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  • 1.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Eide, Merete Høgaas
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lundqvist, U.
    Mattsson, Berit
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The feasibility of including sustainability in LCA for product development1998Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 6, nr 42067, s. 289-298Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of combining the concept of sustainability principles and the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is examined. The goal is to achieve an operational tool that incorporates sustainability in product development and strategic planning. While the method outlined has the structure of LCA, it emphasises aspects and parameters often omitted from traditional LCA. The analysis and results can be either qualitative or semi-quantitative. Although a qualitative analysis is less time consuming, it can still highlight the important issues. Qualitative information, which is easily lost in a quantitative analysis, can be emphasised. One of the conclusions is that the method is well suited for screening analysis. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ohlsson, Thomas
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Olsson, P.
    Screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of tomato ketchup: A case study1998Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 6, nr 42067, s. 277-288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of tomato ketchup has been carried out. The purpose was to identify 'hot-spots', that is parts of the life-cycle that are important to the total environmental impact. The system investigated includes agricultural production, industrial refining, packaging, transportation, consumption and waste management. Energy use and emissions were quantified and some of the potential environmental effects assessed. Packaging and food processing were found to be hot-spots for many, but not all, of the impact categories investigated. For primary energy use, the storage time in a refrigerator (household phase) was found to be a critical parameter. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, Ilona E.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Rohm, Harald
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bossle, Marilia B.
    Unisinos Business School, Brazil.
    Grønhøj, Alice
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Key characteristics and success factors of supply chain initiatives tackling consumer-related food waste – A multiple case study2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 155, s. 33-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste accounts for a considerable share of the environmental impact of the food sector. Therefore, strategies that aim to reduce food waste have great potential to improve sustainability of the agricultural and food supply chains. Consumer-related food waste is a complex issue that needs collaboration between various supply chain actors and sector stakeholders. Although a range of initiatives from various actors already exists internationally, there is still a lack of knowledge on which lessons can be derived from such cases. The current multiple case study provides insights into how to successfully design future actions, by analysing common and distinct key success factors in 26 existing initiatives to reduce consumer-related food waste. The findings reveal that collaboration between stakeholders, timing and sequence of initiatives, competencies that the initiative is built on, and a large scale of operations are key success factors. Success factors are identified for the primary design, for the development and maintenance phase, and for reaching out to consumers. There are three general types of initiatives that differ in their aims and characteristics: information and capacity building, redistribution, and retail and supply chain alteration. The first type focuses most strongly on motivating consumer food waste avoidance behaviour and strengthening consumer abilities, while the second and third focus primarily on altering consumer food choice context, but combine this with aspects of raising awareness. Recommendations are derived for future initiatives which should take inspiration from existing initiatives, especially considering the right partners, competencies involved, timing the start of the initiative right, and aim to soon achieve a large scale.

  • 4.
    Berlin, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Minimising environmental impact by sequencing cultured dairy products: two case studies2008Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 483-498Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased production of cultured milk products has environmental consequences. To counteract the environmental impact from the dairy industry, it is important to process the products in a sequence designed to minimise waste. In a previous study a model was constructed to minimise the waste caused by a sequence for a given set of products and to calculate the environmental impact of a waste minimised sequence. This study applies successfully the model in case studies at two dairies. The number of products to be sequenced varied: Dairy A had 34 products and Dairy B had 16. The sequenced products were yoghurt, sour cream, cold sauce and crème fraiche, all with multiple flavours. The difference in number of products to be sequenced offered the opportunity to use both of the two model sequencing solutions: the heuristic and the optimised. The role of frequency of each product to be sequenced was investigated. Scenarios with differing frequencies were used in the case studies. The result showed clearly that the waste caused by a sequence decreased when product frequency was reduced. From a life cycle perspective, the environmental impact of processing cultured milk products can be greatly reduced by adopting sequences with fewer changes of product. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Berlin, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tillman, A.-M.
    A life cycle based method to minimise environmental impact of dairy production through product sequencing2006Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 347-356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend of increasing the number of dairy products for sale affects their environmental impact in a life cycle perspective. During dairy processing, the production schedule is affected by more frequent product changes, hence also cleaning operations. This causes more milk waste, use of cleaning agents and water. The amount of milk waste depends on the product change technique used, which is determined by the characteristics of the product. A method was designed to calculate the sequence, which, for a given set of yoghurt products, minimises milk waste. A heuristic method, based on the strive to minimise production waste combined with production rules, was worked out. To determine whether the heuristic solution gives the best possible sequence from an environmental perspective, an optimisation was also made. The analytical method used for optimisation was able to handle 21 products and verified the heuristic method for a waste minimised sequence up to that level. It is also highly probable that for sequences including a greater number of items waste can be minimised with the same heuristic method. A successful demonstration of the possibility to make a more complete environmental assessment was fulfilled by connecting the sequencing model to conventional life cycle assessment methodology. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Blomsma, Fenna
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Pieroni, Marina
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Kravchenko, Mariia
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Pigosso, Daniela
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hildenbrand, Jutta
    Kristinsdottir, Anna Runa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Kristoffersen, Eivind
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Shabazi, Sasha
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Nielsen, Kjartan
    Innovation Center Iceland, Iceland.
    Jönbrink, Anna Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Li, Jingyue
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Wiik, Carina
    Technology Industries of Finland, Finland.
    McAloone, Yim
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Developing a circular strategies framework for manufacturing companies to support circular economy-oriented innovation2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 241, artikkel-id 118271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper puts forward the Circular Strategies Scanner: a framework that introduces a taxonomy of circular strategies developed for use by manufacturing companies engaging in circular economy (CE) oriented innovation. Currently, a range of frameworks exists that propose a vision for how to operate in a CE, by identifying and organising relevant circular strategies. However, these frameworks have a limited applicability for specific business types, in particular manufacturing, and are unsuitable for use in CE oriented innovation, due to a lacking ability to support innovation processes through: 1) creating a comprehensive understanding of circular strategies, 2) mapping strategies currently applied and 3) finding opportunities for improved circularity across a range of business processes. This paper addresses these shortcomings by proposing a circular strategies framework for the manufacturing context, titled the Circular Strategies Scanner, which provides a comprehensive set of definitions of circular strategies and directly supports the early stages of CE oriented innovation. With this, the paper contributes to the body of work that develops CE transition methodology.

  • 7.
    Brodin, Malin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, PFI.
    Vallejos, Maria
    Instituto de Materiales de Misiones (IMAM), Argentina.
    Opedal, Mihaela Tanase
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, PFI.
    Area, Maria C.
    Instituto de Materiales de Misiones (IMAM), Argentina.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, PFI.
    Lignocellulosics as sustainable resources for production of bioplastics: a review2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 162, s. 646-664Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The bio-based economy requires a sustainable utilization of bioresources for production of a range of products, including pulp, paper, chemicals, biofuel and bioplastics. Currently, various types of bioplastics are produced industrially, competing in performance and price with the conventional fossil-oil based plastics. However, there is also a major interest in utilizing non-food crops, such as lignocellulosics, for production of drop-in polymers or new dedicated bioplastics. Lignocellulosic resources have a potential to replace plastics and materials, which have been traditionally based on fossil resources. This is important, as the development of high performance bio-based and renewable materials is one important factor for sustainable growth of the bio-based industry. However, production of bioplastics from forestry biomass requires a dedicated fractionation into the major components, i.e. cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, effective purification processes and cost-effective routes for conversion into monomers and platform molecules, utilized as a basis for bioplastics production. These processes are now technologically demanding and not profitable. The intention of this work was thus to review the current advances that have been made during the years within fractionation and purification of lignocelluloses and the processes that may feasible for production of bioplastics, based on wood components.

  • 8.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Carlsson, Erica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    The future of Swedish food waste: An environmental assessment of existing and prospective valorization techniques2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 202, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the current dominant valorization of food waste is the production of biogas. However, as current production has low profitability, other options are sought to find more valuable uses of food waste, e.g. as the feedstock for bio-based chemicals. One example is the use of food waste in the production of bio-based succinic acid. In this paper, a LCA study is presented in order to highlight whether biogas production or the production of succinic acid has the lowest environmental impact as valorization option for mixed food waste, and if mixed food waste could be an environmentally preferable feedstock to succinic acid production. The LCA study shows that the environmental results depend on the perspective. From a valorization perspective, food waste has the lowest environmental impact the biogas production. From a feedstock perspective, mixed food waste is an environmentally preferable feedstock to succinic acid production. Although many uncertainties exist because production processes are still being developed, it can be concluded that mixed food waste seems to be a promising feedstock for bio-based chemicals from an environmental point of view, and is of interest to be included in future assessments of bio-based chemicals for the emerging bio-economy. © 2018

  • 9.
    Cederberg, Christel
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mattsson, Berit
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Life cycle assessment of milk production: A comparison of conventional and organic farming2000Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 49-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An LCA was performed on organic and conventional milk production at the farm level in Sweden. In the study, special focus was aimed at substance flows in concentrate feed production and nutrient flows on the farms. The different feeding strategies in the two forms of production, influence several impact categories. The import of feed by conventional dairy farms often leads to a substantial input of phosphorus and nitrogen. Organic milk production is a way to reduce pesticide use and mineral surplus in agriculture but this production form also requires substantially more farmland than conventional production. For Swedish conditions, however, a large use of grassland for grazing ruminants is regarded positively since this type of arable land use promotes the domestic environmental goals of biodiversity and aesthetic values.

  • 10.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Peters, Gregory
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ecolabels as drivers of clothing design2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 99, s. 345-353Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the textile industry has worked to reduce its negative social and environmental impacts. Identifying and addressing important sustainability considerations already in the clothing design are of increasing importance in the continuation of this work. Many companies look to ecolabelling schemes as means to set performance criteria and to demonstrate progress to customers. This study investigates the connection between ecolabels and clothing design from the perspective of moving the garment industry towards sustainability. Information gathered from literature was aligned and contrasted with interviews conducted with employees of garment companies in Sweden, and the material was analysed using a life-cycle perspective. The results reveal that the clothing design process currently only marginally influences clothing's sustainability performance by applying ecolabelling criteria. For a more sustainable textile industry there is a need to expand the expertise and information already in the design process regarding sustainability of their finished products. Such a change is only possible if the designers can be guided by a clear vision of design for sustainability for the company they work in.

  • 11.
    Diener, Derek
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Kushnir, Duncan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Tillman, Anne Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Scrap happens: A case of industrial end-users, maintenance and component remanufacturing outcome2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 213, s. 863-871Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Extended product life and reuse are cornerstones of the circular economy vision. Remanufacturing is one strategy that could be used to facilitate more reuse. Research on remanufacturing often addresses the use phase of a product from the perspective of the remanufacturer, not of the end-user of the product. Results are often described in terms of barriers and drivers, with end-user awareness of and trust in remanufactured products being common themes. It can be argued that such explanations are not sufficient for understanding why remanufacturing doesn't happen because they marginalize events during the use phase and the effects of end-user action. The study described here focuses on the use phase and the end-users’ role in product remanufacturing outcome. The study is based on the case of one type of mechanical component, prolific in industry and society at large, and ten of its end-users in heavy industry. The component is already remanufacturable and a functioning remanufacturing system for it is already in place, yet the bulk of used components are scrapped by end-users instead of being sent for remanufacturing. Interviews were conducted with maintenance personnel at ten paper, steel and cement factories. These personnel were asked how they determine when a component is obsolete and how they make decisions about whether to send them for remanufacturing. Responses were analyzed with the help of theories from maintenance management and decision-making. The analysis is presented as a conceptual model of the ‘End-user system’ of the component, in which complicating factors such as machine irregularities and tough work environments are mitigated by maintenance personnel with component replacement and remanufacturing protocols and where rigidities related to system-level risks and costs make it difficult for personnel to change. This study reveals the systemic nature of component remanufacturing outcomes, and specifically, how maintenance activities of both components and the machines around them influence such outcomes. Moreover, it highlights that while certain replacement protocols lend themselves to remanufacturing, convincing end-users to choose remanufactured products may be more difficult than just making them aware and confident in the remanufacturing offering. 

  • 12.
    Femenías, Paula
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik. Lund University, Sweden.
    Thuvander, Liane
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rethinking deep renovation: The perspective of rental housing in Sweden2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 195, s. 1457-1467Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines renovation strategies among owners of rental housing in Sweden in response to European energy policies that promote deep renovation as a means to reduce carbon emissions from residential buildings. Case studies of eleven housing companies, seven public and three private, were designed with the aim to examine housing owners’ attitudes and renovation strategies, and how policies and objectives for energy efficiency become incorporated into these attitudes and strategies. Results are illustrated in typologies that distinguish between renovation strategies with either a more commercial or a more societal focus and spanning between deep and partial renovation. The typologies can be used to discuss how different aspects influence renovation, and illustrates how strategies change over time. The study identifies a trend in which housing owners are increasingly relying on partial or over-time renovation. Cost is one important driver, but social responsibility toward tenants and in some cases the protection of cultural heritage are also found to be important. A distrust of fixed models for renovation was observed. The paper questions the concept of deep renovation and suggests instead partial and over-time renovation as a way forward toward sustainable renovation. Partial renovation can bring together energy efficiency with environmental, financial, social, and cultural objectives of housing management. If managed properly, over-time renovation can reduce the risk of an investment, and has the advantage of allowing future technological advancements in energy efficiency to be included in current planning.

  • 13.
    Flysjö, Anna
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Cederberg, Christel
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Henriksson, M.
    Ledgard, S.
    The interaction between milk and beef production and emissions from land use change: Critical considerations in life cycle assessment and carbon footprint studies of milk2012Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 28, s. 134-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two most critical factors to address in environmental system analysis of future milk production are 1) the link between milk and beef production, and 2) the competition for land, possibly leading to land use change (LUC) with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and loss of biodiversity as important implications. Different methodological approaches concerning these factors, in studies on environmental impacts of dairy production, sometimes lead to contradictory results. Increasing milk yield per cow is often one of the solutions discussed in order to reduce GHG emissions from milk production. However, when also accounting for other systems affected (e.g. beef production) it is not certain that an increase in milk yield per cow leads to a reduction in total GHG emissions per kg milk. In the present study the correlation between carbon footprint (CF) of milk and the amount of milk delivered per cow is investigated for 23 dairy farms (both organic and conventional) in Sweden. Use of a fixed allocation factor of 90% (based on economic value) indicates a reduction in CF with increased milk yield, while no correlation can be noted when system expansion is applied. The average CF for two groups of farms, organic and high yielding conventional, is also calculated. When conducting system expansion the CF is somewhat lower for the organic farms (which have a lower milk yield per cow, but more meat per kg milk), but when a 90% allocation factor is used, the CF is somewhat higher for the organic farms compared to the high yielding conventional farms. In analysis of future strategies for milk production, it is suggested that system expansion should be applied, in order to also account for environmental impacts from affected systems. Thus, scenarios for milk and meat production should be analysed in an integrated approach in order to reduce total emissions from the livestock sector. How to account for emissions from LUC is highly debated and there is no current shared consensus. Different LUC methods result in significantly different results. In this study, four different LUC methods are applied, using data for organic milk production and high yielding conventional milk production systems in Sweden. Depending on which LUC method was applied, the organic system showed about 50% higher or 40% lower CF compared to the conventional high yielding system. Thus, when reporting CF numbers, it is important to report LUC-factors separately and clearly explain the underlying assumptions, since the method of accounting for LUC can drastically change the results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14. Ghose, A.
    et al.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Environmental Aspects of Norwegian production of pulp fibres and printing paper2013Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Gosens, Jorrit
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys. Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lu, Yonglong
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Coenen, Lars
    Lund University, Sweden; NIFU Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education, Norway.
    The role of transnational dimensions in emerging economy 'Technological Innovation Systems' for clean-tech2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 86, s. 378-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ‘Technological Innovation System’ (TIS) framework and its system functions have become a popular analytical tool for the study of clean-tech innovation. There is increasing attention for the role of emerging economies in global clean-tech innovation, but the applicability of TIS to emerging economies cases is not entirely straightforward. A key issue is the limited geographical considerations, in particular transnational dimensions in TIS, whereas earlier perspectives on innovation in emerging economies have stressed the role of such transnational dimensions. This paper elaborates transnational TIS actor-networks and institutions, categorizes these in relation to TIS functions, and describes their potential to induce or block TIS development in emerging economies. We draw on insights from the perspectives of National Learning Systems, International Technology Transfer, and Global Production Networks for this purpose. We conclude that the potential effects of these transnational dimensions may be accurately grasped by the existing list of system functions, lending credence to its further application of the TIS framework on emerging economy case studies. Policy makers in emerging economies should recognize these transnational dimensions and seek to optimize their potential effect on domestic TIS development, taking in to consideration a realistic assessment of its role in the global TIS.

  • 16.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Mifflin, Kathleen
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Parker, Robert
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Troell, Max
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Combined climate and nutritional performance of seafoods2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 230, s. 402-411Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    National authorities in many countries advise their populations to eat more seafood, for health and sometimes for environmental purposes, but give little guidance as to what type of seafood should be consumed. The large diversity in species and production methods results in variability both in the nutritional content and in the environmental performance of seafoods. More targeted dietary advice for sustainable seafood consumption requires a better understanding of the relative nutritional benefits against environmental costs of various types of seafood. This study analyzes the combined climate and nutritional performance of seafood commonly consumed in Sweden, originating all over the world. Nutrient density scores, assessed by seven alternative methods, are combined with species- technology- and origin-specific greenhouse gas emission data for 37 types of seafood. An integrated score indicates which seafood products provide the greatest nutritional value at the lowest climate costs and hence should be promoted from this perspective. Results show that seafoods consumed in Sweden differ widely in nutritional value as well as climate impact and that the two measures are not correlated across all species. Dietary changes towards increased consumption of more seafood choices where a correlation exists (e.g. pelagic species like sprat, herring and mackerel)would benefit both health and climate. Seafoods with a higher climate impact in relation to their nutritional value (e.g. shrimp, Pangasius and plaice)should, on the other hand, not be promoted in dietary advice. The effect of individual nutrients and implications of different nutrient density scores is evaluated. This research is a first step towards modelling the joint nutritional and climate benefits of seafood as a concrete baseline for policy-making, e.g. in dietary advice. It should be followed up by modelling other species, including environmental toxins in seafood in the nutrition score, and expanding to cover other environmental aspects.

  • 17.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Håkansson, N.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Åkesson, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wolk, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Climate impact of alcohol consumption in Sweden2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 201, s. 287-294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the environmental impact of alcohol is limited and as an effect alcohol is often excluded from environmental studies of diets or included in incomplete ways. This paper describes the climate impact of beer, wine and liquor by using life cycle assessment. The climate impact is quantified per litre of specific alcoholic beverages and per total amount of alcohol consumed based on self-reported data of 50 000 individuals from 2009 within two population-based cohorts in Sweden. The results show that alcoholic beverages generate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the range of 0.73–2.38 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per litre. Alcohol consumption in the population studied generates on average 52 kg CO2e per person and year. Within the 10% of the population with the highest intake of alcohol GHG emissions are up to 202 kg CO2e per person and year. Consumption of wine is responsible for the largest share of GHG emissions from alcoholic beverages (61%) followed by beer (33%), while liquor and strong wine account for a smaller share (6%). Alcohol consumption among men generates 90% higher GHG emissions than among women. Alcohol consumption and in consequence alcohol-related emissions are decreasing with increasing age of men and women. Our results indicate that alcohol consumption in Swedish men and women is responsible for an average of 3% of total diet-related GHG emissions and in sub-populations with the highest consumption up to 6–11%. Limiting alcohol could be an effective option to reduce the climate impact of diets, especially among men.

  • 18.
    Islam, K M Nazmul
    et al.
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Hildenbrand, Jutta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea.
    Hossain, Mohammad Mosharraf
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Life cycle impacts of three-way ceramic honeycomb catalytic converter in terms of disability adjusted life year2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, s. 600-615Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalytic converters in vehicles reduce emissions while the use of platinum group metals (PGMs) in them have negative health impacts both in the PGMs mining stage and at the end-of-life PGM recycling stage. This study was conducted to weigh the production-recycling phase impacts and the use phase benefits of a three-way honeycomb catalytic converter by using the disability adjusted life year (DALY) indicator over its cradle-to-cradle life cycle. We have combined the environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) approach with a method to account the workplace impact on human health, which may be adopted in social LCA. In general, a catalytic converter causes more loss of lives (11 days) then it saves (4.5 days) under the egalitarian value perspectives for the baseline production scenario with 160,000 km functional life. Contrary to that, under the same scenario and service life, the catalytic converter saves lives (5.5 days and approx. 6 days for the hierarchist and individualist perspectives, respectively) than it causes loss (about 1 day and 0.6 days for the hierarchist and individualist perspectives, respectively). The geographical hotspot analysis reveals that, while the catalytic converter save lives in Sweden where it is used; it causes more loss of lives elsewhere in the world, particularly in South Africa and Russia. Overall, the DALY varies between 0.62 days and 11.3 days, mainly due to differences in value perspectives. The study showed that increased use of recycled platinum group metals, extended functional life of the catalytic converter may alter the health balance of the product system. This human health-focused cradle to cradle life cycle case study identified methodological issues that need further attention, like development of occupational DALY characterization factors (CFs) for the countries involved in the production of three-way ceramic honeycomb catalytic converter, and emission DALY CFs for PGEs during the use phase of catalytic converter. From scenario analysis, it is observed that, the rise of electric vehicles may drastically alter the social lives lost impacts of catalytic converter. 

  • 19.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Guo, Siping
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandén, Björn A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Handling financial resource mobilisation in technological innovation systems - The case of chinese wind power2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, s. 3872-3882Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To mitigate climate change, a rapid and large-scale expansion of sustainable innovations such as renewable energy technologies is crucial. China's track record of wind power development shows both speed and scale that can provide valuable knowledge of how to stimulate and maintain transformation of energy systems. The growth was made possible partly by ample access to financial capital. However, the rapid growth also led to growing pains and made the industry face increasing financial constraints. While these constraints partly relate to structures and trends that are external to the wind power innovation system, they were also a consequence of the particular path taken in Chinese wind power development. The case demonstrates that if a full-fledged industry is to be developed and sustained, a balanced growth is required and all innovation system functions need due attention, sooner or later. Conceptually, the article contributes by further exploring how mobilisation of financial resources affect and is affected by overall system dynamics.

  • 20.
    Kimming, Marie
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, Sven
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Replacing fossil energy for organic milk production: potential biomass sources and greenhouse gas emission reductions2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 106, s. 400-407Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing awareness of the climate impact of agricultural production, not least from cattle farms. Major sources of GHG emissions from milk production are enteric fermentation followed by fossil fuel use and manure/soil management systems. This study analyzes the potential to eliminate fossil fuel use from milk production farms in Sweden, by using residual farm resources of biomass to obtain self-sufficiency in fuel, heat and electricity. The change from a fossil-based energy system to a renewable system based on A) Biogas based on manure and straw and B) Biogas based on manure + RME were analyzed with consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) methodology. Focus was energy use and GHG emissions and the functional unit was 1 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM). The results show that organic milk producers can become self-sufficient in energy and reduce total GHG emissions from milk production by 46% in the Biogas system, or 32% in the Biogas + RME system compared to the Fossil system.

  • 21.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wendin, Marcus
    Miljögiraff, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Cecilia
    Volvo Group, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Waste flow mapping to improve sustainability of waste management: A case study approach2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 304-315Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative, resource-efficient solutions and effective waste management systems capture value in business and contribute to sustainability. However, due to scattered waste management responsibilities in the vehicle industry and the orientation of operations management and lean tools, which mostly focus on lead-time and labour-time improvements, the requirement of a collaborative method to include material waste efficiency in operational development is identified. The main purpose of this research is to study how operations management and environmental management can be integrated on an operational level and include the waste management supply chain. Based on a literature review of environmental and operational improvement tools and principles, the gaps and needs in current practice were identified. A large case study implementing a waste flow mapping (WFM) method on a set of manufacturing sites revealed potentials in terms of reducing material losses and inefficiencies in the handling of materials and waste. Finally, the integrated WFM method was analysed with respect to the gaps and needs identified in the existing body of tools for operational and environmental improvement. The method combines lean manufacturing tools, such as value stream mapping with cleaner production and material flow cost accounting strategies. The empirical data showed that the WFM method is adequate for current state analysis of waste material efficiency potentials, especially when multiple organisations are involved. However, further development and specific methods are needed such as, for example, logistics inefficiencies, root cause analysis, implementation guidelines for best practice and systems for performance monitoring of actors.

  • 22.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Wiktorsson, M.
    Mälardalen University.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Lean and green integration into production system models - Experiences from Swedish industry2014Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 85, s. 180-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on integration of operations management, specifically production system models with environmental management and related issues such as quality and safety. Based on knowledge concerning lean-based improvement programmes for company-specific production systems (XPS) and integration between formal management systems, such as ISO 9001 and 14001, industrial practices from integrating management systems with the XPS were studied. A literature-based comparison between formal management systems and XPS is made, indicating integration potentials. The empirical research is an analysis of five vehicle and automotive companies in which various efforts have been made to integrate their management systems with their XPS. The results show that although conscious steps have been taken since the introduction of ISO 14001 in integrating environmental management into everyday operations, there are still obstacles to overcome. To fully include sustainability aspects, the characteristics of the improvement systems have to be adapted and extended. One barrier to extended integration is the lack of integration strategy. There is further a lack of sustainability metrics and adaptation of improvement methods to push companies' operational performance. In addition, organisational issues still arise concerning the responsibility and ownership of environmental management in relation to operations. Based on these results it is concluded that processes for integration are recommended; however, each organisation needs to consider its operations, corporate culture and business opportunities of its environmental management. Still, incorporating environmental management systems into XPS is seen as an effective way of establishing company commonality in continuous improvement, resulting in holistic understanding and improved organisation performance. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Lean and green integration into production system models: Experiences from Swedish industry2014Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 85, nr Supplement C, s. 180-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on integration of operations management, specifically production system models with environmental management and related issues such as quality and safety. Based on knowledge concerning lean-based improvement programmes for company-specific production systems (XPS) and integration between formal management systems, such as ISO 9001 and 14001, industrial practices from integrating management systems with the XPS were studied. A literature-based comparison between formal management systems and XPS is made, indicating integration potentials. The empirical research is an analysis of five vehicle and automotive companies in which various efforts have been made to integrate their management systems with their XPS. The results show that although conscious steps have been taken since the introduction of ISO 14001 in integrating environmental management into everyday operations, there are still obstacles to overcome. To fully include sustainability aspects, the characteristics of the improvement systems have to be adapted and extended. One barrier to extended integration is the lack of integration strategy. There is further a lack of sustainability metrics and adaptation of improvement methods to push companies’ operational performance. In addition, organisational issues still arise concerning the responsibility and ownership of environmental management in relation to operations. Based on these results it is concluded that processes for integration are recommended; however, each organisation needs to consider its operations, corporate culture and business opportunities of its environmental management. Still, incorporating environmental management systems into XPS is seen as an effective way of establishing company commonality in continuous improvement, resulting in holistic understanding and improved organisation performance.

  • 24.
    Larsson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jansson, Mikael
    RISE., Innventia.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alvfors, Per
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Techno-economic assessment of anaerobic digestion in a typical Kraft pulp mill to produce biomethane for the road transport sector2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, s. 460-467Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable waste-based fuels may decrease the resource use and environmental impact of the road transport sector; one of the options is biogas produced via anaerobic digestion of waste streams from pulp and paper mills. This paper describes process simulation and economic assessments for two options for integrating anaerobic digestion and production of liquid biogas in a typical Nordic Kraft pulp mill: (1) a high-rate anaerobic reactor in the wastewater treatment, and (2) an external anaerobic stirred tank reactor for the treatment of primary and secondary sludge as well as Kraft evaporator methanol condensate. The results revealed an annual production potential of 26-27 GWh biogas in an average Nordic Kraft pulp mill, which is equivalent to a daily production of 7600 L of diesel in terms of energy, and the production cost was estimated to €0.47-0.82 per litre diesel equivalent, comparable with the Swedish price of €0.68 per litre diesel. However, for the cases with liquid biogas (LBG), a discounted payback period of about 8 years may not be considered profitable by the industry. Other pre-requisites may, however, improve the profitability: a larger mill; production of compressed biogas instead of liquid biogas; or, for case 1, a comparison with the alternative cost for expanding the wastewater treatment capacity with more process equipment for activated sludge treatment. The results reveal that anaerobic digestion at pulp mills may both expand the production of renewable vehicle fuel but also enable increased efficiency and revenue at Kraft pulp mills.

  • 25.
    Lundkvist, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Brämming, Mats
    SSAB EMEA AB.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Samuelsson, C.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    System analysis of slag utilisation from vanadium recovery in an integrated steel plant2013Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 47, s. 43-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium in raw materials used in iron- and steelmaking, a particular challenge for Nordic steel producers, affects the composition of the generated slag from the steelmaking vessel, i.e. The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) adversely and reduces the potential for recycling and external utilisation. A process concept under development aims to enrich and extract the vanadium content of slag from the BOF, making use of the vanadium in the slag and also increasing the overall slag use potential. Applications of this concept affect slag compositions and internal material flows in the iron and steel production system, especially when recycling BOF slags as flux in the blast furnace (BF). This paper will present a case study, based on a Process Integration (PI) approach, using a designated system model to simulate the steel production system and the implementation of the process concept, thereby analysing how to obtain maximum usage of metallurgical slags without compromising the quality of the main product, i.e. liquid steel. Different approaches were studied to improve the environmental sustainability in the production system by maximising the material efficiency through vanadium recovery (as FeV alloy) and the use of slags, thereby minimising the stored/deposited slag amounts. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 26.
    Markström, Emilia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kuzman, Manja K.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Bystedt, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Biobaserade material.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Swedish architects view of engineered wood products in buildings2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 181, s. 33-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From a climate perspective, it could be advantageous to increase the use of wood products in buildings, but the use of sawn timber and engineered wood products (EWPs) in multi-storey buildings above two floors are a relatively new business (in Sweden since 1995) and there is a risk that wood as construction material is met with low awareness and high uncertainty by the construction sector. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to learn Swedish architects' views of using EWPs in buildings, and 2) to identify parameters that positively influence the likelihood that EWPs will be selected to a greater extent and the relative importance of those parameters. A survey was sent out to Swedish architects and 67 answers were received. The result indicates that architects in Sweden have a positive attitude towards EWPs in general and that the majority think that they will probably increase their use of these materials. Low impact on the environment, aesthetic appeal, and fast construction were the most common reasons stated for selecting EWPs. The Swedish architects have in general a moderate impact on the selection of materials, and the most common reason for not selecting EWPs was that other decision makers involved in the building projects prefer other materials. A lack of knowledge and information as well as uncertainties regarding the quality over time were other common reasons for not selecting EWPs. It was found that architects who had participated in building projects where EWPs had been chosen due to their low environmental impact and/or aesthetic appearance were more likely to state that they will increase their use of EWPs. The results also show that influence on material selection, knowledge of EWPs, experience of the use of EWPs, and the architect's own attitude to the use of EWPs affect the likelihood of an increased use.

  • 27.
    Mattsson, Berit
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Cederberg, Christel
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Blix, L.
    Agricultural land use in life cycle assessment (LCA): Case studies of three vegetable oil crops2000Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 283-292Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for environmental assessment of agricultural land use is outlined. Environmental objectives and indicators of the land use quality are defined. The method is tested in case studies of cultivated vegetable oil crops: Swedish rape seed, Brazilian soybean and Malaysian oil palm. The results from this study lead us to bclieve that the indicators soil erosion, soil organic matter, soil structure, soil pH, phosphorus and potassium status of the soil, and the impact on biodiversity are a good choice of indicators. These indicators would give a good picture of long-term soil fertility and biodiversity. However, taking them together involves results that are a mix of quantitative and qualitative information, which makes it difficult to aggregate in an acceptable way. Therefore, land use assessment performed in this way includes not only quantitative results but also qualitative descriptions.A method is developed for addressing agricultural land use in life cycle assessment. Based on a set of environmental objectives, a series of quantifiable variables is selected as indicators of the sustainability of the production capacity of agricultural land. These include: soil erosion, hydrology, soil organic matter, soil structure, soil pH, heavy-metal accumulation, phosphorus and potassium contents, biodiversity, and landscape aesthetic value. As illustration, three case studies are presented, involving rape seed production in Sweden, soybean production in Brazil, and oil palm production in Malaysia.

  • 28.
    Mellin, Pelle
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF, Energi och miljö. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Åkermo, Malin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE., Swerea. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordenberg, Eva
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Strondl, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nano-sized by-products from metal 3D printing, composite manufacturing and fabric production2016Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 139, s. 1224-1233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the health and environmental perspective of nano-materials has gained attention. Most previous work focused on Engineered Nanoparticles (ENP). This paper examines some recently introduced production routes in terms of generated nano-sized by-products. A discussion on the hazards of emitting such particles and fibers is included. Fine by-products were found in recycled metal powder after 3D printing by Selective Laser Melting (SLM). The process somehow generated small round metal particles (∌1–2 ÎŒm) that are possibly carcinogenic and respirable, but not small enough to enter by skin-absorption. With preventive measures like closed handling and masks, any health related effects can be prevented. The composite manufacturing in particular generated ceramic and carbonaceous particles that are very small and respirable but do not appear to be intrinsically toxic. The smallest features in agglomerates were about 30 nm. Small particles and fibers that were not attached in agglomerates were found in a wide range of sizes, from 1 ÎŒm and upwards. Preventive measures like closed handling and masks are strongly recommended. In contrast, the more traditional production route of fabric production is investigated. Here, brushing residue and recycled wool from fabric production contained few nano-sized by-products.

  • 29.
    Notarnicola, Bruno
    et al.
    University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Sala, Serenella
    European Commission Joint Research Centre. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Italy.
    Assumpcio, Anton
    IRTA Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology, Spain.
    McLaren, Sarah J.
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    Saouter, Erwan
    European Commission Joint Research Centre. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Italy.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    The role of life cycle assessment in supporting sustainable agri-food systems: A review of the challenges2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, s. 399-409Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle thinking is increasingly seen as a key concept for ensuring a transition towards more sustainable production and consumption patterns. As food production systems and consumption patterns are among the leading drivers of impacts on the environment, it is important to assess and improve food-related supply chains as much as possible. Over the years, life cycle assessment has been used extensively to assess agricultural systems and food processing and manufacturing activities, and compare alternatives “from field to fork” and through to food waste management. Notwithstanding the efforts, several methodological aspects of life cycle assessment still need further improvement in order to ensure adequate and robust support for decision making in both business and policy development contexts. This paper discusses the challenges for life cycle assessment arising from the complexity of food systems, and recommends research priorities for both scientific development and improvements in practical implementation. In summary, the intrinsic variability of food production systems requires dedicated modelling approaches, including addressing issues related to: the distinction between technosphere and ecosphere; the most appropriate functional unit; the multi-functionality of biological systems; and the modelling of the emissions and how this links with life cycle impact assessment. Also, data availability and interpretation of the results are two issues requiring further attention, including how to account for consumer behaviour.

  • 30.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Falk, Andreas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Future scenarios for climate mitigation of new construction in Sweden: Effects of different technological pathways2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 187, s. 1025-1035Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of climate mitigation strategies is available to mitigate climate impacts of buildings. Several studies evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies have been performed at the building stock level, but do not consider the technological change in building material manufacturing. The objective of this study is to evaluate the climate mitigation effects of increasing the use of biobased materials in the construction of new residential dwellings in Sweden under future scenarios related to technological change. A model to estimate the climate impact from Swedish new dwellings has been proposed combining official statistics and life cycle assessment data of seven different dwelling typologies. Eight future scenarios for increased use of harvested wood products are explored under different pathways for changes in the market share of typologies and in energy generation. The results show that an increased use of harvested wood products results in lower climate impacts in all scenarios evaluated, but reductions decrease if the use of low-impact concrete expands more rapidly or under optimistic energy scenarios. Results are highly sensitive to the choice of climate impact metric. The Swedish construction sector can only reach maximum climate change mitigation scenarios if the low-impact building typologies are implemented together and rapidly.

  • 31.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Zamani, Bahare
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A life cycle assessment (LCA)-based approach to guiding an industry sector towards sustainability: the case of the Swedish apparel sector2016Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 133, s. 691-700Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental challenges associated with consumption of textiles have generally been investigated on product level in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies. For social sustainability aspects, social hotspot analysis has instead been applied on the textile sector level. The aim with the industry sector approach developed by the authors was to enable assessment of different interventions in terms of how they contribute to reaching targets for environmental and social sustainability, on the sector level. The approach was tested in a case study on the Swedish apparel sector. The industry sector approach consists of three steps that address three different questions: 1) What is the current sustainability performance of the sector? 2) What is an acceptable sustainability performance for the sector? 3) Are proposed interventions enough to reach an acceptable sustainability performance? By answering these questions, it is possible to measure performance in relation to sector level targets and learn which types of interventions (technical improvements, behavioral changes, new business models, etc.), and which actors (manufacturers, retailers, consumers, authorities, etc.) that can potentially provide the greatest improvements. By applying the approach in the case study, conclusions could be drawn on whether specific interventions appear to be sufficient or not in relation to the set environmental targets. The influence of the interventions in relation to reaching targets for social sustainability was found to be the most difficult to measure due to lack of data. To spur the industry sector's stakeholders to actualize the full potential of the most effective environmental interventions, a scheme for structured evaluation of LCA results directed towards these prospective actors was developed. Based on the results from the study, actor-oriented advice could be provided.

  • 32.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys.
    Ringström, Emma
    AkzoNobel, Sweden.
    Life cycle perspective in environmental strategy development on the industry cluster level: A case study of five chemical companies2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 86, s. 125-131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The scale of industry clusters and their significant environmental impact make addressing environmental strategies on the cluster level an intriguing task. Although several studies indicate that upstream processes contribute significantly to the total environmental impact of the system, few studies assess how environmental strategy development can be approached from a life cycle perspective. The aim of this paper was to investigate the practical significance of life cycle-based environmental strategy development using a chemical industry cluster in Sweden as the case study. To assess the environmental impact, a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) was chosen as the method, with the total annual production of the cluster in 2011 as the functional unit. To cover the whole value chain, the global warming potential for downstream processes was also estimated. The findings were linked to the cluster vision, which aims to reduce environmental impact by 2030. The results indicate that the cluster must focus on the whole value chain when pursuing the aim of producing sustainable products as environmental impact both upstream and downstream of the cluster accounts for a larger share than on-site processes. The assessment also enables distribution of environmental impact among incoming material streams, thus providing the cluster with decision support when introducing renewable and recycled materials. Additionally, the assessment supports strategy comparison and serves as a base case against which strategy opportunities can be evaluated. This study demonstrates that the life cycle approach has interesting potential to support industry cluster companies in their mutual effort to improve environmental performance.

  • 33.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Climate impact assessment in life cycle assessments of forest products: Implications of method choice for results and decision-making2016Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 116, s. 90-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As life cycle assessments are often conducted to provide decision support, it is important that impact assessment methodology is consistent with the intended decision context. The currently most used climate impact assessment metric, the global warming potential, and how it is applied in life cycle assessments, has for example been criticised for insufficiently accounting for carbon sequestration, carbon stored in long-lived products and timing of emission. The aim of this study is to evaluate how practitioners assess the climate impact of forest products and the implications of method choice for results and decision-making. To identify current common practices, we reviewed climate impact assessment practices in 101 life cycle assessments of forest products. We then applied identified common practices in case studies comparing the climate impact of a forest-based and a non-forest-based fuel and building, respectively, and compared the outcomes with outcomes of applying alternative, non-established practices. Results indicate that current common practices exclude most of the dynamic features of carbon uptake and storage as well as the climate impact from indirect land use change, aerosols and changed albedo. The case studies demonstrate that the inclusion of such aspects could influence results considerably, both positively and negatively. Ignoring aspects could thus have important implications for the decision support. The product life cycle stages with greatest climate impact reduction potential might not be identified, product comparisons might favour the less preferable product and policy instruments might support the development and use of inefficient climate impact reduction strategies.

  • 34.
    Sala, Serenella
    et al.
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Assumpcio, Anton
    IRTA Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology, Spain.
    McLaren, Sarah J.
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    Notarnicola, Bruno
    University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Saouter, Erwan
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    In quest of reducing the environmental impacts of food production and consumption2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, s. 387-398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food supply chains are increasingly associated with environmental and socio-economic impacts. An increasing global population, an evolution in consumers’ needs, and changes in consumption models pose serious challenges to the overall sustainability of food production and consumption. Life cycle thinking (LCT) and assessment (LCA) are key elements in identifying more sustainable solutions for global food challenges. In defining solutions to major global challenges, it is fundamentally important to avoid burden shifting amongst supply chain stages and amongst typologies of impacts, and LCA should, therefore, be regarded as a reference method for the assessment of agri-food supply chains. Hence, this special volume has been prepared to present the role of life cycle thinking and life cycle assessment in: i) the identification of hotspots of impacts along food supply chains with a focus on major global challenges; ii) food supply chain optimisation (e.g. productivity increase, food loss reduction, etc.) that delivers sustainable solutions; and iii) assessment of future scenarios arising from both technological improvements and behavioural changes, and under different environmental conditions (e.g. climate change). This special volume consists of a collection of papers from a conference organized within the last Universal Exposition (EXPO2015) “LCA for Feeding the planet and energy for life” in Milan (Italy) in 2015 as well as other contributions that were submitted in the year after the conference that addressed the same key challenges presented at the conference. The papers in the special volume address some of the key challenges for optimizing food-related supply chains by using LCA as a reference method for environmental impact assessment. Beyond specific methodological improvements to better tailor LCA studies to food systems, there is a clear need for the LCA community to “think outside the box”, exploring complementarity with other methods and domains. The concepts and the case studies presented in this special volume demonstrate how cross-fertilization among difference science domains (such as environmental, technological, social and economic ones) may be key elements of a sustainable “today and tomorrow” for feeding the planet.

  • 35.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    ten Hoeve, Marieke
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Making the most of LCA in technical inter-organisational R&D projects2014Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 70, s. 97–104-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In technical Research and Development (R&D) projects, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the technology under development is sometimes carried out. Particularly in inter-organisational R&D projects, the roles of LCAs tend to be unclear and arbitrary, and as a consequence, LCA work is not adequately designed for the needs of the project. There is a need for research on how to choose an appropriate role for LCA in such projects and how to plan LCA work accordingly. We have identified some possible roles of LCA in inter-organisational R&D projects and used experiences from LCA work in different such projects to identify four project characteristics that are decisive for what roles the LCA can have. The project characteristics are: (i) the project's potential influence on environmental impacts, (ii) the degrees of freedom available for the technical direction of the project, (iii) the project's potential to provide required input to the LCA, and (iv) access to relevant audiences for the LCA results. We discuss how evaluation of these project characteristics can help project commissioners, project managers and LCA practitioners to deliberately choose appropriate roles of LCA in inter-organisational R&D projects and plan projects for efficient use of LCA.

  • 36.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Environmental impact of textile reuse and recycling – A review2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 184, s. 353-365Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews studies of the environmental impact of textile reuse and recycling, to provide a summary of the current knowledge and point out areas for further research. Forty-one studies were reviewed, whereof 85% deal with recycling and 41% with reuse (27% cover both reuse and recycling). Fibre recycling is the most studied recycling type (57%), followed by polymer/oligomer recycling (37%), monomer recycling (29%), and fabric recycling (14%). Cotton (76%) and polyester (63%) are the most studied materials.

    The reviewed publications provide strong support for claims that textile reuse and recycling in general reduce environmental impact compared to incineration and landfilling, and that reuse is more beneficial than recycling. The studies do, however, expose scenarios under which reuse and recycling are not beneficial for certain environmental impacts. For example, as benefits mainly arise due to the avoided production of new products, benefits may not occur in cases with low replacement rates or if the avoided production processes are relatively clean. Also, for reuse, induced customer transport may cause environmental impact that exceeds the benefits of avoided production, unless the use phase is sufficiently extended.

    In terms of critical methodological assumptions, authors most often assume that textiles sent to recycling are wastes free of environmental burden, and that reused products and products made from recycled materials replace products made from virgin fibres. Examples of other content mapped in the review are: trends of publications over time, common aims and geographical scopes, commonly included and omitted impact categories, available sources of primary inventory data, knowledge gaps and future research needs. The latter include the need to study cascade systems, to explore the potential of combining various reuse and recycling routes.

  • 37.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Allocation in LCAs of biorefinery products: implications for results and decision-making2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 93, s. 213-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of biorefinery products, a common challenge is the choice of method for allocating environmental burdens of multifunctional processes (feedstock cultivation and biorefinery processes), a choice which can substantially influence LCA results and hence decision-making. The aim of this paper is to explore how this choice influences results and in which decision contexts the choice is particularly important. To do this, we tested six allocation methods in a case study of a biorefinery using pulpwood as feedstock. Tested methods included: main product bears all burden, substitution, traditional partitioning methods (based on economic value and exergy), a hybrid method combining elements of substitution and partitioning, and an alternative hybrid method developed by us, which allocates less environmental burden to co-products with a high potential to mitigate environmental burdens. The methods were tested in relation to decision contexts and LCA questions of relevance for biorefineries.

    The results indicate that the choice of allocation method deserves careful attention, particularly in consequential studies and in studies focussed on co-products representing relatively small flows. Furthermore, the alternative hybrid allocation method is based on a logical rationale – favouring products with higher substitution potential – and has some other potential benefits. However, in cases where the scales of co-product flows are of different orders of magnitude, the method yields extreme results that could be difficult to interpret. Results also show that it can be important with consistent allocation for both cultivation and biorefinery processes, particularly when substitution is applied.

  • 38.
    Sarasini, Steven
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Collado, Magda
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Governing the transition to a circular economy: A multidimensional approach2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 39.
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hill, Philippa
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Levenstam, Oscar
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Gillgard, Philip
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Taylor, Mark
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Blackburn, Richard
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Highly fluorinated chemicals in functional textiles can be replaced by re-evaluating liquid repellency and end-user requirements2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 217, s. 134-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing regulation of, and concerns regarding, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (also popularly known as “highly fluorinated chemicals”), has driven the textile market to search for sustainable alternative chemistries that can provide similar liquid repellency to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in performance textiles. This paper aims to inform the potential substitution of fluorochemicals with more environmentally friendly durable water repellents, taking a case-by-case approach and evaluating protection needs for consumer outdoor clothing and medical protective clothing separately. Recently developed non-fluorinated durable water repellents, some based on green chemistry principles, were evaluated in an in-depth assessment for their functionality against fluorinated short-chain alternatives (with hydro-and oleophobic moieties of carbon chain length of six or less). Repellency towards water and non-polar liquids was evaluated with established standard test methods and by measuring the roll-off angle of liquid droplets with a novel sample holder setup. This improved method allowed an enhanced mechanistic understanding of the droplets’ roll-off processes on woven textiles. The best non-fluorinated alternatives demonstrated high water repellency equal to fluorinated side-chain polymers with ‘short’ fluorinated carbon chains ≤6 carbons, and should be considered as suitable substitutes for consumer outdoor clothing. These results are supported by a survey of end-use requirements indicating water repellency and durability were the most important purchasing criteria. For polar liquids, with lower surface tensions, the repellency provided by non-fluorinated alternatives was clearly reduced, although they had a moderate repellency towards liquids with intermediate polarity (e.g. red wine or synthetic blood). Only fluorinated side-chain polymers with ‘short’ fluorinated carbon chains ≤6 carbons were seen to provide sufficient protection to polar liquids with very low surface tension (olive oil or gastric fluid). Since occupational protective clothing (e.g. medical clothing) often must provide protection against liquid of a wider range of polarities (e.g. in the case of medical clothing, to bodily fluids and protect the wearer from the transmission of diseases), current non-fluorinated DWRs do not provide sufficient liquid repellency. This implies that innovations in textile technology are still needed to substitute PFASs in some types of occupational protective clothing and other end uses where oil and stain repellency is essential.

  • 40.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bjelkemyr, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Material efficiency measurements in manufacturing: Swedish case studies2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 181, s. 17-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A major factor in the continued deterioration of the global environment is unsustainable management of resources that includes the type and quantity of resources consumed and manufactured as well as the subsequent generation and treatment of wasted materials. Improved material efficiency (ME) in manufacturing is key to reducing resource consumption levels and improving waste management initiatives. However, ME must be measured, and related goals must be broken down into performance indicators for manufacturing companies. This paper aims to improve ME in manufacturing using a structured model for ME performance measurements. We present a set of ME key performance indicators (ME-KPIs) at the individual company and lower operational levels based on empirical studies and a structured literature review. Our empirical findings are based on data collected on the performance indicators and material and waste flows of nine manufacturing companies located in Sweden. The proposed model categorizes ME-KPIs into the following categories: productive input materials, auxiliary input materials, output products, and residual output materials. These categories must be measured equally to facilitate the measurement, assessment, improvement and reporting of material consumption and waste generation in a manufacturing context. Required qualities for ME-KPI suggested in literature are also discussed, and missing indicators are identified. Most of the identified ME-KPIs measure quality- and cost-related factors, while end-of-life scenarios, waste segregation and the environmental effects of waste generation and material consumption are not equally measured. Additionally, ME-KPIs must also be connected to pre-determined goals and that defining or revising ME-KPIs requires communication with various external and internal actors to increase employees’ awareness and engagement.

  • 41.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Bjelkemyr, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Material efficiency in manufacturing: swedish evidence on potential, barriers and strategies2016Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, nr 127, s. 438-450Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved material efficiency is a key to improve the circular economy and capturing value in industry. Material efficiency reduces the generation of industrial waste, the extraction and consumption of resources, and energy demands and carbon emissions. However, material efficiency in the manufacturing sector, as a means of improving the recyclability, reusability, reduction and prevention of industrial waste, is little understood. This study aims to investigate, on a micro-level, further material efficiency improvement opportunities, barriers and strategies in selected manufacturing companies in Sweden, focusing on increasing waste segregation into high quality circulated raw material. Improvement opportunities at large global manufacturing companies are investigated; barriers hindering material efficiency improvement are identified and categorized at two levels; and strategies that have been deployed at manufacturing companies are reviewed. Empirical findings reveal (1) further potential for improving material efficiency through higher segregation of residual material from mixed and low quality fractions (on average, 26% of the content of combustible waste, in weight, was plastics; 8% and 6% were paper and cardboard, respectively); (2) the most influential barriers are within budgetary, information, management, employee, engineering, and communication clusters; (3) a lack of actual material efficiency strategy implementation in the manufacturing companies. According to our analysis, the majority of barriers are internal and originate within the manufacturing companies, therefore they can be managed (and eradicated if possible) with sufficient resources in terms of man hours, education and investment, better operational and environmental (waste) management, better internal communication and information sharing, and deployment of material efficiency strategies.

  • 42.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental impact of future milk supply chains in Sweden: A scenario study2003Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 253-266Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to analyse the environmental impact of future supply chains for dairy products. A scenario technique was chosen because scenarios can yield information about the environmental consequences of certain lines of action or developments in a system. To quantify the effects of future systems, a mathematical model of the milk supply chain was constructed and used to simulate possible scenarios. The model was based mainly on life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The results show that any consideration of the environmental effects of the milk supply chain must consider the entire chain. The amount of packaging materials used is an important factor, as is the transportation of the dairy products to households. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Flysjö, Anna
    Arla Foods amba, Denmark.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Witthöft, Cornelia
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Protein quality as functional unit – A methodological framework for inclusion in life cycle assessment of food2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, nr Part 2, s. 470-478Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to develop more sustainable food systems, there is a need to find methods that simultaneously consider environmental impacts and nutritional benefits. The purpose of this study was to develop a functional unit to be used in LCA of foods that builds on the nutritional value of food products. We used the content and quality of proteins as a basis, and included dietary context as part of our method, since the nutritional value of a nutrient depends on the total dietary intake. Our method uses the digestible intake of the nine essential amino acids in the product and relates these values to the equivalent total dietary intake of the same amino acids. We also employed simpler functional units such as “gram (g) protein” and “g digestible protein.” We quantified the functional units for three dietary contexts and applied it on LCA results for bread, chicken fillet, minced pork, minced beef, milk and pea soup. The results showed that the relative differences between products changed when using a protein-based functional unit, with the largest change occurring when going from mass as the functional unit to g protein. By introducing protein digestibility, the systematic under-valuation of the animal products was partly avoided with little additional effort. The most advanced functional unit affected the results compared to the mass-based functional unit most, but required significantly more data. The impact of dietary context was smaller than expected; hence, it might be possible to simplify the inclusion of dietary context by using aggregated descriptions of diets. The method presented is valuable for adding an important aspect of nutrition (protein quality and content) to the LCA results of single products, but there is a large scope for development.

  • 44.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Dietary-dependent nutrient quality indexes as a complementary functional unit in LCA: A feasible option?2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 211, s. 620-627Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although food production is a main driver of environmental pressure and resource use globally, food delivers critical nutrition to humans. In life cycle assessment (LCA) of foods, the dominant functional unit is mass, despite the ISO requirement that the LCA unit should reflect the actual function. Studies have used various dietary quality scores in environmental assessments of foods, but the consideration of the dietary context is largely missing. The main function, i.e., nutrient supply, is complex since the nutritional value of a food item depends on its dietary context. Moreover, overall nutritional value is a combination of multiple nutrients. The aim was to combine scientific knowledge from the fields of nutrition and LCA to generate a basis for further research. The long-term aim was to help develop methods to support sustainability-based planning and decision making by food chain stakeholders. The proposed functional unit expresses the nutrient content of individual foods in relation to the nutritional supply of the complete diet, to create a single score reflecting the nutrient quality in a given dietary context. The nutrient quality index developed was evaluated by analyzing how relationships in global warming potential (GWP) between single products differed when using as functional unit either the mass of the food product, a nutrient quality index not considering the dietary context (the Nutrient Rich Foods Index 9.3, NRF9.3) and the new dietary dependent nutrient quality index (NQI) proposed. Two dietary scenarios were explored, an average Swedish diet and a typical unhealthy diet. The products considered were: bread, apples, tomatoes, milk, hard cheese, spread and chicken fillets. The results, calculated using bread as the reference, indicated that in both dietary contexts apples, tomatoes, and hard cheese had lower NQIadjusted GWPs compared to when GWPs were calculated using mass as the functional unit. Milk's NQI-adjusted and mass-calculated GWPs differed little, while the chicken fillet GWPs were the same in the unhealthy diet and performed better in the average diet. The NRF9.3-adjusted GWPs differed from the NQI-adjusted ones for all analysed foods. The main conclusions were: 1) considering nutritional value in the LCA of foods improves our understanding of how the environmental impacts and nutritional functions of food are related; 2) the environmental performance of different products varies with dietary context; and 3) application of the NQI could help industry, authorities, and consumers improve products and diets.

  • 45.
    Svensson, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SWECAST AB.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    An analytical model for identifying and addressing energy efficiency improvement opportunities in industrial production systems – Model development and testing experiences from Sweden2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, nr 4, s. 2407-2422Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency is one of the most effective strategies for achieving energy sustainability and independence locally, regionally and globally. Industry accounts for 40% of global energy usage each year, which suggests its potentially significant impact on overall energy use. The rapid development of standards for more efficient equipment and components are pushing manufacturers towards further improvements on a component level. However, it has been shown that the largest efficiency potential is actually found in higher system levels in which components serve, such as production processes, ventilation or hydraulic systems. Even though the importance of increasing energy efficiency at a systemic level has been widely acknowledged in recent years, practical approaches are seldom discussed in the literature. This gap between aspiration and achievement calls for the development of new approaches to foster system efficiency in industrial systems. This paper presents a systems analysis and corresponding model to increase the energy efficiency of industrial processes that involve intensive usage of electric motor systems. The model originates from traditional value stream mapping. Three case studies representing three different industrial processes were conducted to develop and validate the model. In total, 31 energy efficiency measures were identified, 29 of which address actions beyond component levels. Alongside identifications of energy efficiency measures, the model promotes the creation of conditions for cross-functional worker participation. By applying this model, the knowledge and skills gained by industrial personnel working with improved energy efficiency, maintenance and production processes can be used immediately to generate improvement suggestions. The paper concludes that this model, based on a simplified energy-focused value stream mapping, could broaden the scope of energy efficiency actions, engage a larger group of workers within the organisation and increase systems efficiency. This can be further used as a practical tool for finding continuous improvement possibilities that will result in strengthened competitiveness and more cost-effective and sustainable manufacturing.

  • 46. Thrane, M.
    et al.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Eco-labelling of wild-caught seafood products2009Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 416-423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several eco-labels for wild-caught seafood have been developed during the last decade. This article describes and analyses the criteria applied by four different eco-labelling schemes for seafood products from capture fisheries, and discusses the criteria in terms of environmental impacts, based on the ISO 14040 standard for life cycle assessment. It is concluded that the most widespread eco-label, the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), mainly addresses the fishing stage, in particular the overexploitation of marine resources. LCA studies confirm that the fishing stage represents the most significant environmental burden, but energy consumption and emissions of anti-fouling agents at the fishing or harvesting stage contribute with significant impacts that are not being addressed by international labelling initiatives for wild-caught seafood. LCA studies show that significant environmental impacts are related to the life cycle stages after landing. This includes fish processing, transport, cooling and packaging (especially for highly processed seafood products). Hence, another challenge would be to include criteria related to the post-landing consumption of energy, certain materials and chemicals, waste handling and wastewater emissions. Minimizing product losses throughout the product chain would also be an important area for future criteria in order to avoid fishing at high environmental costs only to produce something that is later wasted. The analysis shows that the Swedish KRAV is the only one that currently addresses a range of issues that include energy and chemicals in the whole life cycle of the products. International initiatives such as MSC cover fish products from many parts of the world emphasizing 'overexploitation of fish resources'. It is recommended, however, that international initiatives such as MSC develop criteria related to energy use and chemicals - at least at the fishing stage. Over time, other life cycle stages could be addressed as well to the extent that this is manageable. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Nordgren, Samuel
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Lindblom, B.
    LKAB.
    Savonen, S.
    LKAB.
    Hedpalm, T.
    LKAB.
    Larsson, Miakel
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Hansson, R.
    LKAB.
    Conceptual design of an integrated heating system at LKAB Malmberget with consideration of social-environmental damage costs2010Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 18, nr 9, s. 944-951Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    LKAB Malmberget is a Swedish mining site located at Malmberget, Sweden. Seven boiler centers are located in the north part of Malmberget. There are no connections in between these boiler centers, meaning that it is a decentralized heating system. The heat generated is used to heat up buildings and for mine ventilation air mainly during the cold periods. The heat is mainly provided from electric and oil boilers. However, most boilers under use are over 20 years old, and it is time to retrofit the boiler system and infrastructure. The purpose of this work is to design and optimize the heating system by introducing an integrated concept to minimize the heat production cost. An optimization model based on the mixed integer linear programming (MILP) has been developed. Several technical options have been considered in a new centralized heating system. The optimization principle is based on two kinds of perspectives: current price and external costs. With consideration of environmental and health damage from society concerns point of view, instead of environmental taxes in the current price perspective, the monetary values of externalities due to pollutants such as CO2, NOx, SO2 and particulates emitted from the heating system are included. On the basis of data input and assumptions, modeling results indicate that a lower cost could be achieved when a waste heat recovery boiler is installed at the older pelletization plant to recover sensible heat from flue gas. This technical option is the best solution or at least contributes to the best solution in all optimization results. Including the externality cost is useful for making fair evaluation of the social-environmental impacts of the alternatives. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 48.
    Ylmen, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Arfvidsson, Jesper
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The importance of including secondary effects when defining the system boundary with life cycle perspective: Case study for design of an external wall2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 143, s. 1105-1113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analysis are suitable tools in trying to minimize environmental impact and cost. To get reliable results it is crucial to set up correct system boundaries for the investigation, but it is often difficult to understand a complex products system because of the cascade effects of consequences that can be induced even by small changes. In this paper the effects and consequences evaluation (ECE) method is introduced to systematically identify and organize the effects and consequences for a design change of parts of a complex system. The method is applied in a case study of external wall insulation for a new building to investigate the importance of correct system boundaries. Using the methodical approach in identifying all significant consequences showed that unexpected unit processes can be important when deciding on the relevant system boundary. We also conclude that such processes can have a significant impact on the final results by calculating the change in global warming potential and life cycle cost for the processes affected by the design option.

  • 49.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Environmental aspects when manufacturing products mainly out of metals and/or polymers2005Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 43-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The most fundamental aspect in the ISO 14001 standard Environmental management systems—Specification with guidance for use is to find out ways by which an organisation influences environment to a significant degree. This paper examines environmental data from companies manufacturing products mainly from metals and/or polymers. The data were collected in a uniform way by use of special guidelines. Weighting or valuation methods often used in life cycle assessments were used to quantitatively compare and rank environmental aspects. The study results suggest that, in general, the largest environmental impact in the investigated manufacturing sub-sector can be associated with product use and/or disposal phases. This in turn shows a need for more attention on environmental work on the design for environment than what the ISO 14001 standard requires. It is further suggested that weighting or valuation methods can aid in determining the significance of environmental impacts and aspects in the context of ISO 14001.

  • 50.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Avellán, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Orlenius, Jessica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Life cycle assessment of lithium-ion batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles-Critical issues2010Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 18, nr 15, s. 1517-1527Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the study was to explore how LCA can be used to optimize the design of lithium-ion batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Two lithium-ion batteries, both based on lithium iron phosphate, but using different solvents during cell manufacturing, were studied by means of life cycle assessment, LCA. The general conclusions are limited to results showing robustness against variation in critical data. The study showed that it is environmentally preferable to use water as a solvent instead of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, NMP, in the slurry for casting the cathode and anode of lithium-ion batteries. Recent years' improvements in battery technology, especially related to cycle life, have decreased production phase environmental impacts almost to the level of use phase impacts. In the use phase, environmental impacts related to internal battery efficiency are two to six times larger than the impact from losses due to battery weight in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, assuming 90% internal battery efficiency. Thus, internal battery efficiency is a very important parameter; at least as important as battery weight. Areas, in which data is missing or inadequate and the environmental impact is or may be significant, include: production of binders, production of lithium salts, cell manufacturing and assembly, the relationship between weight of vehicle and vehicle energy consumption, information about internal battery efficiency and recycling of lithium-ion batteries based on lithium iron phosphate. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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