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  • 1.
    Andersson, Sven R.
    et al.
    Götaverken Miljö AB, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Evalena W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Förbrännings- och aerosolteknik.
    Bäfver, Linda S.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Pöyry SwedPower AB, Sweden.
    Jones, Frida
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Förbrännings- och aerosolteknik.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Förbrännings- och aerosolteknik.
    Froitzheim, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Götaverken Miljö AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Liske, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sulfur recirculation for increased electricity production in Waste-to-Energy plants2014In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 67-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. It was demonstrated in full-scale tests at a Waste to Energy plant in Göteborg (Sweden) during nearly two months of operation. Sulfur was recirculated as sulfuric acid from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, thus creating a sulfur loop.The new technology was evaluated by extensive measurement campaigns during operation under normal conditions (reference case) and operation with sulfur recirculation. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulfur content increased during the sulfur recirculation tests. The deposit growth and the particle concentration decreased with sulfur recirculation and the dioxin concentration (I-TEQ) of the flue gas was reduced by approximately 25%. Sulfuric acid dew point measurements showed that the sulfuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO3 concentrations, which may otherwise induce low temperature corrosion.In the sulfur recirculation corrosion probe exposures, the corrosion rate decreased for all tested materials (16Mo3, Sanicro 28 and Inconel 625) and material temperatures (450. °C and 525. °C) compared to the reference exposure. The corrosion rates were reduced by 60-90%. Sulfur recirculation prevented the formation of transition metal chlorides at the metal/oxide interface, formation of chromate and reduced the presence of zinc in the corrosion products. Furthermore, measured corrosion rates at 525. °C with sulfur recirculation in operation were similar or lower compared to those measured at 450. °C material temperature in reference conditions, which corresponds to normal operation at normal steam temperatures. This implies that sulfur recirculation allows for higher steam data and electricity production without increasing corrosion.

  • 2.
    Arm, Maria
    et al.
    SGI Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Pascal, Suer
    SGI Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Technical environmental long-term properties of industrial residues: summary of field and laboratory investigations2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 101-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, use of industrial residues is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. A three-year research project was therefore initiated aiming to (1) identify the crucial processes of ageing related to the usefulness of residues in roads; (2) investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the residues, and (3) propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict the long-term properties. This paper gives an overview of the project methodology, a summary of the test results and references to papers where further details are given. The project, running through 2006-2008, compared naturally aged samples of two residues used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh residues from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterised in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The results showed that: - Bottom ash from the pavement edge was more aged than bottom ash from the road centre. However, no difference in pH was found, instead the differences were caused by differences in water exposure. - Steel slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas slag from the road centre was identical to fresh slag. - Water exposure to the subbase materials after ten years in an asphalt paved road was calculated to less than 0.1–0.5 litres per kg. - Ageing reactions in steel slag and MSWI bottom ash, ready for use, were too small to be verified by laboratory measurement of deformation properties under loaded conditions. An accelerated ageing test for steel slag was set up to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. An accelerated ageing test for bottom ash was set up to achieve the pozzolan reactions that were observed in SEM analyses of in situ specimens. It is recommended to use uncrushed particles when properties of aged material are studied, in order to preserve the original particle surfaces.

  • 3.
    Benavente, Verónica
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. Umeå university, Sweden.
    Pérez, Carla
    Umeå university, Sweden.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå university, Sweden.
    Co-hydrothermal carbonization of microalgae and digested sewage sludge: Assessing the impact of mixing ratios on the composition of primary and secondary char2024In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 174, p. 429-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of microalgae cultivation in wastewater treatment and reclamation has been studied extensively, as has the potential utility of the resulting algal biomass. Most methods for processing such biomass generate solid residues that must be properly managed to comply with current sustainable resource utilization requirements. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) can be used to process both individual wet feedstocks and mixed feedstocks (i.e., co-HTC). Here, we investigate co-HTC using microalgae and digested sewage sludge as feedstocks. The objectives were to (i) study the material’s partitioning into solid and liquid products, and (ii) characterize the products’ physicochemical properties. Co-HTC experiments were conducted at 180–250°C using mixed microalgae/sewage sludge feedstocks with the proportion of sewage sludge ranging from 0 to 100 %. Analyses of the hydrochar composition and the formation and composition of secondary char revealed that the content of carbonized material in the product decreased as the proportion of sewage sludge in the feedstock increased under fixed carbonization conditions. The properties of the hydrochars and the partitioning of material between the liquid phase and the hydrochar correlated linearly with the proportion of microalgae in mixed feedstocks, indicating that adding sewage sludge to microalgae had weak or non-existent synergistic effects on co-HTC outcomes. However, the proportion of sewage sludge in the feedstock did affect the secondary char. For example, adding sewage sludge reduced the abundance of carboxylic acids and ketones as well as the concentrations of higher molecular weight cholesterols. Such changes may alter the viable applications of the hydrochar. 

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  • 4.
    Fahimi, A.
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Bilo, F.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Assi, A.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Dalipi, R.
    bIstituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna, Italy.
    Federici, S.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Guedes, A.
    Universidade do Porto, Portugal.
    Valentim, B.
    Universidade do Porto, Portugal.
    Olgun, H.
    Ege Üniversitesi Güneş Enerjisi Enstitüsü, Turkey.
    Ye, Guozhu
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bialecka, B.
    Central Mining Institute, Poland.
    Fiameni, L.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Borgese, L.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Cathelineau, M.
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Boiron, M. -C
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Predeanu, G.
    University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania.
    Bontempi, E.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Poultry litter ash characterisation and recovery2020In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 111, p. 10-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a complete characterisation of poultry litter ash and its potential use as a heavy metal stabiliser. We propose a novel approach, in which the ashes deriving from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are combined with poultry litter ash, rather than with coal combustion flue gas desulfurisation (FGD) residues. Heavy metals stabilisation was demonstrated by comparing the elemental concentrations in the leaching solutions of the starting raw and stabilised materials: leachable Pb and Zn showed a reduced solubility. The characterisation was conducted by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). The results showed that the poultry litter ash was Ca-, P-, K- and S-rich (>29 g/kg). It contained amorphous materials (i.e. fly ash economiser (FAECO) 73% and fly ash cyclone (FACYC) 61%) and soluble phases (e.g. arkanite and sylvite; up to 13% FAECO and 28% FACYC), as well as resilient crystalline (up to 2% of FAECO and FACYC) and amorphous phases (e.g. hydroxyapatite). After two months, the Pb and Zn concentrations in the leachate solutions were below the limit set by the European regulations for waste disposal (<0.2 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L, respectively). We propose a mechanism for the heavy metals stabilisation based on the carbonation process and high amounts of P, Ca and reactive amorphous phases. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that poultry litter ash can be an effective secondary source of heavy metals, allowing their immobilisation through P- and Ca-based reactive amorphous phases.

  • 5.
    Guo, Zengwei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Tam, Pui
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nanostructured micro particles as a low-cost and sustainable catalyst in the recycling of PET fiber waste by the glycolysis method2021In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 126, p. 559-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic Mg-Al-O@Fe3O4 micro particles were synthesized by coating nanosized Mg-Al double oxides onto Fe3O4 micro particles. The formed hierarchical structure gave Mg-Al-O@Fe3O4 micro particles a high active surface area, which enabled these micro particles to work efficiently as a catalyst in the glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The bis(hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) yield reached above 80 mol% in the presence of 0.5 wt% of Mg-Al-O@Fe3O4 micro catalyst in the reaction system within 90 min at 240 °C. After the reaction, Mg-Al-O@Fe3O4 micro catalyst was easily retrieved by a magnetic decantation and can be repetitively used for two times with a high catalytic efficiency. After that, the deactivated Mg-Al-O@Fe3O4 micro catalyst can be regenerated by heat treatment. The regenerated Mg-Al-O@Fe3O4 micro catalyst displays a comparable catalytic performance as that of the virgin catalyst. In addition, the Mg-Al double oxides and Fe3O4 micro particles are low-cost and environmentally benign. Therefore, the Mg-Al-O@Fe3O4 micro catalyst may contribute to an economically and environmentally improved large-scale circular recycling of PET fiber waste. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 6.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Safety at waste and recycling industry: Detection and mitigation of waste fire accidents2022In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 141, p. 271-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, NASA’s VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) fire hotspots and data of the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB), collected between 2012 and 2018, was integrated to characterize waste fire incidents that were detected by VIIRS and reported to MSB (DaR), detected by VIIRS but not reported to MSB (DbNR) and that are reported to MSB but not detected by VIIRS (RbND). Results show that the average number of open waste fire incidents per million capita per year (AFIPMC) in Sweden, for the period 2012–2018, ranges from 2.4 to 4.7. Although a weak correlation exists (r = 0.44, P = 0.1563, one tailed) between years and number of fire incidents (MSB + VIIRS fires), a continuous increase in number of fire incidents was recorded between 2014 and 2018. It is concluded that the use of satellite data of fire anomalies, in-combination with the use of incident reports, will help in formalizing more reliable and comprehensive waste fire statistics. Another focus area of the article is to consolidate the recommendations and routines for safe storage of waste and biofuels and to present the lessons that can be learnt from past fire incidents. The article also discusses the technical, political, economic, social, and practical aspects of waste fires and provide a baseline for future research and experimentation.

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  • 7.
    Jones, Frida
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Förbrännings- och aerosolteknik.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Lindberg, Daniel K
    Hupa, Mikko
    The presence of zinc in Swedish waste fuels2013In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 2675-2679Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Jones, Frida C.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu AB, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Hupa, Mikko
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    The presence of zinc in Swedish waste fuels2013In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 2675-2679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc (Zn) is a chemical element that has gained more attention lately owing to its possibility to form corrosive deposits in large boilers, such as Waste-to-Energy plants. Zn enters the boilers in many different forms and particularly in waste, the amount of Zn is hard to determine due to both the heterogeneity of waste in general but also due to the fact that little is yet published specifically about the Zn levels in waste. This study aimed to determine the Zn in Swedish waste fuels by taking regular samples from seven different and geographically separate waste combustion plants over a 12-month period. The analysis shows that there is a relation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) content and the Zn-content; high MSW-content gives lower Zn-content. This means that waste combustion plants with a higher share of industrial and commercial waste and/or building and demolition waste would have a higher share of Zn in the fuel. The study also shows that in Sweden, the geographic location of the plant does not have any effect on the Zn-content. Furthermore, it is concluded that different seasons appear not to affect the Zn concentrations significantly. In some plants there was a clear correlation between the Zn-content and the content of other trace metals.

  • 9.
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Technical and environmental long-term properties of industrial residues - of field and laboratory investigations2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 101-107Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Möller, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment2013In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 915-922Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Reinelt, Torsten
    et al.
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Delre, Antonio
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Westerkamp, Tanja
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Liebetrau, Jan
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Scheutz, Charlotte
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Comparative use of different emission measurement approaches to determine methane emissions from a biogas plant2017In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 68, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable anaerobic biowaste treatment has to mitigate methane emissions from the entire biogas production chain, but the exact quantification of these emissions remains a challenge. This study presents a comparative measurement campaign carried out with on-site and ground-based remote sensing measurement approaches conducted by six measuring teams at a Swedish biowaste treatment plant. The measured emissions showed high variations, amongst others caused by different periods of measurement performance in connection with varying operational states of the plant. The overall methane emissions measured by ground-based remote sensing varied from 5 to 25 kg h−1 (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6–3.0% of upgraded methane produced), depending on operating conditions and the measurement method applied. Overall methane emissions measured by the on-site measuring approaches varied between 5 and 17 kg h−1 (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6 and 2.1%) from team to team, depending on the number of measured emission points, operational state during the measurements and the measurement method applied. Taking the operational conditions into account, the deviation between different approaches and teams could be explained, in that the two largest methane-emitting sources, contributing about 90% of the entire site’s emissions, were found to be the open digestate storage tank and a pressure release valve on the compressor station.

  • 12.
    Wechselberger, Viktoria
    et al.
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Reinelt, Torsten
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Yngvesson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Scharfy, Deborah
    Genossenschaft Ökostrom Schweiz, Switzerland.
    Scheutz, Charlotte
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Huber-Humer, Marion
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Hrad, Marlies
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Methane losses from different biogas plant technologies2023In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 157, p. 110-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas and biomethane production can play an important role in a fossil-fuel-free energy supply, provided that process-related methane (CH4) losses are minimized. Addressing the lack of representative emission data, this study aims to provide component specific CH4 emission factors (EFs) for various biogas plant technologies, enabling more accurate emission estimates for the biogas sector and supporting the identification of low emission technologies. Four measurement teams investigated 33 biogas plants in Austria, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland including mainly agricultural and biowaste treating facilities. For the first time, a harmonized measurement procedure was used to systematically survey individual on-site emission sources and leakages. Measurements revealed a large variability in technology specific emissions, especially for biogas utilization and upgrading. Median loss from combined heat and power (CHP) plants was 1.6 % for gas engines (n = 21), and 3.0 % for pilot injection units (n = 3) of the input CH4. Biogas upgrading units showed median CH4 slips of &lt; 0.1 % (chemical scrubbers, n = 4), 0.1 % (after exhaust gas treatment, n = 3) and 2.9 % (water scrubbers, n = 2). Not-gastight digestate storage (n = 8) was identified as a major emission source with maximum 5.6 % of the produced CH4 emitted. Individual leakages (n = 37) released between 0.0 and 2.1 % (median 0.1 %) relative to the CH4 production. All measurement and secondary data are provided in a harmonized dataset (294 datapoints). A review of IPCC default EFs indicate an underestimation of emissions from biogas utilization (reported in the energy sector) while the impact of leakages on overall plant emissions (waste sector) may be overestimated for European biogas plants. © 2022 The Authors

  • 13.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Celebi, Mustafa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    van der Vlist, Klaas
    Smurfit Kappa Group, Netherlands.
    Moradian, Farzad
    Stena Recycling International AB, Sweden.
    Aspects of chemical recycling of complex plastic waste via the gasification route2021In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 126, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxygen blown high-temperature gasification constitutes an opportunity for chemical recycling of plastic wastes. This article summarizes the results from comparative tests of combustion and gasification of two complex plastic wastes: a plastic reject (PR) from processing recycled paper and an automotive shredder residue (ASR). Calculated gasification efficiencies corresponded to about 80% and 60%, respectively. Gasification resulted in lower yields of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) compared to direct combustion. A two-stage process, including gasification followed by syngas combustion, reduced the emissions of HCl and PCDD/F in the flue gas to <1.4% and <0.2%, respectively, compared to the levels from direct combustion of the PR feedstock. Most of the PCDD/F (>99%) was captured along with particulate matter (soot) during gasification. The contribution to the toxic concentration of PCDD/F was mainly from the PCDF congeners. Fly ash particulate matter from ASR combustion contained a significant proportion of zinc, which thus constitutes a great potential for use in zinc recycling. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

  • 14.
    Westerholm, M.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    del Pilar Castillo, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Chan Andersson, A.
    Sundets Biogas, Sweden.
    Jahre Nilsen, P.
    Cambi Group, Norway.
    Schnürer, A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Effects of thermal hydrolytic pre-treatment on biogas process efficiency and microbial community structure in industrial- and laboratory-scale digesters2019In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 95, p. 150-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the impact of thermal hydrolysis process (THP) pre-treatment on anaerobic co-digestion of wastewater sludge and household waste and assessed whether THP was vital to achieve higher process capacity. Performance data were collected for both industrial- and laboratory-scale digesters and response in microbial community structure was evaluated by Illumina sequencing. Implementation of THP at the industrial-scale plant increased methane yield by 15% and enhanced substrate degradability. Possibility to extend the sludge retention time due to a higher solid content of the substrate, sanitisation of the digestate and improved fertiliser quality of the digestate were other industrial-scale benefits of THP installation. Continuously-fed laboratory-scale digesters were fed THP-treated or untreated substrate at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5 g volatile solid (VS)/L/day, a feeding rate necessary at the corresponding industrial-scale plant to meet the estimated population increase within the municipality. The results indicated that the plant could have increased the capacity with unimpaired stability independently of THP installation, even though the retention time was significantly shortened during operation with untreated substrate. Microbial community analyses revealed increased contribution of the Clostridia class after THP installation in industrial-scale digesters and positive correlation between Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes and methane yield in all digesters. Differentiated profiles in laboratory-scale digesters indicated that a temperature increase from 37 to 42 °C in association with THP installation and altered substrate composition were strong determining factors shaping the microbial community. Overall, these findings can assist industrial-scale plants in choosing management strategies aimed at improving the efficiency of anaerobic digestion processes.

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