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  • 1.
    Alexandersson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mao, Wengang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    System identification of Vessel Manoeuvring Models2022In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 266, article id 112940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the ship's maneuvering dynamics can build models for ship maneuverability predictions with a wide range of useful applications. A majority of the publications in this field are based on simulated data. In this paper model test data is used. The identification process can be decomposed into finding a suitable manoeuvring model for the hydrodynamic forces and to correctly handle errors from the measurement noise. A parameter estimation is proposed to identify the hydrodynamic derivatives. The most suitable manoeuvring model is found using the parameter estimation with cross-validation on a set of competing manoeuvring models. The parameter estimation uses inverse dynamics regression and Extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a Rauch Tung Striebel (RTS) smoother. Two case study vessels, wPCC and KVLCC2, with very different maneuverability characteristics are used to demonstrate and validate the proposed method. Turning circle predictions with the robust manoeuvring models, trained on zigzag model tests, show good agreement with the corresponding model test results for both ships. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 2.
    Coslovich, Franciesco
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Östberg, Magnus
    Flowtech International AB, Sweden.
    Janson, Carl-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Added resistance, heave and pitch for the KVLCC2 tanker using a fully nonlinear unsteady potential flow boundary element method2021In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 229, article id 108935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a fully nonlinear unsteady potential flow method is used to predict added resistance, heave and pitch for the KVLCC2 hull in regular head waves at design speed. The method presents a nonlinear decomposition of the velocity potential and the wave field and an adaptive grid refinement. A formulation for the acceleration potential is used to obtain the pressure. To improve computational efficiency, a Barnes-Hut algorithm is introduced. A grid dependency study and a study on the impact of different time steps on the solution are performed. Numerical results have been compared with experimental data for the design speed. A general good agreement is found for added resistance, especially for longer waves. Heave and pitch are properly computed for all wave lengths in the range λ/Lpp=0.4 to 1.4. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 3.
    Eslamdoost, Arash
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brown, Matz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    A device for reducing the resistance of transom stern hulls2021In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 235, article id 109351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel idea to reduce the resistance of a transom stern hull in displacement and semi-planing modes is investigated. By placing a spoon-shaped device in the recirculating zone behind the transom, the momentum of the forward-moving water will be absorbed, and a pushing force generated on the device. Numerical and experimental techniques are applied on a transom stern hull to optimize the shape and position of the device and to explore in detail the physics behind the gain. For the towed hull at a Froude number of 0.4, the maximum measured resistance reduction is 11%, while the computed maximum reduction is 17%. In self-propulsion with one propeller, the measured power reduction is 15%. The power cannot be computed with the applied propeller model, which is an axial body-force distribution in the propeller disk, but the reduction in thrust using the device is 11%. More significant gains are possible at smaller Froude numbers, while the effect is reduced at higher Froude numbers. Larger gains are achieved by splitting the thrust on two propellers. © 2021 The Authors

  • 4.
    Gunbeyaz, Sefer Anil
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Giagloglou, Evanthia
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Kurt, Rafet Emek
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Garmer Rogge, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Alkaner, Selim
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    McKenna, Stuart A
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Turan, Osman
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Lord, Richard
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Workers' exposure to dust and potentially toxic elements during steel cutting in two ship dismantling cases2023In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 270, article id 113628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ship dismantling is the recommended recycling solution for the end of a ship's life, but the process is not free of occupational risk. Despite proper regulations, there are underlying chemical and physical hazards, mainly due to the cutting of steel parts, which is the core of the recycling process. The overall aim of this research study is to determine, in two case study examples, the ship recycling workers' potential occupational exposure by inhalation of chemical agents generated by the torch cutting process of coated and de-coated steel. This was carried out specifically through (i) monitoring and measuring ship recycling workers' local environment for the inhalable (total dust) and respirable (fine dust) fractions during their working operations, (ii) analysing the heavy metal content of the dust and (iii) calculating and comparing this against occupational exposure limits, (iv) comparing de-coating operations with cutting of coated and de-coated steel. Results of this study show that without further mitigation workers involved in torch cutting processes are at high risk of exposure to heavy metals by inhalation as these are exceeding the norms defined by regulatory bodies. © 2023 The Authors

  • 5.
    Gypa, Ioli
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Jansson, Marcus
    Kongsberg Maritime Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Robert
    Kongsberg Maritime Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Werner, Sofia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Bensow, Rickard
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Controllable-pitch propeller design process for a wind-powered car-carrier optimising for total energy consumption2023In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 269, article id 113426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind-powered ship propulsion (WPSP) is the concept where the wind is the main source of thrust, while the traditional propulsion system operates when needed. This type of propulsion can lead to considerably reduced emissions, something that the shipping community is striving for. A well-known example of WPSP is the Oceanbird with the goal to cut emissions of up to 90%. In this study, the propeller design process for a wind-powered car-carrier (wPCC) such as the Oceanbird is investigated, what the various challenges of WPSP are and therefore how an automated optimisation procedure should be approached. A controllable-pitch propeller was selected as suitable propeller type for the operation of the wPCC, and various functions such as windmilling, feathering and harvesting have been explored. Regarding the optimisation procedure, an essential input is the definition of the operational profile, in order to determine the most important conditions for the route. The main objective of the optimisation is the minimisation of the total energy consumption (TEC), calculated based on a selection of conditions using the potential flow solver MPUF-3A. Cavitation has been evaluated by the blade designer, through an interactive optimisation method. The results showed that designing and optimising for the most highly loaded condition led to solutions with the lowest TEC. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 6.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A method for risk analysis of ship collisions with stationary infrastructure using AIS data and a ship manoeuvring simulator2021In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 235, article id 109396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents a methodology that uses AIS data and a ship manoeuvring simulator to simulate and analyse marine traffic schemes with regard to risks for accidents. An event identification method is presented, which is needed for the accident scenario part of the methodology. This is based on AIS data, where the Great Belt VTS area was used to verify the methodology. Three events that could result in ship-bridge allisions were modelled and simulated in the simulator: drifting ship, sharp turning ship and miss of turning point. The Monte Carlo method was used to perform large number of simulator runs, including a parameter sensitivity analysis. The probability of a ship allision against the Great Belt Bridge was calculated to be 0.007. Analysis of the ship-bridge allision cases was shown to be dominated by the event drifting ship. This event has a relatively low kinetic energy at the impact, and the expected allision energy for a 1,000-year allision corresponds to a 178 m tanker with 57,870 DWT and ship speed 14.6 knots. Finally, this study presents a mitigation analysis, which shows how the probability of allisions can be reduced by reducing the ship speed or altering the traffic separation scheme. © 2021 The Authors

  • 7.
    Irannezhad, Mohsen
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bensow, Rickard E.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Eslamdoost, Arash
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Comprehensive computational analysis of the impact of regular head waves on ship bare hull performance2023In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 288, article id 116049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on investigating the impact of waves on ship hydrodynamic performance, enhancing our understanding of seakeeping characteristics and contributing to advanced ship and propeller design. It examines the resistance, motions, and nominal wake of the KVLCC2 bare hull, which is free to surge, heave, and pitch, in both calm water and regular head waves using a RANS approach. The research reveals a substantial dependency of the wake on grid resolution, particularly in calm water and shorter waves, while motions and resistance display a weaker dependency. The computed nominal wake is compared against towing tank SPIV measurements. Utilizing Fourier analyses and reconstructed time series, the study examines correlations among various factors influencing the bare hull’s performance in waves. The axial velocity component of the wake in waves demonstrates significant time variations, mainly driven by higher harmonic amplitudes. This dynamic wake is influenced by instantaneous propeller disk velocities due to hull motions, orbital wave velocities, boundary layer contraction/expansion, bilge vortex and shaft vortex dynamics. The wake distribution at the propeller plane not only differs significantly from the calm water wake in longer waves but also exhibits notably larger time-averaged values (up to 21%). 

  • 8.
    Irannezhad, Mohsen
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Eslamdoost, Arash
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Bensow, Rickard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Investigation of ship responses in regular head waves through a Fully Nonlinear Potential Flow approach2022In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 246, article id 110410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the hydrodynamic performance of a ship in terms of motions and resistance responses in calm water and in regular head waves is investigated for two loading conditions using a Fully Nonlinear Potential Flow (FNPF) panel method. The main focus is understanding the ship responses in a broad range of operational conditions. Comprehensive analyses of the motions and their correlation with the wave making resistance including their harmonics in waves are presented and compared against experimental data. The predicted motions compare well with experimental data but the resistance prediction is not quite as good. The natural frequencies for heave and pitch are estimated from a set of free decay motion simulations in calm water to provide a better insight into the ship behavior near resonance conditions in waves. Interestingly, in addition to the well known peak in the added wave resistance coefficient around wave lengths close to one ship length, a secondary peak is detected in the vicinity of wave lengths with half the ship length. © 2022 The Authors

  • 9.
    Irannezhad, Mohsen
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Bensow, Rickard E.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Eslamdoost, Arash
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Experimental and numerical investigations of propeller open water characteristics in calm water and regular head waves2024In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 302, article id 117703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Propeller Open Water (POW) performance of a non-ventilating and fully-submerged propeller in model-scale is investigated in calm water and regular head waves using experimental tests (EFD) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Laminar flow dominance is observed in calm water, particularly at higher advance ratios. Nevertheless, the findings in waves suggest increased turbulence, stemming from both the wave orbital velocities and the presumably increased turbulence level produced by the wave maker in the towing tank. Analysis of the CFD results obtained from the incident flow field and single-blade force and moment leads to the speculation that the observed discrepancies are associated with the inevitable asymmetric conditions and mechanical interference in the experiments which were absent in CFD. These can potentially alter the flow over the blades resulting in a different flow transition, separation, and coherent turbulent structure formation and hence forces and moments. The altered propeller performance in waves in comparison to calm water underlines the significance of waves on the propulsive factors and propeller design. © 2024 The Authors

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  • 10.
    Katsidoniotaki, Eirini
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Sweden.
    Shahroozi, Zahra
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Palm, Johannes
    Sigma Energy & Marine AB, Sweden.
    Engström, Jens
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Göteman, Malin
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Sweden.
    Validation of a CFD model for wave energy system dynamics in extreme waves2023In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 268, article id 113320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of wave energy converters should rely on numerical models that are able to estimate accurately the dynamics and loads in extreme wave conditions. A high-fidelity CFD model of a 1:30 scale point-absorber is developed and validated on experimental data. This work constitutes beyond the state-of-the-art validation study as the system is subjected to 50-year return period waves. Additionally, a new methodology that addresses the well-known challenge in CFD codes of mesh deformation is successfully applied and validated. The CFD model is evaluated in different conditions: wave-only, free decay, and wave–structure interaction. The results show that the extreme waves and the experimental setup of the wave energy converter are simulated within an accuracy of 2%. The developed high-fidelity model is able to capture the motion of the system and the force in the mooring line under extreme waves with satisfactory accuracy. The deviation between the numerical and corresponding experimental RAOs is lower than 7% for waves with smaller steepness. In higher waves, the deviation increases up to 10% due to the inevitable wave reflections and complex dynamics. The pitch motion presents a larger deviation, however, the pitch is of secondary importance for a point-absorber wave energy converter. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 11.
    Korkmaz, Kadir Burak
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Werner, Sofia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Bensow, Rickard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Investigations on experimental and computational trim optimisation methods2023In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 288, article id 116098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shipping is vital for global trade but also emits significant greenhouse gases. To address this issue, various measures have been proposed, including improved ship design, alternative fuels, and improved operational practices. One such cost-effective operational measure is trim optimisation, which involves operating the ship at the hydrodynamically optimal forward and aft draughts. This study focuses on investigating the trim trends of a RoPax vessel using experimental fluid dynamics (EFD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The trim trends are derived in resistance and self-propelled modes. Multiple CFD methods are examined, along with different extrapolation techniques for experimental results. Uncertainty assessment is conducted for the experimental data, and a verification and validation study is performed. Furthermore, the predictions are compared with real operational data. The findings reveal that determining trim trends solely in towed mode is inadequate due to the profound influence of the operating propeller. Some of the investigated CFD methods demonstrate good agreement with the model test results in self-propelled mode, while others exhibit limitations. By selecting appropriate models and configurations, this study demonstrates that trim trends can be determined with sufficient precision, as evidenced by the comparison between ship operational data and predictions from EFD and CFD methods. 

  • 12.
    Korkmaz, Kadir Burak
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Werner, Sofia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Bensow, Rickard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Scaling of wetted-transom resistance for improved full-scale ship performance predictions2022In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 266, article id 112590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining a ship's propulsive power is a critical stage in the design phase in which the evaluation of the stern plays a crucial role. Different flow regimes can be observed depending on the position and shape of the transom. This paper investigates the wetted-transom flow characteristics and their implications on the 1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Method. In the case of flow separation, such as the wetted-transom flow, the current ITTC-78 procedure does not provide an alternative method. Therefore, two alternative methods were proposed based on the investigations of CFD computations on seven hull forms. The firstly proposed method is a combined EFD&CFD method called the two form factor method. It requires CFD computations in model and full-scale, and it can handle any case of flow separation, including the wetted-transom flow. The second proposed method is an empirical correction formula for the hulls with a wetted-transom flow. Finally, the full-scale speed-power relations between the speed trials and the full-scale predictions from the two alternative methods and the standard ITTC-78 method were presented. It is observed that the two suggested methods considerably improve the correlation between the predictions and the speed trials. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 13.
    Korkmaz, Kadir Burak
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Werner, Sofia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Sakamoto, Nobuaki
    National Maritime Research Institute, Japan.
    Queutey, Patrick
    Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France.
    Deng, Ganbo
    Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France.
    Yuling, Gao
    Shanghai Ship and Shipping Research Institute, China.
    Guoxiang, Dong
    Shanghai Ship and Shipping Research Institute, China.
    Maki, Kevin
    University of Michigan, USA.
    Ye, Hauxian
    University of Michigan, USA.
    Akinturk, Ayhan
    Ocean Coastal and River Engineering, Canada.
    Sayeed, Tanvir
    Ocean Coastal and River Engineering, Canada.
    Hino, Takanori
    Yokohama National University, Japan.
    Zhao, Feng
    China Ship Scientific Research Centre, China.
    Tezdogan, Tahsin
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Demirel, Yigit
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Bensow, Rickard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    CFD based form factor determination method2021In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 220, article id 108451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1978 ITTC Power Prediction method is used to predict the propulsive power of ships through towing tank testing. The form factor approach and its determination in this method have been questioned. This paper investigates the possibility to improve the power predictions by introducing Combined CFD/EFD Method where the experimental determination of form factor is replaced by double body RANS computations applied for open cases KVLCC2 and KCS, including first-time published towing tank tests of KVLCC2 at ballast condition including an experimental uncertainty analysis specifically derived for the form factor. Computations from nine organisations and seven CFD codes are compared to the experiments. The form factor predictions for both hulls in design loading condition compared well with the experimental results in general. For the KVLCC2 ballast condition, majority of the form factors were under-predicted while staying within the experimental uncertainty. Speed dependency is observed with the application of ITTC57 line but it is reduced with the Katsui line and nearly eliminated by numerical friction lines. Comparison of the full-scale viscous resistance predictions obtained by the extrapolations from model scale and direct full-scale computations show that the Combined CFD/EFD Method show significantly less scatter and may thus be a preferred approach.

  • 14.
    Kuznecovs, Artjoms
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yamada, Yasuhira
    National Institute of Maritime, Japan.
    Ultimate limit state analysis of a double-hull tanker subjected to biaxial bending in intact and collision-damaged conditions2020In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 209, article id 107519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a comparison between nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) and the Smith method of Fujikubo et al. (2012). The objective was to compare the accuracy and computation effort of the two methods for a double-hull tanker under biaxial bending and various ship conditions: intact hull structure, collision-damaged hull structure, newly built condition, and ship hull aged due to corrosion. The results for the non-corroded and intact ship hull structures showed good agreement between FEA, the Smith method and IACS CSR-H for vertical bending loading conditions. For all other bending load combinations, FEA always gave lower ultimate bending moments than the Smith method. The differences between the two methods were larger for the corroded and damaged ship hull structure than for other conditions. Results from ultimate strength analyses of the collision-damaged hull structures showed that both methods captured the expected asymmetric ultimate strength response due to asymmetric damage. A residual strength index calculation showed that the reduction was larger for the FEA than for the Smith method. A procedure is proposed that combines results of a few FEAs with the advantages of the Smith method to generate accurate biaxial bending load interaction curves for different ship conditions. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd

  • 15.
    Lee, Jae-Hoon
    et al.
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Kim, Yonghwan
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Kim, Beom-Soo
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Gerhardt, Frederik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Comparative study on analysis methods for added resistance of four ships in head and oblique waves2021In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 236, article id 109552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparative study of wave-induced motion responses and the added resistance of a ship. Four representative types of ships are adopted as test models: LNG carrier, tanker, containership, and bulk carrier. Two experimental techniques—captive and free-running model tests—are conducted under regular head and oblique wave conditions to create benchmark data. Several numerical computation methods (asymptotic formula, 2D strip theory, 3D panel method, and CFD) are applied to perform the seakeeping analysis. The comparison results indicate that the accuracy and reliability of each analysis technique are validated, and its characteristics and limitations are investigated with respect to the physical aspects of the added resistance caused by a wave. The analysis results are compared based on how steady flow-induced coupling effects are considered. Further, the sensitivities of seakeeping quantities with respect to wave steepness were examined based on the results of linear and fully nonlinear computations. The overall tendency of the added resistance in accordance with the incident direction of a wave is discussed. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 16.
    Li, Da-Qing
    et al.
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Hallander, Jan
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Torbjörn
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Predicting underwater radiated noise of a full scale ship with model testing and numerical methods2018In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 161, p. 121-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full scale measurement, model testing and a hybrid CFD method were used to characterize the Underwater Radiated Noise (URN) of a ship at design speed. The CFD method consists of a multiphase Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation and the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings acoustic analogy. The paper discusses the correlation of the noise spectra with the observed cavitation behavior and compares the measured full scale data with those predicted by the model testing and the CFD method. The comparison shows that the sheet cavity and Tip Vortex Cavitation (TVC) predicted by the model testing are in reasonably good agreement with the full scale observations. The pressure pulses are somewhat higher than the full-scale data. Overall, the predicted URN has a good correlation with the noise spectra obtained from the sea trial. The CFD method shows the potential to resolve turbulence eddy structures in the wake. It captures the dynamic development of sheet cavitation and the collapse and rebound of TVC as observed in the model test and the sea trial, but under-predicts the extent of TVC. The pressure pulses and tonal noise are in close agreement with the respective measured data for the first five orders of blade passing frequency. The method underestimates the broadband noise level in the frequency range 50-112 Hz where the TVC is expected to have an important contribution. The maximum under-prediction in this range is about 28 dB at 72 Hz. At frequencies above 200 Hz, the broadband noise becomes more and more under-predicted with increasing frequency. 

  • 17.
    Li, Zhiyuan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mao, Wengang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Storhaug, Gaute
    Det Norske Veritas, Norway.
    A comparative study of fatigue assessments of container ship structures using various direct calculation approaches.2014In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 82, p. 65-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common practice today to carry out fatigue assessments of ship structures using direct calculation procedures to compute fatigue loads. Many numerical codes are available for use in such fatigue load analyses. In addition to the various degrees of computation complexity associated with fatigue estimation methods, such methods also have large inherent uncertainties. In this investigation, a comparative study was carried out for two container ships using various typical direct fatigue calculation methods. The fatigue damage amounts calculated using these methods were compared with those obtained from full-scale measurements. Most of the direct calculation approaches investigated yielded similar fatigue damage estimates. The approach that employs nonlinear time-domain hydrodynamic analysis and the finite element method yields reasonable and conservative fatigue damage results and is therefore recommended. In addition, the results of this study confirm that various measures of wave environments and of the variation in wave models are important sources of uncertainty in fatigue life prediction.

  • 18.
    Liefvendahl, Mattias
    et al.
    FOI, Sweden.
    Fureby, C.
    FOI, Sweden.
    Grid requirements for LES of ship hydrodynamics in model and full scale2017In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 143, p. 259-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A review is presented of estimates for the grid resolution requirements for wall-resolved and wall-modeled large-eddy simulation, of flows with an important influence of turbulent boundary layers. The estimates are described within a classification scheme which is formulated based on the grid resolution relative to the length scales of the turbulent boundary layer. The grid resolution estimates are then applied to discuss the computational cost of ship hull hydrodynamics simulations, both in model and in full scale. The hulls of one submarine and one bulk carrier are included in this discussion. Two simulation cases are included in the paper to demonstrate a complete simulation methodology, to illustrate the implications of the grid resolution estimates, and to investigate the resulting predictive accuracy. The first simulation case consists of fully developed turbulent channel flow, for which a comparison is made with direct numerical simulation results. The second simulation case consists of the flow around an axisymmetric body, which is based on a bare-hull version of a generic submarine model, and for which wind tunnel measurement data are available for validation.

  • 19.
    Malmek, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Werner, Sofia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bensow, Rickard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Finnsgård, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Rapid aerodynamic method for predicting the performance of interacting wing sails2024In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid performance prediction tools are required for the evaluation, optimization, and comparison of different wind propulsion systems (WPSs). These tools should capture viscous aerodynamic flow effects in 3D, particularly the maximum propulsion force, stall angles, and interaction effects between the lift-generating units. This paper presents a rapid aerodynamic calculation method for wing sails that combines a semi-empirical lifting line model with a potential flow-based interaction model to account for 3D interaction effects. The method was applied to a WPS that consisted of several wing sails with considerable interaction effects. The results were compared to CFD RANS simulations in 2D and in 3D. For the evaluated validation cases, the interaction model improved the prediction considerably compared to when the interaction was not accounted for. The method provided acceptable driving force, moments, and stall predictions, with negligible computational cost compared to 3D CFD simulations. 

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  • 20.
    Marimon Giovannetti, Laura
    et al.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Banks, J.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Ledri, M.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Turnock, S. R.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Boyd, S. W.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Toward the development of a hydrofoil tailored to passively reduce its lift response to fluid load2018In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 167, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this research is to explore the possibility of using Passive Adaptive Composite (PAC) on structures to help control the lift generated by hydrofoils on boats such as the International Moth. Introducing composite fibres oriented at off-principal axis angles, allow a foil to passively control its pitch angle to reduce the lift generated at higher boat speeds helping to achieve a stable flight in a wide range of weather conditions. PAC utilises the inherent flexibility of a composite structure to induce a twist response under bending load which could be used to minimise the use of active control systems, or even improve the dynamic response of foils in waves. However, to design flexible foils requires numerical and experimental tools to assess the complex fluid structure interactions involved. This paper evaluates a simplified hydrofoil geometry designed to reduce its lift coefficient with increased flow speed. A coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) methodology is presented to predict flexible foil performance. Validation of these numerical tools is achieved through the use of wind tunnel experiments including full field deformation measurements. Twist deformations resulted in a reduction in the effective angle of attack by approximately 30% at higher flow speeds reducing the foil lift and drag significantly

  • 21.
    Orych, Michal
    et al.
    FLOWTECH International AB, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Werner, Sofia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Larsson, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; ISYD AB International School of Yacht Design, Sweden.
    Roughness effect modelling for wall resolved RANS – Comparison of methods for marine hydrodynamics2022In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 266, article id 112778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with several aspects of surface roughness modelling in RANS codes applied to full-scale ship simulations. To select a method that is suitable for wall-resolved RANS solvers and gives reliable results at high Reynolds numbers, five different roughness models are compared. A grid uncertainty analysis is performed and the sensitivity to the grid resolution close to the wall (y+) is investigated. The results are compared to extrapolated results of experiments carried out with rough plates with various heights and roughness types. A correlation factor between the Average Hull Roughness and the equivalent sand roughness height is investigated, and a value of five is deemed the most suitable. The work suggests that the Aupoix-Colebrook roughness model gives the best results for full-scale ship simulations, at least with the current code, and that the near-wall grid resolution required for smooth surfaces can be applied also for the rough case. © 2022 The Authors

  • 22.
    Orych, Michal
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; FLOWTECH International AB, Sweden.
    Werner, Sofia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Larsson, Lars
    FLOWTECH International AB, Sweden.
    Validation of full-scale delivered power CFD simulations2021In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 238, article id 109654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Verification and Validation of CFD simulations of delivered power at full-scale are carried out for a single screw cargo vessel. Numerical simulations are performed with a steady-state RANS method coupled with a body force propeller model based on a lifting line theory. There are no significant differences in the uncertainty levels between model and full-scale computations. The finest grid exhibits the numerical uncertainty of 1.40% at full-scale. Computed results are compared with sea trial data for three sister ships. Special attention is paid to the effect of roughness on the hull and propeller. The comparison error for the delivered power is about 1% which is significantly lower than the experimental uncertainty. © 2021 The Authors

  • 23.
    Orych, Michal
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; FLOWTECH International AB, Sweden.
    Östberg, Magnus
    FLOWTECH International AB, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Werner, Sofia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Larsson, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; ISYD AB International School of Yacht Design, Sweden.
    Speed and delivered power in waves — Predictions with CFD simulations at full scale2023In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 285, article id 115289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient numerical method is proposed to estimate delivered power and speed loss for a ship in wind and waves. The added resistance in waves, obtained with an unsteady potential flow panel method, is added to the calm water resistance from a steady-state potential flow/RANS method coupled with a body force propeller model for self-propulsion. A comparison of numerical and experimental results is made for added resistance, calm water resistance and delivered power. A good agreement is obtained. As a practical application, the approach is used to calculate the weather factor, fw, of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The calculated weather factor is consistent with the values derived from full-scale measurements included in a database of similar ships. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 24.
    Park, D. -M
    et al.
    Seoul National University, South Korea; Korean Research Institute of Ship & Ocean Engineering, South Korea.
    Lee, J. -H
    Seoul National University, South Korea; .
    Jung, Y. -W
    Seoul National University, South Korea; .
    Lee, J.
    Seoul National University, South Korea; Korean Research Institute of Ship & Ocean Engineering, South Korea.
    Kim, Y.
    Seoul National University, South Korea; .
    Gerhardt, Frederik
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Experimental and numerical studies on added resistance of ship in oblique sea conditions2019In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 186, article id 106070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the added resistance of a large tanker is estimated experimentally and numerically in oblique sea. Experiments on ship motion response and added resistance in oblique sea are performed in the SSPA seakeeping basin. The experiments are conducted using the self-propulsion test for seven wave directions between 180° and 0°. In the self-propulsion test, the added resistance is estimated from the difference between the thrust of the propeller in calm water and waves. In the case of the head sea, the results are compared with those obtained from the captive test at the towing test of Seoul National University. As numerical method, two methods are selected: the strip method and the 3D Rankine panel method. The maximum value of the added resistance is observed between the incident wave directions of 180° and 150°. From 120°, the added resistance tends to decrease and the peak of the added resistance shifted to the short waves. Through the two numerical analysis methods, the tendency of added resistance and the cause of the change of the added resistance in the oblique sea are investigated.

  • 25.
    Persson, Adam
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Finnsgård, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    A time-domain model for unsteady upwind sail aerodynamics using the indicial response method2024In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 299, article id 117311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the design of sailing vessels, the use of Dynamic Velocity Prediction Programs is expanding, as naval architects start to consider the effects of waves and varying wind conditions in order to design faster, safer and more efficient vessels. Many models that predict the unsteady hydrodynamic response are available, but for sail aerodynamics, few models have been presented, and the quasi-steady assumption is instead commonly used. The aim of this paper is to develop a time-domain model for unsteady sail aerodynamics that can handle arbitrary motions and requires only limited input. The proposed model is based on the Indicial Response Method, with specific adaptations to handle the additional complexity of sail aerodynamics. The model’s predictive performance is evaluated against URANS CFD results for several cases of increasing complexity. This includes a 3D upwind sail plan subjected to pitching motion, where comparisons are also made with the common quasi-steady (Q-S) assumption. Compared to this, the proposed model delivers significantly better predictions for the amplitude of lift, thrust and sideforce. However, the drag amplitude is over-predicted by the model, and as a result, there is a significant misprediction of thrust phase. While there is a need to improve the prediction of unsteady drag, this paper shows that the model represents a significant improvement over the Q-S assumption, for unsteady performance prediction on timescales shorter than the wave period.

  • 26.
    Yang, S-H
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wave energy converters in array configurations—Influence of interaction effects on the power performance and fatigue of mooring lines2020In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 211, article id 107294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an array system of wave energy converters (WECs), hydrodynamic interactions between the WECs occur through the absorption, radiation, and diffraction of waves. The main objective of this study was to analyse the hydrodynamic interactions between floating point-absorbing WECs and the influence of this interaction on the power performance and fatigue life of the WECs’ mooring lines. The hydrodynamic and structural response of the WEC systems were analysed primarily using potential flow theory, the Morison equation, and continuum mechanics theory. Four 2-WEC models and two 10-WEC models, among which different separating distances and mooring configurations were considered, were investigated. The models were simulated for various environmental loading conditions. The results from each simulation were evaluated in terms of the power performance of each WEC, accumulated fatigue damage in each mooring line, and the levelised cost of energy (LCoE). The hydrodynamic interactions show a larger impact on the 10-WEC simulation models. To account for the hydrodynamic interactions in the simulations using the 10-WEC models, the fatigue damage in the mooring lines is varied at an average of 15% and a maximum of an order of magnitude difference. A similar comparison of power performance showed an approximate difference in the results of 10%. The LCoE calculation of the 10-WEC array system showed LCoE values that range from −40% to +200% relative to the simulations that did not consider the hydrodynamic interaction effects. Comparatively, the LCoE calculation of the 2-WEC model either decreased by 17% or increased by 23% when the hydrodynamic interaction was included in the simulation model.

  • 27.
    Yang, Shun-Hang
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hu, ZhiQiang
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Palm, Johannes
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A comparison of coupled and de-coupled simulation procedures for the fatigue analysis of wave energy converter mooring lines2016In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 117, p. 332-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mooring systems for floating wave energy converters (WECs) must be designed to survive the cyclical loads and motions to which they are subjected as a result of the wave load-WEC interaction and the motions of the WEC in the random elevation of the sea surface. The current study compares simulation procedures for the fatigue analysis of WEC moorings. The objective is to suggest a simulation procedure suitable for an extensive study of the behaviour of WEC systems and thus for the fatigue analysis of mooring lines. A cylindrical, floating WEC with four spread mooring lines is chosen as case study. The dynamics of the WEC system are simulated and analysed using both coupled and de-coupled models in the time-domain. Four types of simulation procedures are compared using commercial software, DNV DeepC, and an in-house solver, MooDy. A systematic fatigue response analysis based on variations of the numerical and physical parameters is conducted. The results are compared with respect to the fatigue damage calculated using the stress-based approach and the rainflow counting method. The simulation procedure using a coupled model is suggested as the preferred numerical method for capturing the interaction between the components of WEC system, which is proven to be crucial for the fatigue damage evaluation of mooring lines.

1 - 27 of 27
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