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  • 1.
    Arm, Maria
    et al.
    SGI Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Pascal, Suer
    SGI Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Technical environmental long-term properties of industrial residues: summary of field and laboratory investigations2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 101-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, use of industrial residues is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. A three-year research project was therefore initiated aiming to (1) identify the crucial processes of ageing related to the usefulness of residues in roads; (2) investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the residues, and (3) propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict the long-term properties. This paper gives an overview of the project methodology, a summary of the test results and references to papers where further details are given. The project, running through 2006-2008, compared naturally aged samples of two residues used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh residues from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterised in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The results showed that: - Bottom ash from the pavement edge was more aged than bottom ash from the road centre. However, no difference in pH was found, instead the differences were caused by differences in water exposure. - Steel slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas slag from the road centre was identical to fresh slag. - Water exposure to the subbase materials after ten years in an asphalt paved road was calculated to less than 0.1–0.5 litres per kg. - Ageing reactions in steel slag and MSWI bottom ash, ready for use, were too small to be verified by laboratory measurement of deformation properties under loaded conditions. An accelerated ageing test for steel slag was set up to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. An accelerated ageing test for bottom ash was set up to achieve the pozzolan reactions that were observed in SEM analyses of in situ specimens. It is recommended to use uncrushed particles when properties of aged material are studied, in order to preserve the original particle surfaces.

  • 2.
    Blomqvist, Evalena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Förbrännings- och aerosolteknik.
    Bäfver, Linda
    Jones, Frida
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Förbrännings- och aerosolteknik.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Förbrännings- och aerosolteknik.
    Sulfur recirculation for increased electricity production in Waste-to-Energy plants2014In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 67-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Jones, Frida
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Förbrännings- och aerosolteknik.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Lindberg, Daniel K
    Hupa, Mikko
    The presence of zinc in Swedish waste fuels2013In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 2675-2679Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Technical and environmental long-term properties of industrial residues - of field and laboratory investigations2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 101-107Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Möller, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment2013In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 915-922Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Reinelt, Torsten
    et al.
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Delre, Antonio
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Westerkamp, Tanja
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Liebetrau, Jan
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Scheutz, Charlotte
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Comparative use of different emission measurement approaches to determine methane emissions from a biogas plant2017In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 68, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable anaerobic biowaste treatment has to mitigate methane emissions from the entire biogas production chain, but the exact quantification of these emissions remains a challenge. This study presents a comparative measurement campaign carried out with on-site and ground-based remote sensing measurement approaches conducted by six measuring teams at a Swedish biowaste treatment plant. The measured emissions showed high variations, amongst others caused by different periods of measurement performance in connection with varying operational states of the plant. The overall methane emissions measured by ground-based remote sensing varied from 5 to 25 kg h−1 (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6–3.0% of upgraded methane produced), depending on operating conditions and the measurement method applied. Overall methane emissions measured by the on-site measuring approaches varied between 5 and 17 kg h−1 (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6 and 2.1%) from team to team, depending on the number of measured emission points, operational state during the measurements and the measurement method applied. Taking the operational conditions into account, the deviation between different approaches and teams could be explained, in that the two largest methane-emitting sources, contributing about 90% of the entire site’s emissions, were found to be the open digestate storage tank and a pressure release valve on the compressor station.

  • 7.
    Westerholm, M.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    del Pilar Castillo, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Chan Andersson, A.
    Sundets Biogas, Sweden.
    Jahre Nilsen, P.
    Cambi Group, Norway.
    Schnürer, A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Effects of thermal hydrolytic pre-treatment on biogas process efficiency and microbial community structure in industrial- and laboratory-scale digesters2019In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 95, p. 150-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the impact of thermal hydrolysis process (THP) pre-treatment on anaerobic co-digestion of wastewater sludge and household waste and assessed whether THP was vital to achieve higher process capacity. Performance data were collected for both industrial- and laboratory-scale digesters and response in microbial community structure was evaluated by Illumina sequencing. Implementation of THP at the industrial-scale plant increased methane yield by 15% and enhanced substrate degradability. Possibility to extend the sludge retention time due to a higher solid content of the substrate, sanitisation of the digestate and improved fertiliser quality of the digestate were other industrial-scale benefits of THP installation. Continuously-fed laboratory-scale digesters were fed THP-treated or untreated substrate at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5 g volatile solid (VS)/L/day, a feeding rate necessary at the corresponding industrial-scale plant to meet the estimated population increase within the municipality. The results indicated that the plant could have increased the capacity with unimpaired stability independently of THP installation, even though the retention time was significantly shortened during operation with untreated substrate. Microbial community analyses revealed increased contribution of the Clostridia class after THP installation in industrial-scale digesters and positive correlation between Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes and methane yield in all digesters. Differentiated profiles in laboratory-scale digesters indicated that a temperature increase from 37 to 42 °C in association with THP installation and altered substrate composition were strong determining factors shaping the microbial community. Overall, these findings can assist industrial-scale plants in choosing management strategies aimed at improving the efficiency of anaerobic digestion processes.

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