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  • 1.
    Alipour, Nazanin
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Enebro, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Release of micro- and nanoparticles from a polypropylene/clay nanocomposite, a methodology for controlled degradation and evaluation2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 319, article id 128761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodology was developed for qualitative assessment and characterisation of particle losses from nanocomposites during service life. The methodology can be generalised to other systems where the material fragments during ageing and can be extended to quantitative analysis. A chamber was constructed for ageing of selected materials, which enabled effective collection and subsequent analysis of released particles. A combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was found to be suitable for characterising particles in terms of size, shape and content. The methodology was tested on a common nanoclay composite with polypropylene as the matrix. There was no need for physical/mechanical wear to generate particles, slow flow of air and elevated temperature led to cracking and fragmentation of the material, and subsequent release of nanocomposite particles containing embedded or protruding clay. The release of pure clay particles and polypropylene particles was also detected. Using the methodology, it was observed that even in ‘mild’ degradation conditions (pure thermo-oxidation with no wear), fillers and nanocomposite particles can be released to the environment, which is an environmental and health concern. © 2021 The Authors

  • 2.
    Andersson, Johnn
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Directionality in transformative policy missions: The case of reaching net zero emissions in the Swedish process industry2024In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 437, article id 140664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This paper proposes a directionality framework that highlights goal, sector and solution as key dimensions of transformative policy missions. The framework is used to investigate the directionality of process industry decarbonization in Sweden, by analyzing the orientation of projects supported by the major national funding program the ‘Industry Leap’ between 2017 and 2022. The results show that innovation activities (i) mainly aim to reduce fossil emissions rather than produce negative emissions, (ii) focus on the steel and chemicals industries, and (iii) engage mostly with carbon capture, electrification and hydrogen. This indicates that innovation activities are somewhat narrow and imbalanced, which suggests that policymakers should promote broader experimentation. The theoretical and empirical contribution of this paper supports academics, policymakers and other actors in understanding, evaluating and shaping the directionality of transformative policy missions.

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Eide, Merete Høgaas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lundqvist, U.
    Mattsson, Berit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The feasibility of including sustainability in LCA for product development1998In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 6, no 42067, p. 289-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of combining the concept of sustainability principles and the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is examined. The goal is to achieve an operational tool that incorporates sustainability in product development and strategic planning. While the method outlined has the structure of LCA, it emphasises aspects and parameters often omitted from traditional LCA. The analysis and results can be either qualitative or semi-quantitative. Although a qualitative analysis is less time consuming, it can still highlight the important issues. Qualitative information, which is easily lost in a quantitative analysis, can be emphasised. One of the conclusions is that the method is well suited for screening analysis. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ohlsson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Olsson, P.
    Screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of tomato ketchup: A case study1998In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 6, no 42067, p. 277-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of tomato ketchup has been carried out. The purpose was to identify 'hot-spots', that is parts of the life-cycle that are important to the total environmental impact. The system investigated includes agricultural production, industrial refining, packaging, transportation, consumption and waste management. Energy use and emissions were quantified and some of the potential environmental effects assessed. Packaging and food processing were found to be hot-spots for many, but not all, of the impact categories investigated. For primary energy use, the storage time in a refrigerator (household phase) was found to be a critical parameter. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Aschemann-Witzel, J.
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Otterbring, T.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, I. E.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Rohm, H.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Almli, V. L.
    Nofima AS, Norway.
    Oostindjer, M.
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    The who, where and why of choosing suboptimal foods: Consequences for tackling food waste in store2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 236, article id 117596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food stores have begun to tackle food waste at the point of sale. They do so by selling ‘suboptimal’ food before it is wasted, typically with a price reduction. However, efficiency of this food waste avoidance action can be improved by knowing for which product category, which store type, which accompanying communication, and which consumer characteristics this action works best. This study uses an experimental online survey conducted in five North western European countries to investigate the effect of communication appealing to either self- or others-centred motives in either supermarkets or farmers' markets, for packaged and for fresh food. It is found that both messages – communicating budget saving or an emotional appeal - are effective in increasing choice likelihood. Store type affects choice likelihood of suboptimal packaged, while others-centred values and trust in the store affects choice likelihood for suboptimal fresh food. Communication improves quality perception of suboptimal fresh food. Findings imply that fresh suboptimal foods lend themselves more to be promoted with others-centred messages, or to be targeted at consumers with others-centred values. Sales of suboptimal food in the store should be accompanied by communication, and such efforts to tackle food waste in the store should focus on fresh food in particular.

  • 6.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, Ilona E.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Rohm, Harald
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bossle, Marilia B.
    Unisinos Business School, Brazil.
    Grønhøj, Alice
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Key characteristics and success factors of supply chain initiatives tackling consumer-related food waste – A multiple case study2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 155, p. 33-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste accounts for a considerable share of the environmental impact of the food sector. Therefore, strategies that aim to reduce food waste have great potential to improve sustainability of the agricultural and food supply chains. Consumer-related food waste is a complex issue that needs collaboration between various supply chain actors and sector stakeholders. Although a range of initiatives from various actors already exists internationally, there is still a lack of knowledge on which lessons can be derived from such cases. The current multiple case study provides insights into how to successfully design future actions, by analysing common and distinct key success factors in 26 existing initiatives to reduce consumer-related food waste. The findings reveal that collaboration between stakeholders, timing and sequence of initiatives, competencies that the initiative is built on, and a large scale of operations are key success factors. Success factors are identified for the primary design, for the development and maintenance phase, and for reaching out to consumers. There are three general types of initiatives that differ in their aims and characteristics: information and capacity building, redistribution, and retail and supply chain alteration. The first type focuses most strongly on motivating consumer food waste avoidance behaviour and strengthening consumer abilities, while the second and third focus primarily on altering consumer food choice context, but combine this with aspects of raising awareness. Recommendations are derived for future initiatives which should take inspiration from existing initiatives, especially considering the right partners, competencies involved, timing the start of the initiative right, and aim to soon achieve a large scale.

  • 7.
    Attias, Noam
    et al.
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Danai, Ofer
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Tarazi, Ezri
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Ezov, Nirit
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Pereman, Idan
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Grobman, Yasha
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Mycelium bio-composites in industrial design and architecture: Comparative review and experimental analysis2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 246, article id 119037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent convergence of biotechnological and design tools has stimulated an emergence of new design practices utilizing natural mechanisms to program matter in a bottom-up approach. In this paper, the fibrous network of mycelium—the vegetative part of fungi—is employed to produce sustainable alternatives for synthetic foams. Current research on mycelium-based materials lacks essential details regarding material compositions, incubation conditions, and fabrication methods. The paper presents the results of ongoing research on employing mycelium to provide cleaner architecture and design products with sustainable lifecycles. The paper opens with a critical review of current projects, products, and scientific literature using mycelium in design and architecture. In the second section, material properties of varied fungi-substrate compositions and fabrication methods are evaluated and compared through changes in essential chemical parameters during fermentation, visual impression, water absorbency, and compression strength tests. Then, potential architecture and design implications related to the material properties are discussed. Results indicate a clear correlation between fungi, substrate, mold properties, and incubation conditions on final material characteristics, depicting a clear effect on material density, water absorbency, and the compressive strength of the final bio-composite. Finally, two primary case studies demonstrate implications for mycelium-based composites for circular design and architectural applications. The study shows that in order to produce desirable designs and performance within an inclusive circular approach, parameters such as material composition and fabrication conditions should be considered according to the target function of the final product throughout the design process.

  • 8.
    Berlin, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Minimising environmental impact by sequencing cultured dairy products: two case studies2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 483-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased production of cultured milk products has environmental consequences. To counteract the environmental impact from the dairy industry, it is important to process the products in a sequence designed to minimise waste. In a previous study a model was constructed to minimise the waste caused by a sequence for a given set of products and to calculate the environmental impact of a waste minimised sequence. This study applies successfully the model in case studies at two dairies. The number of products to be sequenced varied: Dairy A had 34 products and Dairy B had 16. The sequenced products were yoghurt, sour cream, cold sauce and crème fraiche, all with multiple flavours. The difference in number of products to be sequenced offered the opportunity to use both of the two model sequencing solutions: the heuristic and the optimised. The role of frequency of each product to be sequenced was investigated. Scenarios with differing frequencies were used in the case studies. The result showed clearly that the waste caused by a sequence decreased when product frequency was reduced. From a life cycle perspective, the environmental impact of processing cultured milk products can be greatly reduced by adopting sequences with fewer changes of product. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Björner Brauer, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Khan, Jamil
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Diffusion of biogas for freight transport in Sweden: A user perspective2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 312, article id 127738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current freight transport is highly dependent on fossil fuels and there is a need for a transition to alternative fuels and technologies. Biogas is a type of biofuel that has the potential to reduce climate emissions from freight transport, while providing additional benefits such as recycling of nutrients and increased energy security. This paper uses theories on the diffusion of green technologies to analyse the barriers and drivers for the increased use and diffusion of biogas in freight transport. The empirical focus is on the region of Västra Götaland in Sweden, and qualitative interviews have been conducted with demand-side actors such as transport buyers, haulage companies and vehicle manufacturers. The results confirm the important barriers observed in previous research, such as the higher costs of biogas, financial uncertainties and lack of infrastructure, as well as the interplay between barriers. The main drivers are an increased focus on sustainability both within the sector and from wider society, as well as the environmental properties of biogas. Specific barriers have also been identified such as a fragmented freight market structure with a mix of large and small transport companies, tight profit margins and reduced capacity for investments. There is also a division of labour and responsibilities between transport companies and transport buyers, which makes it unclear who will drive the transition to alternative fuels. In general, the study shows that the different types of uncertainty are perceived by the actors as being a significant barrier that needs to be better conceptualised in diffusion theory. © 2021 The Authors

  • 10.
    Blomsma, Fenna
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Pieroni, Marina
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Kravchenko, Mariia
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Pigosso, Daniela
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hildenbrand, Jutta
    Kristinsdottir, Anna Runa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kristoffersen, Eivind
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Shabazi, Sasha
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Nielsen, Kjartan
    Innovation Center Iceland, Iceland.
    Jönbrink, Anna Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Li, Jingyue
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Wiik, Carina
    Technology Industries of Finland, Finland.
    McAloone, Yim
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Developing a circular strategies framework for manufacturing companies to support circular economy-oriented innovation2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 241, article id 118271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper puts forward the Circular Strategies Scanner: a framework that introduces a taxonomy of circular strategies developed for use by manufacturing companies engaging in circular economy (CE) oriented innovation. Currently, a range of frameworks exists that propose a vision for how to operate in a CE, by identifying and organising relevant circular strategies. However, these frameworks have a limited applicability for specific business types, in particular manufacturing, and are unsuitable for use in CE oriented innovation, due to a lacking ability to support innovation processes through: 1) creating a comprehensive understanding of circular strategies, 2) mapping strategies currently applied and 3) finding opportunities for improved circularity across a range of business processes. This paper addresses these shortcomings by proposing a circular strategies framework for the manufacturing context, titled the Circular Strategies Scanner, which provides a comprehensive set of definitions of circular strategies and directly supports the early stages of CE oriented innovation. With this, the paper contributes to the body of work that develops CE transition methodology.

  • 11.
    Brodin, Malin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Vallejos, Maria
    Instituto de Materiales de Misiones (IMAM), Argentina.
    Opedal, Mihaela Tanase
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Area, Maria C.
    Instituto de Materiales de Misiones (IMAM), Argentina.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Lignocellulosics as sustainable resources for production of bioplastics: a review2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 162, p. 646-664Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bio-based economy requires a sustainable utilization of bioresources for production of a range of products, including pulp, paper, chemicals, biofuel and bioplastics. Currently, various types of bioplastics are produced industrially, competing in performance and price with the conventional fossil-oil based plastics. However, there is also a major interest in utilizing non-food crops, such as lignocellulosics, for production of drop-in polymers or new dedicated bioplastics. Lignocellulosic resources have a potential to replace plastics and materials, which have been traditionally based on fossil resources. This is important, as the development of high performance bio-based and renewable materials is one important factor for sustainable growth of the bio-based industry. However, production of bioplastics from forestry biomass requires a dedicated fractionation into the major components, i.e. cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, effective purification processes and cost-effective routes for conversion into monomers and platform molecules, utilized as a basis for bioplastics production. These processes are now technologically demanding and not profitable. The intention of this work was thus to review the current advances that have been made during the years within fractionation and purification of lignocelluloses and the processes that may feasible for production of bioplastics, based on wood components.

  • 12.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Carlsson, Erica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    The future of Swedish food waste: An environmental assessment of existing and prospective valorization techniques2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 202, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the current dominant valorization of food waste is the production of biogas. However, as current production has low profitability, other options are sought to find more valuable uses of food waste, e.g. as the feedstock for bio-based chemicals. One example is the use of food waste in the production of bio-based succinic acid. In this paper, a LCA study is presented in order to highlight whether biogas production or the production of succinic acid has the lowest environmental impact as valorization option for mixed food waste, and if mixed food waste could be an environmentally preferable feedstock to succinic acid production. The LCA study shows that the environmental results depend on the perspective. From a valorization perspective, food waste has the lowest environmental impact the biogas production. From a feedstock perspective, mixed food waste is an environmentally preferable feedstock to succinic acid production. Although many uncertainties exist because production processes are still being developed, it can be concluded that mixed food waste seems to be a promising feedstock for bio-based chemicals from an environmental point of view, and is of interest to be included in future assessments of bio-based chemicals for the emerging bio-economy. © 2018

  • 13.
    Cederberg, Christel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mattsson, Berit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Life cycle assessment of milk production: A comparison of conventional and organic farming2000In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 49-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An LCA was performed on organic and conventional milk production at the farm level in Sweden. In the study, special focus was aimed at substance flows in concentrate feed production and nutrient flows on the farms. The different feeding strategies in the two forms of production, influence several impact categories. The import of feed by conventional dairy farms often leads to a substantial input of phosphorus and nitrogen. Organic milk production is a way to reduce pesticide use and mineral surplus in agriculture but this production form also requires substantially more farmland than conventional production. For Swedish conditions, however, a large use of grassland for grazing ruminants is regarded positively since this type of arable land use promotes the domestic environmental goals of biodiversity and aesthetic values.

  • 14.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Peters, Gregory
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ecolabels as drivers of clothing design2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 99, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the textile industry has worked to reduce its negative social and environmental impacts. Identifying and addressing important sustainability considerations already in the clothing design are of increasing importance in the continuation of this work. Many companies look to ecolabelling schemes as means to set performance criteria and to demonstrate progress to customers. This study investigates the connection between ecolabels and clothing design from the perspective of moving the garment industry towards sustainability. Information gathered from literature was aligned and contrasted with interviews conducted with employees of garment companies in Sweden, and the material was analysed using a life-cycle perspective. The results reveal that the clothing design process currently only marginally influences clothing's sustainability performance by applying ecolabelling criteria. For a more sustainable textile industry there is a need to expand the expertise and information already in the design process regarding sustainability of their finished products. Such a change is only possible if the designers can be guided by a clear vision of design for sustainability for the company they work in.

  • 15.
    Desiderio, Edoardo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Shanmugam, Kavitha
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Plant based meat alternative, from cradle to company-gate: A case study uncovering the environmental impact of the Swedish pea protein value chain2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 418, article id 138173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dry-fractioned pea protein concentrate can be moulded into meat-analogue products, and understanding the environmental impact and hot spots of this expanding industry segment could pave the road to broader adoption of these protein sources. Hence, this research measures the environmental performance of a green pea protein supply chain in southern Sweden that processes pea protein concentrate into pea protein sausages. A cradle-to-factory-gate life-cycle assessment was performed. 1 kg of pea protein concentrate at 46% and 1 kg of pea protein sausages were chosen as functional units, while ReCiPe 2016 v1.1 Midpoint E was utilized to calculate 18 impact categories. Economic allocation was applied to pea protein processing, and mass allocation to sausage production, using 2021/22 data from Swedish companies. For 1 kg of pea protein concentrate of 46%, cultivation contributes to 41–99% of the total impact considering all 18 impact categories, while processing 1–59%. The climate impact was 1.91 kg CO2eq/kg pea protein concentrate (1.54 from the cultivation step and 0.37 from the processing step). For 1 kg of pea protein sausages, cultivation and sausage production contributed together between 32% and 78% to the total impacts. The climate impact was 1.0 kg CO2eq/kg sausage. Comparing the climate impacts of sausage ingredients, rapeseed oil and spices contributed significantly. For the sausage production stage, electricity and natural gas contributed the most. The results for climate impact are in the same range as for similar plant-based products, although the range reported in literature is wide. Green pea cultivation, sausage production and ingredients contributed all significantly. The results highlight the need to address the choice of ingredients when formulating the final product. The choice of allocation method had a significant impact on the results. Mass allocation resulted in 6 times lower impacts for the pea protein concentrate compared to economic allocation. © 2023 The Authors

  • 16.
    Diener, Derek
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Kushnir, Duncan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Tillman, Anne Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Scrap happens: A case of industrial end-users, maintenance and component remanufacturing outcome2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 213, p. 863-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extended product life and reuse are cornerstones of the circular economy vision. Remanufacturing is one strategy that could be used to facilitate more reuse. Research on remanufacturing often addresses the use phase of a product from the perspective of the remanufacturer, not of the end-user of the product. Results are often described in terms of barriers and drivers, with end-user awareness of and trust in remanufactured products being common themes. It can be argued that such explanations are not sufficient for understanding why remanufacturing doesn't happen because they marginalize events during the use phase and the effects of end-user action. The study described here focuses on the use phase and the end-users’ role in product remanufacturing outcome. The study is based on the case of one type of mechanical component, prolific in industry and society at large, and ten of its end-users in heavy industry. The component is already remanufacturable and a functioning remanufacturing system for it is already in place, yet the bulk of used components are scrapped by end-users instead of being sent for remanufacturing. Interviews were conducted with maintenance personnel at ten paper, steel and cement factories. These personnel were asked how they determine when a component is obsolete and how they make decisions about whether to send them for remanufacturing. Responses were analyzed with the help of theories from maintenance management and decision-making. The analysis is presented as a conceptual model of the ‘End-user system’ of the component, in which complicating factors such as machine irregularities and tough work environments are mitigated by maintenance personnel with component replacement and remanufacturing protocols and where rigidities related to system-level risks and costs make it difficult for personnel to change. This study reveals the systemic nature of component remanufacturing outcomes, and specifically, how maintenance activities of both components and the machines around them influence such outcomes. Moreover, it highlights that while certain replacement protocols lend themselves to remanufacturing, convincing end-users to choose remanufactured products may be more difficult than just making them aware and confident in the remanufacturing offering. 

  • 17.
    Femenías, Paula
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Thuvander, Liane
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rethinking deep renovation: The perspective of rental housing in Sweden2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 195, p. 1457-1467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines renovation strategies among owners of rental housing in Sweden in response to European energy policies that promote deep renovation as a means to reduce carbon emissions from residential buildings. Case studies of eleven housing companies, seven public and three private, were designed with the aim to examine housing owners’ attitudes and renovation strategies, and how policies and objectives for energy efficiency become incorporated into these attitudes and strategies. Results are illustrated in typologies that distinguish between renovation strategies with either a more commercial or a more societal focus and spanning between deep and partial renovation. The typologies can be used to discuss how different aspects influence renovation, and illustrates how strategies change over time. The study identifies a trend in which housing owners are increasingly relying on partial or over-time renovation. Cost is one important driver, but social responsibility toward tenants and in some cases the protection of cultural heritage are also found to be important. A distrust of fixed models for renovation was observed. The paper questions the concept of deep renovation and suggests instead partial and over-time renovation as a way forward toward sustainable renovation. Partial renovation can bring together energy efficiency with environmental, financial, social, and cultural objectives of housing management. If managed properly, over-time renovation can reduce the risk of an investment, and has the advantage of allowing future technological advancements in energy efficiency to be included in current planning.

  • 18.
    Flysjö, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Cederberg, Christel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Henriksson, M.
    Ledgard, S.
    The interaction between milk and beef production and emissions from land use change: Critical considerations in life cycle assessment and carbon footprint studies of milk2012In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 28, p. 134-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two most critical factors to address in environmental system analysis of future milk production are 1) the link between milk and beef production, and 2) the competition for land, possibly leading to land use change (LUC) with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and loss of biodiversity as important implications. Different methodological approaches concerning these factors, in studies on environmental impacts of dairy production, sometimes lead to contradictory results. Increasing milk yield per cow is often one of the solutions discussed in order to reduce GHG emissions from milk production. However, when also accounting for other systems affected (e.g. beef production) it is not certain that an increase in milk yield per cow leads to a reduction in total GHG emissions per kg milk. In the present study the correlation between carbon footprint (CF) of milk and the amount of milk delivered per cow is investigated for 23 dairy farms (both organic and conventional) in Sweden. Use of a fixed allocation factor of 90% (based on economic value) indicates a reduction in CF with increased milk yield, while no correlation can be noted when system expansion is applied. The average CF for two groups of farms, organic and high yielding conventional, is also calculated. When conducting system expansion the CF is somewhat lower for the organic farms (which have a lower milk yield per cow, but more meat per kg milk), but when a 90% allocation factor is used, the CF is somewhat higher for the organic farms compared to the high yielding conventional farms. In analysis of future strategies for milk production, it is suggested that system expansion should be applied, in order to also account for environmental impacts from affected systems. Thus, scenarios for milk and meat production should be analysed in an integrated approach in order to reduce total emissions from the livestock sector. How to account for emissions from LUC is highly debated and there is no current shared consensus. Different LUC methods result in significantly different results. In this study, four different LUC methods are applied, using data for organic milk production and high yielding conventional milk production systems in Sweden. Depending on which LUC method was applied, the organic system showed about 50% higher or 40% lower CF compared to the conventional high yielding system. Thus, when reporting CF numbers, it is important to report LUC-factors separately and clearly explain the underlying assumptions, since the method of accounting for LUC can drastically change the results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Furberg, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fransson, Kristin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Environmental and resource aspects of substituting cemented carbide with polycrystalline diamond: The case of machining tools2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 277, article id 123577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic diamond competes with the conventional cemented carbide (WC–Co) tool material in some applications due to its extreme hardness. However, so far, these materials have not been compared from a life cycle perspective regarding their environmental and resource impacts. The aims of this study are i) to provide detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) results for industrial polycrystalline diamond (PCD) production from diamond grit produced via high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) synthesis and ii) to conduct the first comparative LCA of PCD and WC-Co tools for the cases of wood working and titanium alloys machining. The results show that the main hotspot in HPHT synthesis of diamond grit, which is the main precursor to PCD, is the use of WC-Co in the high-pressure apparatus. In PCD tool production, the electricity input and the use of tungsten and molybdenum contribute the most to environmental and resource impacts. The environmental and resource impacts of the PCD tool production can be reduced with 53–83% if solar electricity and full WC-Co recycling is applied. The comparison shows high environmental and resource improvements when substituting WC-Co tools with PCD tools in wood working, but not in titanium alloys machining. © 2020 The Authors

  • 20.
    Ghose, Agneta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Environmental Aspects of Norwegian production of pulp fibres and printing paper2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 57, p. 293-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess the environmental impacts of the Norwegian pulp and paper industry, considering the production of pulp fibres and printing paper. The pulp fibres included in this study are thermo-mechanical pulp and kraft pulp fibres, which differ with respect to the energy consumption and chemicals used during production. The assessed paper grades were super-calendered paper and newsprint. The study was a cradle to gate approach, and corresponds to an attributional life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA was based on data collected from main pulp and paper producers in Norway. Importantly, aspects related to the increasing use of mineral fillers in the production of newsprints were assessed. The results showed that a reduction of more than 18% climate change impact (kg CO2 eq.) was achieved by increasing the fraction of fillers, in the newsprint furnish. Furthermore, the total climate change impact reduction depended on the applied energy mix. Assuming that the production of printing paper was based only on Norwegian energy mix, yielded a reduction of the climate change impact by more than 44% in 2011, compared to the production based on Scandinavian and European energy mix. Additionally, the input and output transport contributed to more than 20% impact in several cases. We thus concluded that the estimated environmental impacts were affected by; i) the furnish composition of a given paper quality, ii) the input and output transport and iii) the use of different primary grid energy sources.

  • 21.
    Gosens, Jorrit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys. Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lu, Yonglong
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Coenen, Lars
    Lund University, Sweden; NIFU Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education, Norway.
    The role of transnational dimensions in emerging economy 'Technological Innovation Systems' for clean-tech2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 86, p. 378-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ‘Technological Innovation System’ (TIS) framework and its system functions have become a popular analytical tool for the study of clean-tech innovation. There is increasing attention for the role of emerging economies in global clean-tech innovation, but the applicability of TIS to emerging economies cases is not entirely straightforward. A key issue is the limited geographical considerations, in particular transnational dimensions in TIS, whereas earlier perspectives on innovation in emerging economies have stressed the role of such transnational dimensions. This paper elaborates transnational TIS actor-networks and institutions, categorizes these in relation to TIS functions, and describes their potential to induce or block TIS development in emerging economies. We draw on insights from the perspectives of National Learning Systems, International Technology Transfer, and Global Production Networks for this purpose. We conclude that the potential effects of these transnational dimensions may be accurately grasped by the existing list of system functions, lending credence to its further application of the TIS framework on emerging economy case studies. Policy makers in emerging economies should recognize these transnational dimensions and seek to optimize their potential effect on domestic TIS development, taking in to consideration a realistic assessment of its role in the global TIS.

  • 22.
    Guo, Annie
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bryngelsson, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Strid, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Choice of health metrics for combined health and environmental assessment of foods and diets: A systematic review of methods2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 365, article id 132622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence-based scientific methods combining health and environmental perspectives are urgently required to support policy decisions and recommendations for more sustainable food systems. This review provides a systematic overview of health metrics and methods to combine health and environmental assessment of foods and diets. Key methodological considerations of importance for best practices are highlighted as well as trends over the past decade, and future research needs. A systematic literature review was performed in the databases Scopus, Dimensions and Pub Med. Eligible articles combined health impact and environmental assessment of food and were published in peer-reviewed scientific journals between 2010 and 2020. Differences in method choices were highlighted based on study approach, dietary baseline data, dietary exposure, dietary-related health outcome, method for health assessment, choice of health metric, environmental outcome and method for combined health and environmental assessment. A total of 33 articles using nine different health metrics in combination with environmental assessment of foods were identified. Avoided, averted, delayed or preventable deaths or cases, followed by disability- or quality-adjusted life years, and hazard ratio were the health metrics most commonly used. Three principal methods to combine health and environmental assessment of foods and diets were identified; parallel assessment (n = 26), scaled assessment (n = 7) and integrated assessment (n = 1). Method choices affecting reliability and uncertainty, as well as suitability for different purposes were described. Over the past decade, a strong acceleration in the research field of combined health and environmental assessment of food was noted, both regarding number of published studies and method development for more holistic sustainability assessments. Transition towards more sustainable food choices offers great potential to improve public health and reduce environmental impact from the food system. This review identified several health metrics that are suitable for use in methods combining health and environmental dimensions when studying the sustainability of food systems. For best practices, improved knowledge on how multi-criteria sustainability indicators can be assessed, communicated and implemented by different actors along the food supply chain is required. © 2022 The Authors

  • 23.
    Guo, Zingwei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    de la Motte, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Circular recycling of polyester textile waste using a sustainable catalyst2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 283, article id 124579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A tremendous amount of polyester textile waste is discarded every year, which has caused a serious problem for the environment. In this study, the feasibility of circular recycling of polyester textile waste is investigated through a glycolysis process in the presence of environmentally friendly Mg–Al double oxides pellets as catalyst. Even though the catalytic performance of Mg–Al double oxides pellets is slightly lower than their granules at 240 °C, pellets were used as they benefit from a good recyclability. The pellet catalysts could be cycled three times without losing structural integrity or catalytic activity in the glycolysis of (poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET)). However, to restore the catalytic activity after three cycles, the catalyst was regenerated through a heat treatment after the glycolysis reaction. After that the catalyst showed a comparable catalytic activity as that of virgin catalyst. In the glycolysis process, the monomer bis(hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) is generated and recovered. The molar yield of BHET was in the reaction over 80 mol%. From the recovered BHET, regenerated PET (r-PET) with an intrinsic viscosity (IV) of 0.67 was synthesized. The r-PET showed a very good spinnability in the melt spinning test. The quality of the obtained r-PET fibers was comparable to virgin PET fibers. 

  • 24.
    Hafez, H.
    et al.
    University of Northumbria, UK.
    Kurda, R.
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Garcia-Segura, T.
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Cheung, W. M.
    University of Northumbria, UK.
    Nagaratnam, B.
    University of Northumbria, UK.
    A whole life cycle performance-based ECOnomic and ECOlogical assessment framework (ECO2) for concrete sustainability2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 292, article id 126060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete is the primary building material worldwide with a substantial impact on the built environment sustainability. Hence, it is necessary to assess concrete's combined functionality, economic and environmental impact. In this paper, two concrete sustainability assessment frameworks, MARS-SC and CONCRETop, were studied. Building on the identified gaps, a new framework, ECO2 was developed. ECO2 is a multi-criteria decision analysis framework that accounts for carbon sequestration of concrete, impact allocation of raw materials, and the impact from the use and end-of-life phases. Hence, it could be used to optimize the proportions of a concrete mix based on a user-defined sustainability objective. A case study concluded that, due to the whole life cycle scope, the environmental impact calculated through ECO2 is 20% higher than that by MARS-SC and CONCRETop. In case of reinforced concrete, where service life requirements are different, the ranking of the alternatives according to ECO2 will significantly change comparatively.

  • 25.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bajzelj, B
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Håkansson, N
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sjons, Josefin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Åkesson, A
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wolk, A
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Dietary climate impact: Contribution of foods and dietary patterns by gender and age in a Swedish population2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 306, article id 127189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary climate impact in a Swedish population (56–95 years old) was estimated based on self-reported food intake from 50 000 men and women within two population-based cohorts and on climate data, covering emissions from farm to fork, for 600 foods representative for the Swedish market. Aims were to assess variation in dietary climate impact between population groups and between food categories. Mean dietary climate impact was 2.0 tons of CO2e/person/year, with about a threefold variation between high and low impact individuals. Food loss and waste accounted for 18%. Older individuals and women on average had lower total dietary climate impact per year, while differences between gender were smaller per 1000 kcal. Climate impact was greatly affected by dietary composition and especially by the content of animal-based and discretionary foods, responsible for 71% and 12% of total climate impact, respectively. Results indicate a large potential for reduced climate impact by adopting realistic dietary patterns. Suggested strategies to reach climate goals include reduction of red meat and prioritising lower impact foods within meat, dairy and seafood categories, limited consumption of discretionary foods and decreased over-consumption of total calories, combined with improvements in production including reduction of food loss and waste.

  • 26.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bajzelj, B
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Håkansson, N
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sjons, Josefin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Åkesson, A
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wolk, A
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Dietary climate impact: Contribution of foods and dietary patterns by gender and age in a Swedish population2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 306, article id 127189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary climate impact in a Swedish population (56–95 years old) was estimated based on self-reported food intake from 50 000 men and women within two population-based cohorts and on climate data, covering emissions from farm to fork, for 600 foods representative for the Swedish market. Aims were to assess variation in dietary climate impact between population groups and between food categories. Mean dietary climate impact was 2.0 tons of CO2e/person/year, with about a threefold variation between high and low impact individuals. Food loss and waste accounted for 18%. Older individuals and women on average had lower total dietary climate impact per year, while differences between gender were smaller per 1000 kcal. Climate impact was greatly affected by dietary composition and especially by the content of animal-based and discretionary foods, responsible for 71% and 12% of total climate impact, respectively. Results indicate a large potential for reduced climate impact by adopting realistic dietary patterns. Suggested strategies to reach climate goals include reduction of red meat and prioritising lower impact foods within meat, dairy and seafood categories, limited consumption of discretionary foods and decreased over-consumption of total calories, combined with improvements in production including reduction of food loss and waste.

  • 27.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Mifflin, Kathleen
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Parker, Robert
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Troell, Max
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Combined climate and nutritional performance of seafoods2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 230, p. 402-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    National authorities in many countries advise their populations to eat more seafood, for health and sometimes for environmental purposes, but give little guidance as to what type of seafood should be consumed. The large diversity in species and production methods results in variability both in the nutritional content and in the environmental performance of seafoods. More targeted dietary advice for sustainable seafood consumption requires a better understanding of the relative nutritional benefits against environmental costs of various types of seafood. This study analyzes the combined climate and nutritional performance of seafood commonly consumed in Sweden, originating all over the world. Nutrient density scores, assessed by seven alternative methods, are combined with species- technology- and origin-specific greenhouse gas emission data for 37 types of seafood. An integrated score indicates which seafood products provide the greatest nutritional value at the lowest climate costs and hence should be promoted from this perspective. Results show that seafoods consumed in Sweden differ widely in nutritional value as well as climate impact and that the two measures are not correlated across all species. Dietary changes towards increased consumption of more seafood choices where a correlation exists (e.g. pelagic species like sprat, herring and mackerel)would benefit both health and climate. Seafoods with a higher climate impact in relation to their nutritional value (e.g. shrimp, Pangasius and plaice)should, on the other hand, not be promoted in dietary advice. The effect of individual nutrients and implications of different nutrient density scores is evaluated. This research is a first step towards modelling the joint nutritional and climate benefits of seafood as a concrete baseline for policy-making, e.g. in dietary advice. It should be followed up by modelling other species, including environmental toxins in seafood in the nutrition score, and expanding to cover other environmental aspects.

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  • 28.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Håkansson, N.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Åkesson, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wolk, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Dietary environmental impacts relative to planetary boundaries for six environmental indicators – A population-based study2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 373, article id 133949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impact of Swedish diets was assessed for six indicators (greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions, cropland use, nitrogen application, phosphorus application, consumptive water use and extinction rate), using self-reported food intake within two population-based cohorts of men and women, 56–96 years of age. The dietary environmental impact was assessed in relation to per capita planetary boundaries, overall and by population subgroups, addressing the relative importance of specific foods and food groups. The total average dietary impact exceeded the planetary boundaries by 1.6 to 4-fold for five of the six environmental indicators; consumptive water use did not exceed the boundaries. Comparing the highest with lowest quintiles of the population impact showed >2.5-fold differences across all environmental indicators. Of the diet's total average environmental impact, animal-based, plant-based and discretionary foods accounted for 28–83%, 8–40% and 9–37%, respectively, across the six indicators. Animal-based foods dominated the impact on GHG emissions, cropland use and nitrogen and phosphorus application, while plant-based and discretionary foods contributed more to consumptive water use and extinction rate. Environmental impact was driven predominantly by consumption of red meat, dairy, fresh fruit and coffee. The findings show major challenges in affluent countries that have to be addressed to achieving sustainable food production systems and diets. They provide guidance on critical food groups, environmental indicators and population subgroups to prioritize in future efforts to reduce the environmental impact. © 2022 The Authors

  • 29.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Håkansson, N.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Åkesson, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wolk, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Climate impact of alcohol consumption in Sweden2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 201, p. 287-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the environmental impact of alcohol is limited and as an effect alcohol is often excluded from environmental studies of diets or included in incomplete ways. This paper describes the climate impact of beer, wine and liquor by using life cycle assessment. The climate impact is quantified per litre of specific alcoholic beverages and per total amount of alcohol consumed based on self-reported data of 50 000 individuals from 2009 within two population-based cohorts in Sweden. The results show that alcoholic beverages generate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the range of 0.73–2.38 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per litre. Alcohol consumption in the population studied generates on average 52 kg CO2e per person and year. Within the 10% of the population with the highest intake of alcohol GHG emissions are up to 202 kg CO2e per person and year. Consumption of wine is responsible for the largest share of GHG emissions from alcoholic beverages (61%) followed by beer (33%), while liquor and strong wine account for a smaller share (6%). Alcohol consumption among men generates 90% higher GHG emissions than among women. Alcohol consumption and in consequence alcohol-related emissions are decreasing with increasing age of men and women. Our results indicate that alcohol consumption in Swedish men and women is responsible for an average of 3% of total diet-related GHG emissions and in sub-populations with the highest consumption up to 6–11%. Limiting alcohol could be an effective option to reduce the climate impact of diets, especially among men.

  • 30.
    Hammar, Torun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Hanning, Anne-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Haatanen, Noora
    South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Pakkasmaa, Juhana
    South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Life cycle assessment of textile fibre-to-fibre recycling by cellulose carbamate technology2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 426, article id 139189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fashion industry faces major challenges in reducing its environmental impacts along the textile value chain, from fibre production, via various processing steps, use phase and to the end-of-life stage. A major challenge is how to shift from the current linear industry to a circular one, where textiles are both sustainably produced, and after the full life length, recycled into new fibres with high value applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of post-consumer textile fibre-to-fibre recycling by cellulose carbamate technology, in terms of climate impact, water scarcity impact, cumulative energy demand and land use impact. By performing life cycle assessment, it was shown that the chemically recycled cellulose carbamate fibre has a climate impact of about 2.2 kg CO2-eq per kg fibre, water scarcity impact of 1.6 m3 H2O-eq per kg fibre, cumulative energy demand of 90 MJ-eq per kg fibre and land use impact of about 92 Pt per kg fibre (when applying mass allocation of co-products). Hotspots identified during the fibre production technology were electricity use and production of sodium hydroxide. In a sensitivity analysis, it was shown that the choice of electricity has a major influence on the results, and by using a renewable electricity mix over an average Finnish electricity mix, the impact could be decreased for all impact categories, except when using bioenergy, which would increase the land use impact. Compared to primary fibres like viscose and conventional cotton, these impacts are in the lower to middle range, showing potential to lower environmental impacts when moving towards an increased amounts of recycled post-consumer textile fibre with high value applications, that can replace primary fibres. 

  • 31.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Peters, Gregory
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    What difference can drop-in substitution actually make?: A life cycle assessment of alternative water repellent chemicals2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 329, article id 129661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are used in durable water repellents (DWRs) on outdoor garments and manufacturers are currently phasing out hazardous PFASs. A critical question is: which alternatives should be chosen? The answer should depend on a holistic assessment, but the published inventory data and methodological guidance for assessing PFAS in products is slim and typically limited to hazard assessment. We aim to provide a holistic assessment of the potential environmental consequences of this phase out of DWRs, going beyond the more traditional hazard-focused substitution assessment to also include a broad life-cycle-based assessment of PFASs and their drop-in alternatives. In this study, potential environmental consequences of the phase out were evaluated by applying a life cycle assessment (LCA) to shell jackets with side-chain fluorinated polymer based (i.e., PFASs) or non-fluorinated alternative DWRs with the aim to support a substitution assessment. We demonstrated an innovative approach to impact assessment by inclusion of PFAS related fate and toxicity and invested effort towards contributing new primary inventory data by using a combination of industry dialogue and performance measurements from our larger project context. From a methodological point of view, this paper demonstrates the state-of-the-art in product LCA of persistent textile chemicals and identifies the current limits of this assessment approach. It also delivers new LCI data of use to other analysts. The LCA results in this paper suggest that jackets without PFASs are environmentally preferable. Potential problem shifting due to increased washing and reimpregnation of the jackets did not outweigh PFAS-related potential toxicity impacts as indicated by LCA results. Based on the results presented here, specific DWRs within the non-fluorinated DWR group could not be identified as preferable to others. This LCA does however provide a relevant starting point for more detailed studies on specific DWR systems and it supports moves to phase-out PFASs from non-essential DWR uses. © 2021 The Authors

  • 32.
    Huang, Liming
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Tongji University, China.
    Tang, Luping
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bachinger, Angelika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Li, Y.
    Shenzhen University, China.
    Yang, Z.
    Tongji University, China.
    Improving the performance of alkali-activated slag mortar with electro/chemically treated carbon fiber textile2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 418, article id 138214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkali-activated slag is a widely used low-carbon binder. Incorporation of textile can mitigate the brittle weakness of alkali-activated composites. The bonding between fibers and matrix is critical for the performance of textile reinforced mortar. This paper is focused on the effect of different treatment methods on the bonding properties of carbon fiber in alkali-activated slag. The interfacial shear strength of fiber bundles in matrix was determined by the pull-out test. The flexural strength of the reinforced mortar was evaluated by a repeated bending. A scanning electron microscopy test was performed to characterize the interfacial properties of the fiber bundles. The results show that the interfacial shear strength of carbon fibers in matrix is improved by the electroplating with calcium silica slurry (CSS), impregnation in different solutions, and plasma treatments. An electroplating in CSS has the best improvement in the bonding strength with an increase by 620%. The CSS treatment increases the maximum flexural strength of CFT reinforced mortar with 22.5% and 30% at 7 and 28 d respectively, and it significantly inhibits the crack growth under the cyclic loading. This effect becomes more significant after a longer curing age. The electroplating treatment eliminates the cracks in the interface of fiber yarns. Slag reacts with the plated portlandite to strengthen the bonding between mortar and fiber bundles, so it has a better inhibiting effect on the crack growth after a longer curing. © 2023 The Authors

  • 33.
    Hunka, Agnieszka D.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Habibi, Shiva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    What drives demand for paid access to a sharing box with underused items?: A choice experiment with Swedish consumers2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 393, article id 135793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determinants of consumer demand for subscription to a sharing platform for underused tools and hobby items were investigated in a series of choice experiments. The stated-preference study with a census-representative sample of 702 Swedish adults, tested four types of offers (sharing boxes) containing: gardening and power tools, photo and video equipment, kitchen and household tools and outdoor/sport equipment. Respondents faced hypothetical buying scenarios: they were asked to choose a subscription to a maintained and insured sharing box located in a public space and containing premium-segment items from one of the above categories. Results show that a possible location for a sharing box depends on its content - for instance, the sharing box with garden tools was preferred by small garden owners. It was also tested, in a demand simulation scenario, how measures aimed at managing utilisation of shared items, such as booking in advance, booking limits or location of the sharing box would affect the preference for the offer. Findings suggest that respondents would be willing to accept these inconveniences of sharing, provided the subscription price was set accordingly (25% lower than the average used across all experiments). Moreover, respondents seem to be using familiar digital subscriptions as a benchmark to determine a fair price for the offers used in the study. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 34.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Economic incentives and technological limitations govern environmental impact of LNG feeder vessels2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 429, article id 139461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the transition to sustainable shipping, Liquified Natural Gas (LNG), is proposed to play a role, reducing emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter. However, LNG is a fossil fuel and there is an ongoing discussion regarding the extent of methane slip from ships operating on LNG, challenging the assumptions of LNG as a sustainable solution. Here we show another aspect to consider in the environmental assessment of shipping; LNG feeder vessels may spend as much as 25% of their time at sea just running the ship to ensure the pressure in the tanks are not exceeded, i.e., run time not directly attributed to the shipment of gas from one port or ship, to another. In other words, the economic incentives are currently allowing for roughly 32% increase of the ships’ operational emissions and discharges and increased navigational risks. Most coastal areas are heavily affected by anthropogenic activities and e.g., in the Baltic Sea there is consensus among the HELCOM member states that the input of nutrient and hazardous substances must be reduced. Even if the LNG feeder vessels are currently few, the possibility to reduce their environmental impact by 32% should be an attractive opportunity for future policy measures and investigation of technological solutions of the problem. 

  • 35.
    Islam, K M Nazmul
    et al.
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Hildenbrand, Jutta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea.
    Hossain, Mohammad Mosharraf
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Life cycle impacts of three-way ceramic honeycomb catalytic converter in terms of disability adjusted life year2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 600-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalytic converters in vehicles reduce emissions while the use of platinum group metals (PGMs) in them have negative health impacts both in the PGMs mining stage and at the end-of-life PGM recycling stage. This study was conducted to weigh the production-recycling phase impacts and the use phase benefits of a three-way honeycomb catalytic converter by using the disability adjusted life year (DALY) indicator over its cradle-to-cradle life cycle. We have combined the environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) approach with a method to account the workplace impact on human health, which may be adopted in social LCA. In general, a catalytic converter causes more loss of lives (11 days) then it saves (4.5 days) under the egalitarian value perspectives for the baseline production scenario with 160,000 km functional life. Contrary to that, under the same scenario and service life, the catalytic converter saves lives (5.5 days and approx. 6 days for the hierarchist and individualist perspectives, respectively) than it causes loss (about 1 day and 0.6 days for the hierarchist and individualist perspectives, respectively). The geographical hotspot analysis reveals that, while the catalytic converter save lives in Sweden where it is used; it causes more loss of lives elsewhere in the world, particularly in South Africa and Russia. Overall, the DALY varies between 0.62 days and 11.3 days, mainly due to differences in value perspectives. The study showed that increased use of recycled platinum group metals, extended functional life of the catalytic converter may alter the health balance of the product system. This human health-focused cradle to cradle life cycle case study identified methodological issues that need further attention, like development of occupational DALY characterization factors (CFs) for the countries involved in the production of three-way ceramic honeycomb catalytic converter, and emission DALY CFs for PGEs during the use phase of catalytic converter. From scenario analysis, it is observed that, the rise of electric vehicles may drastically alter the social lives lost impacts of catalytic converter. 

  • 36.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Energy strategies in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden: Interactions between efficient resource utilisation and increased product diversification2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 311, article id 127681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry faces several challenges linked to climate and environmental impact, resource efficiency, rising energy prices, increased competition for biomass resources, and declining demand for traditional printed paper products. However, these challenges also offer strategic opportunities for the industry to develop into a competitive, resource-efficient, and low-carbon industry in line with a biobased economy. Against this background, this paper aims to analyse current energy strategies in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden. Specifically, the paper analyses how companies combine continuous process efficiency to reduce energy costs with activities that could be developed into new energy-related products to increase revenue. Most of the analysed companies work to various degrees with both these strategies, employing methods that include improving energy efficiency, energy security, and energy conversion, as well as developing a wide range of biobased energy products. However, our study indicates that there is an untapped potential associated with energy product development, and we conclude that energy efficiency measures can free up resources, enabling the development of new energy products. Finally, several potential managerial outcomes and implications are outlined. © 2021 The Authors

  • 37.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Guo, Siping
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandén, Björn A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Handling financial resource mobilisation in technological innovation systems - The case of chinese wind power2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, p. 3872-3882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To mitigate climate change, a rapid and large-scale expansion of sustainable innovations such as renewable energy technologies is crucial. China's track record of wind power development shows both speed and scale that can provide valuable knowledge of how to stimulate and maintain transformation of energy systems. The growth was made possible partly by ample access to financial capital. However, the rapid growth also led to growing pains and made the industry face increasing financial constraints. While these constraints partly relate to structures and trends that are external to the wind power innovation system, they were also a consequence of the particular path taken in Chinese wind power development. The case demonstrates that if a full-fledged industry is to be developed and sustained, a balanced growth is required and all innovation system functions need due attention, sooner or later. Conceptually, the article contributes by further exploring how mobilisation of financial resources affect and is affected by overall system dynamics.

  • 38.
    Kimming, Marie
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, Sven
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Replacing fossil energy for organic milk production: potential biomass sources and greenhouse gas emission reductions2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 106, p. 400-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing awareness of the climate impact of agricultural production, not least from cattle farms. Major sources of GHG emissions from milk production are enteric fermentation followed by fossil fuel use and manure/soil management systems. This study analyzes the potential to eliminate fossil fuel use from milk production farms in Sweden, by using residual farm resources of biomass to obtain self-sufficiency in fuel, heat and electricity. The change from a fossil-based energy system to a renewable system based on A) Biogas based on manure and straw and B) Biogas based on manure + RME were analyzed with consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) methodology. Focus was energy use and GHG emissions and the functional unit was 1 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM). The results show that organic milk producers can become self-sufficient in energy and reduce total GHG emissions from milk production by 46% in the Biogas system, or 32% in the Biogas + RME system compared to the Fossil system.

  • 39.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bellgran, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Green lean operationalisation of the circular economy concept on production shop floor level2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 278, article id 123223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Addressing today's general requirements on sustainability, as captured by for example the UN sustainability goals, is a necessity within production operations. It means that production managers need to find and manage new working procedures and methods on the shop floor to increase resource efficiency and overall sustainability. Utilizing a green lean environmental improvement tool called Green Performance Map in manufacturing and pharma industry has proven successful results in engaging shop floor managers and operators in green kaizen and demonstrated the value of integrating the waste hierarchy model, hence operationalising the concept of circular economy. This paper presents results of eight industrial cases of pilot trials of the Green Performance Map, demonstrating how the waste hierarchy model was used as an operationalisation mechanism for increasing the circularity on the shop floor. This was made by prioritizing and executing environmental improvements identified by the shop floor team that implied moving up one or more steps in the waste hierarchy. By this action, resource efficiency was improved as well as the overall environmental behaviour. The research presented contributes to the green lean theory and its integration with circular economy in a production context. On managerial level, the research demonstrates a concrete way of how the circularity could be improved on the shop floor.

  • 40.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wendin, Marcus
    Miljögiraff, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Cecilia
    Volvo Group, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Waste flow mapping to improve sustainability of waste management: A case study approach2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 304-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative, resource-efficient solutions and effective waste management systems capture value in business and contribute to sustainability. However, due to scattered waste management responsibilities in the vehicle industry and the orientation of operations management and lean tools, which mostly focus on lead-time and labour-time improvements, the requirement of a collaborative method to include material waste efficiency in operational development is identified. The main purpose of this research is to study how operations management and environmental management can be integrated on an operational level and include the waste management supply chain. Based on a literature review of environmental and operational improvement tools and principles, the gaps and needs in current practice were identified. A large case study implementing a waste flow mapping (WFM) method on a set of manufacturing sites revealed potentials in terms of reducing material losses and inefficiencies in the handling of materials and waste. Finally, the integrated WFM method was analysed with respect to the gaps and needs identified in the existing body of tools for operational and environmental improvement. The method combines lean manufacturing tools, such as value stream mapping with cleaner production and material flow cost accounting strategies. The empirical data showed that the WFM method is adequate for current state analysis of waste material efficiency potentials, especially when multiple organisations are involved. However, further development and specific methods are needed such as, for example, logistics inefficiencies, root cause analysis, implementation guidelines for best practice and systems for performance monitoring of actors.

  • 41.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lean and green integration into production system models - Experiences from Swedish industry2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 85, p. 180-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on integration of operations management, specifically production system models with environmental management and related issues such as quality and safety. Based on knowledge concerning lean-based improvement programmes for company-specific production systems (XPS) and integration between formal management systems, such as ISO 9001 and 14001, industrial practices from integrating management systems with the XPS were studied. A literature-based comparison between formal management systems and XPS is made, indicating integration potentials. The empirical research is an analysis of five vehicle and automotive companies in which various efforts have been made to integrate their management systems with their XPS. The results show that although conscious steps have been taken since the introduction of ISO 14001 in integrating environmental management into everyday operations, there are still obstacles to overcome. To fully include sustainability aspects, the characteristics of the improvement systems have to be adapted and extended. One barrier to extended integration is the lack of integration strategy. There is further a lack of sustainability metrics and adaptation of improvement methods to push companies' operational performance. In addition, organisational issues still arise concerning the responsibility and ownership of environmental management in relation to operations. Based on these results it is concluded that processes for integration are recommended; however, each organisation needs to consider its operations, corporate culture and business opportunities of its environmental management. Still, incorporating environmental management systems into XPS is seen as an effective way of establishing company commonality in continuous improvement, resulting in holistic understanding and improved organisation performance.

  • 42.
    Larsson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jansson, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alvfors, Per
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Techno-economic assessment of anaerobic digestion in a typical Kraft pulp mill to produce biomethane for the road transport sector2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, p. 460-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable waste-based fuels may decrease the resource use and environmental impact of the road transport sector; one of the options is biogas produced via anaerobic digestion of waste streams from pulp and paper mills. This paper describes process simulation and economic assessments for two options for integrating anaerobic digestion and production of liquid biogas in a typical Nordic Kraft pulp mill: (1) a high-rate anaerobic reactor in the wastewater treatment, and (2) an external anaerobic stirred tank reactor for the treatment of primary and secondary sludge as well as Kraft evaporator methanol condensate. The results revealed an annual production potential of 26-27 GWh biogas in an average Nordic Kraft pulp mill, which is equivalent to a daily production of 7600 L of diesel in terms of energy, and the production cost was estimated to €0.47-0.82 per litre diesel equivalent, comparable with the Swedish price of €0.68 per litre diesel. However, for the cases with liquid biogas (LBG), a discounted payback period of about 8 years may not be considered profitable by the industry. Other pre-requisites may, however, improve the profitability: a larger mill; production of compressed biogas instead of liquid biogas; or, for case 1, a comparison with the alternative cost for expanding the wastewater treatment capacity with more process equipment for activated sludge treatment. The results reveal that anaerobic digestion at pulp mills may both expand the production of renewable vehicle fuel but also enable increased efficiency and revenue at Kraft pulp mills.

  • 43.
    Lestander, T. A.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Grimm, A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Rudolfsson, M.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Gasification of pure and mixed feedstock components: Effect on syngas composition and gasification efficiency2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 369, article id 133330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether the use of individual tree components (i.e., stem wood, bark, branches, and needles of spruces) as feedstocks during oxygen blow gasification is more efficient than using mixtures of these components. Experiments were performed at three oxygen levels in an 18-kW oxygen blown fixed bed gasifier with both single and mixed component feedstocks. The composition of the resulting syngas and the cold gas efficiency based on CO and H2 (CGEfuel) were used as response variables to evaluate the influence of different feedstocks on gasification performance. Based on the experimental results and data on the composition of ∼26000 trees drawn from a national Swedish spruce database, multivariate models were developed to simulate gasifier performance under different operating conditions and with different feedstock compositions. The experimental results revealed that the optimal CGEfuel with respect to the oxygen supply differed markedly between the different spruce tree components. Additionally, the models showed that co-gasification of mixed components yielded a lower CGEfuel than separate gasification of pure components. Optimizing the oxygen supply for the average tree composition reduced the GCEfuel by 1.3–6.2% when compared to optimal gasification of single component feedstocks. Therefore, if single-component feedstocks are available, it may be preferable to gasify them separately because doing so provides a higher gasification efficiency than co-gasification of mixed components. © 2022 The Authors

  • 44.
    Linder, Marcus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Boyer, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Dahllöf, Lisbeth
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Hunka, Agnieszka
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Product-level inherent circularity and its relationship to environmental impact2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 260, article id 121096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular Economy scholarship has developed multiple metrics for assessing product-level circularity. To date, however, many product-level indicators either conflate circularity and environmental impact, or have been validated using a very limited sample of products. This study applies a single metric, “C”, to a sample of 18 products in the Swedish marketplace, and compares their C-scores with scores for lifecycle assessment (LCA). LCA scores for sample products are normalized by LCA scores of very similar reference products, allowing for comparison of LCAs across different product varieties. A test for correlation between products’ C-scores and LCA ratios reveals a strong, significant, and inverse association between levels of circularity and products’ relative environmental impact. The results offer evidence that products whose economic value is composed of relatively more recirculated material have a relatively low impact on the environment. Future research will benefit from applying similar tests to a broader variety of products and developing tools to expedite the accurate measurement of circularity and lifecycle impacts.

  • 45.
    Lundkvist, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Brämming, Mats
    SSAB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    System analysis of slag utilisation from vanadium recovery in an integrated steel plant2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 47, p. 43-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium in raw materials used in iron- and steelmaking, a particular challenge for Nordic steel producers, affects the composition of the generated slag from the steelmaking vessel, i.e. The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) adversely and reduces the potential for recycling and external utilisation. A process concept under development aims to enrich and extract the vanadium content of slag from the BOF, making use of the vanadium in the slag and also increasing the overall slag use potential. Applications of this concept affect slag compositions and internal material flows in the iron and steel production system, especially when recycling BOF slags as flux in the blast furnace (BF). This paper will present a case study, based on a Process Integration (PI) approach, using a designated system model to simulate the steel production system and the implementation of the process concept, thereby analysing how to obtain maximum usage of metallurgical slags without compromising the quality of the main product, i.e. liquid steel. Different approaches were studied to improve the environmental sustainability in the production system by maximising the material efficiency through vanadium recovery (as FeV alloy) and the use of slags, thereby minimising the stored/deposited slag amounts.

  • 46.
    Markström, Emilia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kuzman, Manja K.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Bystedt, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Swedish architects view of engineered wood products in buildings2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 181, p. 33-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a climate perspective, it could be advantageous to increase the use of wood products in buildings, but the use of sawn timber and engineered wood products (EWPs) in multi-storey buildings above two floors are a relatively new business (in Sweden since 1995) and there is a risk that wood as construction material is met with low awareness and high uncertainty by the construction sector. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to learn Swedish architects' views of using EWPs in buildings, and 2) to identify parameters that positively influence the likelihood that EWPs will be selected to a greater extent and the relative importance of those parameters. A survey was sent out to Swedish architects and 67 answers were received. The result indicates that architects in Sweden have a positive attitude towards EWPs in general and that the majority think that they will probably increase their use of these materials. Low impact on the environment, aesthetic appeal, and fast construction were the most common reasons stated for selecting EWPs. The Swedish architects have in general a moderate impact on the selection of materials, and the most common reason for not selecting EWPs was that other decision makers involved in the building projects prefer other materials. A lack of knowledge and information as well as uncertainties regarding the quality over time were other common reasons for not selecting EWPs. It was found that architects who had participated in building projects where EWPs had been chosen due to their low environmental impact and/or aesthetic appearance were more likely to state that they will increase their use of EWPs. The results also show that influence on material selection, knowledge of EWPs, experience of the use of EWPs, and the architect's own attitude to the use of EWPs affect the likelihood of an increased use.

  • 47.
    Mattsson, Berit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Cederberg, Christel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Blix, L.
    Agricultural land use in life cycle assessment (LCA): Case studies of three vegetable oil crops2000In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 283-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for environmental assessment of agricultural land use is outlined. Environmental objectives and indicators of the land use quality are defined. The method is tested in case studies of cultivated vegetable oil crops: Swedish rape seed, Brazilian soybean and Malaysian oil palm. The results from this study lead us to bclieve that the indicators soil erosion, soil organic matter, soil structure, soil pH, phosphorus and potassium status of the soil, and the impact on biodiversity are a good choice of indicators. These indicators would give a good picture of long-term soil fertility and biodiversity. However, taking them together involves results that are a mix of quantitative and qualitative information, which makes it difficult to aggregate in an acceptable way. Therefore, land use assessment performed in this way includes not only quantitative results but also qualitative descriptions.A method is developed for addressing agricultural land use in life cycle assessment. Based on a set of environmental objectives, a series of quantifiable variables is selected as indicators of the sustainability of the production capacity of agricultural land. These include: soil erosion, hydrology, soil organic matter, soil structure, soil pH, heavy-metal accumulation, phosphorus and potassium contents, biodiversity, and landscape aesthetic value. As illustration, three case studies are presented, involving rape seed production in Sweden, soybean production in Brazil, and oil palm production in Malaysia.

  • 48.
    Mellin, Pelle
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Åkermo, Malin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE, Swerea. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordenberg, Eva
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Strondl, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nano-sized by-products from metal 3D printing, composite manufacturing and fabric production2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 139, p. 1224-1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the health and environmental perspective of nano-materials has gained attention. Most previous work focused on Engineered Nanoparticles (ENP). This paper examines some recently introduced production routes in terms of generated nano-sized by-products. A discussion on the hazards of emitting such particles and fibers is included. Fine by-products were found in recycled metal powder after 3D printing by Selective Laser Melting (SLM). The process somehow generated small round metal particles (∌1–2 ÎŒm) that are possibly carcinogenic and respirable, but not small enough to enter by skin-absorption. With preventive measures like closed handling and masks, any health related effects can be prevented. The composite manufacturing in particular generated ceramic and carbonaceous particles that are very small and respirable but do not appear to be intrinsically toxic. The smallest features in agglomerates were about 30 nm. Small particles and fibers that were not attached in agglomerates were found in a wide range of sizes, from 1 ÎŒm and upwards. Preventive measures like closed handling and masks are strongly recommended. In contrast, the more traditional production route of fabric production is investigated. Here, brushing residue and recycled wool from fabric production contained few nano-sized by-products.

  • 49.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Managerial and organizational challenges encountered in the development of sustainable technology: Analysis of Swedish biorefinery pilot and demonstration plants2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 276, article id 124150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot and demonstration plants (PDPs) perform critical tasks in the development of new sustainable technology by bridging basic knowledge generation and large-scale commercialization. Significant private and public funding has therefore been allocated to PDPs addressing climate change, pollution abatement technology and/or increased resource efficiency. After technology verification, PDPs typically struggle with evolving objectives, and reports of stalled or delayed development are common. Key problems may center on technical difficulties, but challenges of a non-technical nature are equally important, not least for the development of clean technology. This paper draws on a longitudinal case study of four PDPs used for advanced biorefinery technology development in Sweden and delineates the key managerial and organizational challenges that arise in and around such plants. By taking the actor networks around PDPs as the main unit of analysis, this paper gives a detailed description of various challenges, such as the division of responsibility for the operation and ownership of the PDPs, unclear roles and objectives, and the lack of specific competences and resources in the actor networks. One important conclusion is that improved knowledge about such challenges should increase the resilience of actor networks in and around PDPs, and also help shorten the formative phase of developing sustainable technology. © 2020 The Authors

  • 50.
    Notarnicola, Bruno
    et al.
    University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Sala, Serenella
    European Commission Joint Research Centre. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Italy.
    Assumpcio, Anton
    IRTA Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology, Spain.
    McLaren, Sarah J.
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    Saouter, Erwan
    European Commission Joint Research Centre. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Italy.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    The role of life cycle assessment in supporting sustainable agri-food systems: A review of the challenges2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, p. 399-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle thinking is increasingly seen as a key concept for ensuring a transition towards more sustainable production and consumption patterns. As food production systems and consumption patterns are among the leading drivers of impacts on the environment, it is important to assess and improve food-related supply chains as much as possible. Over the years, life cycle assessment has been used extensively to assess agricultural systems and food processing and manufacturing activities, and compare alternatives “from field to fork” and through to food waste management. Notwithstanding the efforts, several methodological aspects of life cycle assessment still need further improvement in order to ensure adequate and robust support for decision making in both business and policy development contexts. This paper discusses the challenges for life cycle assessment arising from the complexity of food systems, and recommends research priorities for both scientific development and improvements in practical implementation. In summary, the intrinsic variability of food production systems requires dedicated modelling approaches, including addressing issues related to: the distinction between technosphere and ecosphere; the most appropriate functional unit; the multi-functionality of biological systems; and the modelling of the emissions and how this links with life cycle impact assessment. Also, data availability and interpretation of the results are two issues requiring further attention, including how to account for consumer behaviour.

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