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  • 1.
    Borg, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Regnell, B.jörn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Supporting Change Impact Analysis Using a Recommendation System: An Industrial Case Study in a Safety-Critical Context2017In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 675-700, article id 7637029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Change Impact Analysis (CIA) during software evolution of safety-critical systems is a labor-intensive task. Several authors have proposed tool support for CIA, but very few tools were evaluated in industry. We present a case study on ImpRec, a recommendation System for Software Engineering (RSSE), tailored for CIA at a process automation company. ImpRec builds on assisted tracing, using information retrieval solutions and mining software repositories to recommend development artifacts, potentially impacted when resolving incoming issue reports. In contrast to the majority of tools for automated CIA, ImpRec explicitly targets development artifacts that are not source code. We evaluate ImpRec in a two-phase study. First, we measure the correctness of ImpRec's recommendations by a simulation based on 12 years' worth of issue reports in the company. Second, we assess the utility of working with ImpRec by deploying the RSSE in two development teams on different continents. The results suggest that ImpRec presents about 40 percent of the true impact among the top-10 recommendations. Furthermore, user log analysis indicates that ImpRec can support CIA in industry, and developers acknowledge the value of ImpRec in interviews. In conclusion, our findings show the potential of reusing traceability associated with developers' past activities in an RSSE.

  • 2.
    de la Vara, José Luis
    et al.
    Carlos III University of Madrid, Spain.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Moonen, Leon
    Certus Centre for Software V&V, Norway.
    An Industrial Survey of Safety Evidence Change Impact Analysis Practice2016In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 42, no 12, p. 1095-1117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many application domains, critical systems must comply with safety standards. This involves gathering safety evidence in the form of artefacts such as safety analyses, system specifications, and testing results. These artefacts can evolve during a system's lifecycle, creating a need for impact analysis to guarantee that system safety and compliance are not jeopardised. Although extensive research has been conducted on change impact analysis and on safety evidence management, the knowledge about how safety evidence change impact analysis is addressed in practice is limited. This paper reports on a survey targeted at filling this gap by analysing the circumstances under which safety evidence change impact analysis is addressed, the tool support used, and the challenges faced. We obtained 97 valid responses representing 16 application domains, 28 countries, and 47 safety standards. The results suggest that most practitioners deal with safety evidence change impact analysis during system development and mainly from system specifications. Furthermore, the level of automation in the process is low and insufficient tool support is the most frequent challenge. Other notable findings include that the different artefact types used as safety evidence seem to co-evolve, the evolution of safety case should probably be better managed, and no commercial impact analysis tool has been reported as used for all artefact types. Finally, we identified over 20 areas where the state of the practice in safety evidence change impact analysis can be improved.

  • 3.
    Lind, K
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Heldal, R
    A Practical Approach to Size Estimation of Embedded Software Components2012In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 38, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To estimate software code size early in the development process is important for developing cost-efficient embedded systems. We have applied the COSMIC Functional Size Measurement (FSM) method for size estimation of embedded software components in the automotive industry. Correlational studies were conducted using data from two automotive companies. The studies show strong correlation between functional size software code size, which is important for obtaining accurate estimation results. This paper presents the characteristics results of our work, aims to provide a practical framework for how to use COSMIC FSM for size estimation purposes. We investigate the results from our earlier correlational studies, conduct further studies to identify such a framework. Based on these activities, we conclude that a clear purpose of the estimation process, a well-defined_x000D_ domain allowing categorization of software, consistent content quality of requirements, historical data from implemented software are key factors for size estimation of embedded software components._x000D_

  • 4.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Ferwerda, Adry
    Centric, Netherlands.
    Lind, Kenneth
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Heldal, Rogardt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chaudron, Michel R. V.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Impact of Introducing Domain-Specific Modelling in Software Maintenance: An Industrial Case Study2016In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 248-263, article id 7270333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domain-specific modelling (DSM) is a modern software development technology that aims at enhancing productivity. One of the claimed advantages of DSM is increased maintainability of software. However, current empirical evidence supporting this claim is lacking. In this paper, we contribute evidence from a case study conducted at a software development company. We study how the introduction of DSM affected the maintenance of a legacy system. We collected data about the maintenance phase of a system that was initially developed using manual programming, but which was gradually replaced by DSM development. We performed statistical analyses of the relation between the use of DSM and the time needed to resolve defects, the defect density, and the phase in which defects were detected. The results show that after introducing DSM the defect density is lower, that defects are found earlier, but resolving defects takes longer. Other observed benefits are that the number of developers and the number of person-hours needed for maintaining the system decreased, and the portability to new platforms increased. Our findings are useful for organizations that consider introducing DSM and would like to know which benefits can be realized in software maintenance.

  • 5.
    Mottola, Luca
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Picco, G. P.
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Oppermann, F. J.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Finne, Niclas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Fuchs, H.
    SAP, Germany.
    Gaglione, A.
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Karnouskos, S.
    SAP, Germany.
    Montero, P. M.
    Acciona Infraestructuras SA, Spain.
    Oertel, N.
    SAP, Germany.
    Romer, K.
    Graz University of Technology, Australia.
    Spiess, P.
    SAP, Germany.
    Tranquillini, S.
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    MakeSense: Simplifying the Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks into Business Processes2019In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 576-596, article id 8240710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide gap exists between the state of the art in developing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) software and current practices concerning the design, execution, and maintenance of business processes. WSN software is most often developed based on low-level OS abstractions, whereas business process development leverages high-level languages and tools. This state of affairs places WSNs at the fringe of industry. The makeSense system addresses this problem by simplifying the integration of WSNs into business processes. Developers use BPMN models extended with WSN-specific constructs to specify the application behavior across both traditional business process execution environments and the WSN itself, which is to be equipped with application-specific software. We compile these models into a high-level intermediate language-Also directly usable by WSN developers-And then into OS-specific deployment-ready binaries. Key to this process is the notion of meta-Abstraction, which we define to capture fundamental patterns of interaction with and within the WSN. The concrete realization of meta-Abstractions is application-specific; developers tailor the system configuration by selecting concrete abstractions out of the existing codebase or by providing their own. Our evaluation of makeSense shows that i) users perceive our approach as a significant advance over the state of the art, providing evidence of the increased developer productivity when using makeSense; ii) in large-scale simulations, our prototype exhibits an acceptable system overhead and good scaling properties, demonstrating the general applicability of makeSense; and, iii) our prototype-including the complete tool-chain and underlying system support-sustains a real-world deployment where estimates by domain specialists indicate the potential for drastic reductions in the total cost of ownership compared to wired and conventional WSN-based solutions.

  • 6.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shah, Syed
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Choosing Component Origins for Software Intensive Systems: In-house, COTS, OSS or Outsourcing? – A Case Survey2018In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 237-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of which software component to use influences the success of a software system. Only a few empirical studies investigate how the choice of components is conducted in industrial practice. This is important to understand to tailor research solutions to the needs of the industry. Existing studies focus on the choice for off-the-shelf (OTS) components. It is, however, also important to understand the implications of the choice of alternative component sourcing options (CSOs), such as outsourcing versus the use of OTS. Previous research has shown that the choice has major implications on the development process as well as on the ability to evolve the system. The objective of this study is to explore how decision making took place in industry to choose among CSOs. Overall, 22 industrial cases have been studied through a case survey. The results show that the solutions specifically for CSO decisions are deterministic and based on optimization approaches. The non-deterministic solutions proposed for architectural group decision making appear to suit the CSO decision making in industry better. Interestingly, the final decision was perceived negatively in nine cases and positively in seven cases, while in the remaining cases it was perceived as neither positive nor negative.

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