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  • 1.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science. COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Mohsin, Bushra
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Nasir, Abdul
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    FoNAC - An automated Fog Node Audit and Certification scheme2020In: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 93, article id 101759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meeting the security and privacy needs for IoT data becomes equally important in the newly introduced intermediary Fog Computing layer, as it was in its former technological layer - Cloud; but the accomplishment of such security is critical and challenging. While security assurance of the fog layer devices is imperative due to their exposure to the public Internet, it becomes even more complex, than the cloud layer, as it involves a large number of heterogeneous devices deployed hierarchically. Manual audit and certification schemes are unsuitable for large number of fog nodes thereby inhibiting the involved stakeholders to use manual security assurance schemes altogether. However, scalable and feasible security assurance can be provided by introducing automated and continuous monitoring and auditing of fog nodes to ensure a trusted, updated and vulnerability free fog layer. This paper presents such an solution in the form of an automated Fog Node Audit and Certification scheme (FoNAC) which guarantees a secure fog layer through the proposed fog layer assurance mechanism. FoNAC leverages Trusted Platform Module (TPM 2.0) capabilities to evaluate/audit the platform integrity of the operating fog nodes and grants certificate to the individual node after a successful security audit. FoNAC security is also validated through its formal security analysis performed using AVISPA under Dolev-Yao intruder model. The security analysis of FoNAC shows its resistance against cyber-attacks like impersonation, replay attack, forgery, Denial of Service(DoS) and MITM attack.

  • 2.
    Bella, Giampaolo
    et al.
    Università di Catania, Italy.
    Giustolisi, Rosario
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Lenzini, Gabriele
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Ryan, Peter Y. A.
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Trustworthy exams without trusted parties2017In: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 67, p. 291-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, exam security has mainly focused on threats ascribed to candidate cheating. Such threats have been normally mitigated by invigilation and anti-plagiarism methods. However, as recent exam scandals confirm, also invigilators and authorities may pose security threats. The introduction of computers into the different phases of an exam, such as candidate registration, brings new security issues that should be addressed with the care normally devoted to security protocols. This paper proposes a protocol that meets a wide set of security requirements and resists threats that may originate from candidates as well as from exam administrators. By relying on a combination of oblivious transfer and visual cryptography schemes, the protocol does not need to rely on any trusted third party. We analyse the protocol formally in ProVerif and prove that it verifies all the stated security requirements.

  • 3.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    The cyber insurance market in Sweden2017In: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 68, p. 130-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a characterization of the cyber insurance market in Sweden. As empirical investigations of cyber insurance are rarely reported in the literature, the results are novel. The investigation is based on semi-structured interviews with 10 insurance companies active on the Swedish market, and additional interviews with 2 re-insurance companies and 3 insurance intermediaries. These informants represent essentially all companies selling cyber insurance on the Swedish market. Findings include descriptions of the coverages offered, including discrepancies between insurers, and the underwriting process used. Typical annual premiums are found to be in the span of some 5–10 kSEK per MSEK indemnity limit, i.e. 0.5–1% of the indemnity limit. For business interruption coverage, waiting periods are found to be relatively long compared to many outages. Furthermore, insurance companies impose information and IT security requirements on their customers, and do not insure customers that are too immature or have too poor security. Thus cyber insurance, in practice, is not merely an instrument of risk transfer, but also contains aspects of avoidance and mitigation. Based on the findings, market segmentation, pricing, business continuity, and asymmetry of information are discussed, and some future work is suggested.

  • 4.
    Höglund, Joel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Lindemer, Samuel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Furuhed, Martin
    Technology Nexus Secured Business Solutions, Sweden.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    PKI4IoT: Towards public key infrastructure for the Internet of Things2020In: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 89, article id 101658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public Key Infrastructure is the state-of-the-art credential management solution on the Internet. However, the millions of constrained devices that make of the Internet of Things currently lack a centralized, scalable system for managing keys and identities. Modern PKI is built on a set of protocols which were not designed for constrained environments, and as a result many small, battery-powered IoT devices lack the required computing resources. In this paper, we develop an automated certificate enrollment protocol light enough for highly constrained devices, which provides end-to-end security between certificate authorities (CA) and the recipient IoT devices. We also design a lightweight profile for X.509 digital certificates with CBOR encoding, called XIOT. Existing CAs can now issue traditional X.509 to IoT devices. These are converted to and from the XIOT format by edge devices on constrained networks. This procedure preserves the integrity of the original CA signature, so the edge device performing certificate conversion need not be trusted. We implement these protocols within the Contiki embedded operating system and evaluate their performance on an ARM Cortex-M3 platform. Our evaluation demonstrates reductions in energy expenditure and communication latency. The RAM and ROM required to implement these protocols are on par with the other lightweight protocols in Contiki’s network stack.

  • 5.
    Paladi, Nicolae
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    SDN Access Control for the Masses2019In: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 80, p. 155-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) has so far been predominantly geared towards defining and refining the abstractions on the forwarding and control planes. However, despite a maturing south-bound interface and a range of proposed network operating systems, the network management application layer is yet to be specified and standardized. It has currently poorly defined access control mechanisms that could be exposed to network applications. Available mechanisms allow only rudimentary control and lack procedures to partition resource access across multiple dimensions. We address this by extending the SDN north-bound interface to provide control over shared resources to key stakeholders of network infrastructure: network providers, operators and application developers. We introduce a taxonomy of SDN access models, describe a comprehensive design for SDN access control and implement the proposed solution as an extension of the ONOS network controller intent framework.

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