey, Stacy
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson, Mats
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    Hult, Karl
    Department of Biochemistry.
    Martinelle, Mats
    Department of Biochemistry.
    One-pot enzymatic route to tetraallyl ether functional oligoesters: Synthesis, UV curing, and characterization2010In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 48, no 23, p. 5289-5297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An enzymatic one-pot route in bulk was used to synthesize tetraallyl ether (tAE) functional oligomers based on divinyl adipate, 1,4-butanediol and trimethylolpropane diallyl ether. By using lipase B from Candida antarctica as catalyst and varying the stoichiometric ratio of monomers, it was possible to reach targeted molecular weights (from 1300 to 3300 g mol-1) of allyl-ether functional polyesters. The enzyme catalyzed reaction reached completion (>98% conversion based on all monomers) within 24 h at 60 °C, under reduced pressure (72 mbar) resulting in ~90% yield after filtration. The tAE-functional oligoesters were photopolymerized, without any purification other than removal of the enzyme by filtration, with thiol functional monomers (dithiol, tetrathiol) in a 1:1 ratio thiol-ene reaction. The photo-initiator, 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone, was used to improve the rate of reaction under UV light. High conversions (96–99% within detection limits) were found for all thiol-ene films as determined by FT-Raman spectroscopy. The tAE-functional oligoesters were characterized by NMR, MALDI, and SEC. The UV-cured homopolymerized films and the thiol-ene films properties were characterized utilizing DSC and DMTA.

  • 3.
    Liu, H.
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Näsman, J.H.
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Radical alternating copolymerization: A strategy for hyperbranched materials2000In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 38, no 17, p. 3074-3085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel hyperbranched polymers were synthesized in a high yield without gelation through the free-radical alternating copolymerization of an AB/B′ (allyloxy maleic acid/maleic anhydride) system, in which group B and monomer B′ both could only alternately polymerize with group A. The arm number of the produced highly branched polymers was equal to the product of the linear chain length and the probability of pendent B groups being growing centers. The molecular weight of these novel hyperbranched polymers increased with increasing initiator concentration and prolonged polymerization times. The AB/B′ system, used as described, provides a new general methodology for highly branched and functional polymers.

  • 4.
    Liu, H.
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Wilén, C.-E.
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Reaction of epoxy resin and hyperbranched polyacids2000In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 38, no 24, p. 4457-4465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The condensation reaction between two different epoxy resins and a hyperbranched polyester (MAHP) [poly(allyloxy maleic acid-co-maleic anhydride)] was studied. We compared two kinds of diglycidyl ether bisphenol A type of epoxy resins with different molecular weights, that is, epoxy resin GY240 (M = 365 g/mol) and GT6064 (M = 1540 g/mol) in this reaction. The results showed a marked difference in their reaction pattern in terms of ability to form crosslinked polymer networks with MAHP. For the former low-molecular-weight epoxy resin, no crosslinking could be observed in good solvents such as THF or dioxane within the set of reaction conditions used in this study. Instead, polymers with epoxide functional degrees between 0.34 and 0.5 were formed. By contrast, the latter high-molecular-weight epoxy resin, GT6064, rapidly produced highly crosslinked materials with MAHP under the same reaction conditions. The spherical-shape model of hyperbranched polymer was applied to explain this difference in reaction behavior. Hence, we have postulated that low-molecular-weight epoxy resins such as GY240 are unable to crosslink the comparatively much bigger spherically shaped MAHP molecules. However, using high-molecular-weight epoxy resins greatly enhances the probability of crosslinking in this system. Computer simulations verified the spherical shape and condensed bond density of MAHP in good solvents, and submicron particle analysis showed that the average MAHP particle size was 9 nm in THF. Furthermore, the epoxy-functionalized polyesters were characterized by 1H NMR and FTIR, and the molecular weights and molecular-weight distributions were determined by size-exclusion chromatography.

  • 5. Monteiro, MJ
    et al.
    Sjöberg, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    van der Vlist, J
    Göttgens, CM
    Synthesis of butyl acrylate-styrene block copolymers in emulsion by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer. Effect of surfactant migration upon film formation2000In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 38, p. 4206-4217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis of block copolymers in an environmentally friendly medium was carried out in emulsion polymerizations through the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer process, using a transfer active xanthate (MADIX) agent, under batch and starved-feed conditions. First, ab initio experiments were carried out to prepare a seed of PBA dormant chains (i.e., poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) polymer attached with a transfer active xanthate). The Mn and polydispersity were predicted accurately with numerical simulations and equations derived by Müller from the method of moments. Those seeds were then used in a second-stage polymerization under starved-feed and batch conditions to prepare composite polymer colloids of block PBA-co-poly(styrene). Under starved feed conditions, approximately 90% of total polymer consisted of blocks, whereas under batch conditions only 70% consisted of blocks, which is proposed to be due a higher entry efficiency and thus greater termination rate. The films of these latexes were examined by atomic force microscopy. Surfactant migration to the surface increased with an increase in the amount of MADIX, resulting from a combination of a smaller particle size and a lower average molecular weight.

  • 6. Pavlyuchenko, V.N.
    et al.
    Sorochinskaya, O.V.
    Ivanchev, S.S.
    Klubin, V.V.
    Kreichman, G.S.
    Budtov, V.P.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Halme, E.
    Koskinen, J.
    Hollow-particle latexes: Preparation and properties2001In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 1435-1449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hollow-particle latexes were prepared according to the following stages: (1) the preparation of the methyl methacrylate-methacrylic acid (MAA)-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer (I) latex, (2) the preparation of a shell (II) based on polystyrene or styrene-acrylonitrile-divinyl benzene copolymer polymerized onto copolymer (I) particles, and (3) the neutralization of the core (I) carboxyl groups with a base (NH4OH or NaOH) at temperatures close to the glass-transition temperature of the polymer (II). The neutralization resulted in the expansion of the particles and formed water-filled hollow particles. The microspheres had an overall diameter of 460-650 nm and a hollow diameter of 300-450 nm. Rheological studies and particle size measurements by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering of the copolymer (I) latex indicate that the maximum particle swelling occurred at an approximately equimolar MAA/base ratio. It was found that even without the neutralization of the MAA units, a small hollow formation in the latex particles occurred during stage 2 because one volume of the copolymer (I) retained about 8 volume parts of water. It was also discovered that the final hollow-particle geometry after neutralization depends on the shell copolymer thickness and type as well as on the conditions during stage 3, that is, the time, temperature, base type, and concentration. The opacifying ability of the synthesized hollow particles was investigated in latex coatings. The opacifying ability values were generally in agreement with the hollow-particle geometry. The only exception was related to the copolymer (I)/copolymer (II) ratio. The maximum hollow volume was obtained at this value equal to 1/8, whereas the highest opacifying ability was observed at 1/10.

  • 7.
    Pavlyuchenko, V.N.
    et al.
    Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Sorochinskaya, O.V.
    Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Primachenko, O.N.
    Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Byrdina, N.A.
    Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Ivanchev, S.S.
    Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Skrifvars, M.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Preparation of cationic latices comprising hollow thermostable particles2004In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 2225-2234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is described for the preparation of cationic latices comprising submicron hollow particles for a possible application as a thermally stable polymeric pigment in coatings or pigmented compositions on the basis of thermosetting polymers cured at temperatures up to 170-190 °C. The method is based on the deposition of melamine-formaldehyde resin in the form of cationic colloid onto anionic hollow particles resulting in the recharging of anionic hollow particles and the formation of an outer melamine shell, which provides thermal stability of the hollow particles at curing and application of pigmented coatings and compositions. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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