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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Saad
    et al.
    LUMS, Pakistan.
    Bhatti, Naavid
    Air University, Pakistan.
    Brachmann, Martina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Alizai, Hamad
    LUMS, Pakistan.
    A survey on program-state retention for transiently-powered systems2021In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 115, article id 102013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-power small-scale embedded sensing systems employing batteries generally impose high maintenance costs. To enable maintenance-free operation, they are powered from energy harvested from the environment thus making them batteryless. However, due to high variance of ambient energy, these batteryless embedded devices are unable to harvest enough energy from the environment required for continuous device operation thus hampering application progress and causing frequent loss of volatile program-state. Therefore, these batteryless devices have to employ state retention mechanisms to save the volatile program-state to non-volatile storage before interruption. These batteryless embedded sensing devices are known as transiently-powered systems (TPS). In this article, we survey existing literature to identify strategies and techniques used by each existing literature to decide what amount of volatile program-state needs to be saved and when to save it. We list the challenges in retaining program-state across periods of energy unavailability and how existing state-of-the-art solutions tackle them. We also describe different memory models and discuss factors governing the choice of each model for TPS deployment. 

  • 2.
    Javed, Muhammad
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Muram, Faiz
    Mälardalen University, Sweden; Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Safe and secure platooning of Automated Guided Vehicles in Industry 4.02021In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 121, article id 102309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are widely used for materials transportation. Operating them in a platooned manner has the potential to improve safety, security and efficiency, control overall traffic flow and reduce resource usage. However, the published studies on platooning focus mainly on the design of technical solutions in the context of automotive domain. In this paper we focus on a largely unexplored theme of platooning in production sites transformed to the Industry 4.0, with the aim of providing safety and security assurances. We present an overall approach for a fault- and threat tolerant platooning for materials transportation in production environments. Our functional use cases include the platoon control for collision avoidance, data acquisition and processing by considering range, and connectivity with fog and cloud levels. To perform the safety and security analyses, the Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) and Threat and Operability (THROP) techniques are used. Based on the results obtained from them, the safety and security requirements are derived for the identification and prevention/mitigation of potential platooning hazards, threats and vulnerabilities. The assurance cases are constructed to show the acceptable safety and security of materials transportation using AGV platooning. We leveraged a simulation-based digital twin for performing the verification and validation as well as finetuning of the platooning strategy. Simulation data is gathered from digital twin to monitor platoon operations, identify unexpected or incorrect behaviour, evaluate the potential implications, trigger control actions to resolve them, and continuously update assurance cases. The applicability of the AGV platooning is demonstrated in the context of a quarry site. © 2021 The Authors

  • 3.
    Muram, Faiz Ul
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Javed, Muhammad Atif
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    ATTEST: Automating the review and update of assurance case arguments2023In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 134, article id 102781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assurance case arguments are created to demonstrate acceptable system safety and/or security. In this regard, a series of propositions expressed by natural language statements (claims) are broken down into sub-claims representing a logical chain of reasoning until the corresponding evidence is obtained. The review and update of assurance arguments for aligning with the process and product counterparts used for their construction are essential tasks. These tasks are perceived as challenging but can be efficiently supported by using Natural Language Processing (NLP). To date, however, the published studies on assurance cases have not leveraged the NLP. Accordingly, this paper presents our NLP-based assurance framework called ATTEST. At first, the text preprocessing is carried out by using NLP tasks. The rules are created, in which both syntactic and semantic features are captured. The former is captured by using NLP tasks, while the latter is captured by the internal structure of models as well as the mappings across them. The created rules are triggered for argument comprehension, well-formedness, sufficiency checks, and identifying defeaters and counter-evidence selection. Besides the process, product, and assurance case models produced during the design and development phase, the operational data is gathered from the configured simulation environments and used for identifying problems as well as the measures for resolving them. Finally, the affected parts of assurance case models are highlighted and the underlying reasoning for their adaptation is presented. The applicability of the proposed framework is demonstrated by reviewing and updating assurance cases constructed for vehicular Accelerator Control System (ACS) with Electronic Throttle Control (ETC). © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 4.
    Sinaei, Sima
    et al.
    University of Tehran, Iran.
    Fatemi, O.
    University of Tehran, Iran.
    Run-time mapping algorithm for dynamic workloads using association rule mining2018In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Task mapping exploration plays an important role in the high performance achieved by heterogeneous multi-processor system-on-chip (MPSoC) platforms. The dynamic of application workloads in modern MPSoC-based embedded systems are consistently growing. Nowadays, the execution of different applications is done concurrently, and these applications compete for resources in such systems. To cope with the dynamism of application workloads at runtime and improve the efficiency of the underlying system architecture, this paper presents a hybrid task mapping algorithm for multimedia applications. That consists of two phases: design-time and run-time. During design-time, static mapping exploration is performed, and the applications are clustered based on their efficient mapping, then a set of rules for mapping is extracted by Association Rule Mining techniques. During run-time, when a new application enters to the system, this application is classified to one of the existing clusters using the rule sets extracted at design-time phase. The objective of application mapping is to minimize execution time in a predefined budget of energy consumption. A heterogeneous MPSoC system is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The experimental results revealed that during run-time by using the proposed algorithm, suitable resources regarding energy consumption and execution time are selected for mapping. 

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