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  • 1.
    Cederberg, Christel
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Persson, U.M.
    Neovius, K.
    Molander, S.
    Clift, R.
    Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of brazilian beef2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1773-1779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO2- equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  • 2.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    In the Search for Nanospecific Effects of Dissolution of Metallic Nanoparticles at Freshwater-Like Conditions: A Critical Review2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 4030-4044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge on relations between particle properties and dissolution/transformation characteristics of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in freshwater is important for risk assessment and product development. This critical review aims to elucidate nanospecific effects on dissolution of metallic NPs in freshwater and similar media. Dissolution rate constants are compiled and analyzed for NPs of silver (Ag), copper (Cu), copper oxide/hydroxide (CuO, Cu(OH) 2 ), zinc oxide (ZnO), manganese (Mn), and aluminum (Al), showing largely varying (orders of magnitude) constants when modeled using first order kinetics. An effect of small primary sizes (<15 nm) was observed, leading to increased dissolution rate constants and solubility in some cases. However, the often extensive particle agglomeration can result in reduced nanospecific effects on dissolution and also an increased uncertainty related to the surface area, a parameter that largely influence the extent of dissolution. Promising ways to model surface areas of NPs in solution using fractal dimensions and size distributions are discussed in addition to nanospecific aspects related to other processes such as corrosion, adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM), presence of capping agents, and existence of surface defects. The importance of the experimental design on the results of dissolution experiments of metal and metal oxide NPs is moreover highlighted, including the influence of ionic metal solubility and choice of particle dispersion methodology.

  • 3.
    Langer, Sarka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Gas-phase advanced oxidation for effective, efficient in situ control of pollution2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 15, p. 8768-8776Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Pelletier, N.
    et al.
    Tyedmers, P.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Scholz, A.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Flysjö, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Not all salmon are created equal: Life cycle assessment (LCA) of global salmon farming systems2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 23, p. 8730-8736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a global-scale life cycle assessment of a major food commodity, farmed salmon. Specifically, we report the cumulative energy use, biotic resource use, and greenhouse gas, acidifying, and eutrophying emissions associated with producing farmed salmon in Norway, the UK, British Columbia (Canada), and Chile, as well as a production-weighted global average. We found marked differences in the nature and quantity of material/energy resource use and associated emissions per unit production across regions. This suggests significant scope for improved environmental performance in the industry as a whole. We identify key leverage points for improving performance, most notably the critical importance of least-environmental cost feed sourcing patterns and continued improvements in feed conversion efficiency. Overall, impacts were lowest for Norwegian production in most impact categories, and highest for UK farmed salmon. Our results are of direct relevance to industry, policy makers, eco-labeling programs, and consumers seeking to further sustainability objectives in salmon aquaculture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  • 5. Saadatmand, S.
    et al.
    Edlund, U.
    Albertsson, A.-C.
    Danielsson, S.
    Dahlman, O.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Prehydrolysis in softwood pulping produces a valuable biorefinery fraction for material utilization2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, no 15, p. 8389-8396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Xue, Li
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Liu, Gang
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Parfitt, Julian
    Anthesis Group, UK.
    Liu, Xiaojie
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Van Herpen, Erica
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    O'Connor, Clementine
    World Resources Institute, USA.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Cheng, Shengkui
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Missing Food, Missing Data?: A Critical Review of Global Food Losses and Food Waste Data2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 12, p. 6618-6633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food losses and food waste (FLW) have become a global concern in recent years and emerge as a priority in the global and national political agenda (e.g., with Target 12.3 in the new United Nations Sustainable Development Goals). A good understanding of the availability and quality of global FLW data is a prerequisite for tracking progress on reduction targets, analyzing environmental impacts, and exploring mitigation strategies for FLW. There has been a growing body of literature on FLW quantification in the past years; however, significant challenges remain, such as data inconsistency and a narrow temporal, geographical, and food supply chain coverage. In this paper, we examined 202 publications which reported FLW data for 84 countries and 52 individual years from 1933 to 2014. We found that most existing publications are conducted for a few industrialized countries (e.g., the United Kingdom and the United States), and over half of them are based only on secondary data, which signals high uncertainties in the existing global FLW database. Despite these uncertainties, existing data indicate that per-capita food waste in the household increases with an increase of per-capita GDP. We believe that more consistent, in-depth, and primary-data-based studies, especially for emerging economies, are badly needed to better inform relevant policy on FLW reduction and environmental impacts mitigation.

  • 7.
    Xue, Li
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Prass, Neele
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Gollnow, Sebastian
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Scherhaufer, Silvia
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Cheng, Shengkui
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Liu, Gang
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Efficiency and Carbon Footprint of the German Meat Supply Chain2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 9, p. 5133-5142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meat production and consumption contribute significantly to environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These emissions can be reduced via various strategies ranging from production efficiency improvement to process optimization, food waste reduction, trade pattern change, and diet structure change. On the basis of a material flow analysis approach, we mapped the dry matter mass and energy balance of the meat (including beef, pork, and poultry) supply chain in Germany and discussed the emission reduction potential of different mitigation strategies in an integrated and mass-balance consistent framework. Our results reaffirmed the low energy conversion efficiency of the meat supply chain (among which beef was the least efficient) and the high GHG emissions at the meat production stage. While diet structure change (either reducing the meat consumption or substituting meat by edible offal) showed the highest emissions reduction potential, eliminating meat waste in retailing and consumption and byproducts generation in slaughtering and processing were found to have profound effect on emissions reduction as well. The rendering of meat byproducts and waste treatment were modeled in detail, adding up to a net environmental benefit of about 5% of the entire supply chain GHG emissions. The combined effects based on assumed high levels of changes of important mitigation strategies, in a rank order considering the level of difficulty of implementation, showed that the total emission could be reduced by 43% comparing to the current level, implying a tremendous opportunity for sustainably feeding the planet by 2050.

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