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  • 1.
    Bergman, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden; Worldfish, Malaysia.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Troell, Max
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Borthwick, Louisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Jonell, Malin
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Philis, Gaspard
    NTNU, Norway.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Recirculating Aquaculture Is Possible without Major Energy Tradeoff: Life Cycle Assessment of Warmwater Fish Farming in Sweden2020In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 54, no 24, p. 16062-16070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood is seen as promising for more sustainable diets. The increasing production in land-based closed Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RASs) has overcome many local environmental challenges with traditional open net-pen systems such as eutrophication. The energy needed to maintain suitable water quality, with associated emissions, has however been seen as challenging from a global perspective. This study uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance and improvement potentials of a commercial RAS farm of tilapia and Clarias in Sweden. The environmental impact categories and indicators considered were freshwater eutrophication, climate change, energy demand, land use, and dependency on animal-source feed inputs per kg of fillet. We found that feed production contributed most to all environmental impacts (between 67 and 98%) except for energy demand for tilapia, contradicting previous findings that farm-level energy use is a driver of environmental pressures. The main improvement potentials include improved by-product utilization and use of a larger proportion of plant-based feed ingredients. Together with further smaller improvement potential identified, this suggests that RASs may play a more important role in a future, environmentally sustainable food system.

  • 2.
    Cederberg, Christel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Persson, U.M.
    Neovius, K.
    Molander, S.
    Clift, R.
    Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of brazilian beef2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1773-1779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO2- equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  • 3.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    In the Search for Nanospecific Effects of Dissolution of Metallic Nanoparticles at Freshwater-Like Conditions: A Critical Review2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 4030-4044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge on relations between particle properties and dissolution/transformation characteristics of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in freshwater is important for risk assessment and product development. This critical review aims to elucidate nanospecific effects on dissolution of metallic NPs in freshwater and similar media. Dissolution rate constants are compiled and analyzed for NPs of silver (Ag), copper (Cu), copper oxide/hydroxide (CuO, Cu(OH) 2 ), zinc oxide (ZnO), manganese (Mn), and aluminum (Al), showing largely varying (orders of magnitude) constants when modeled using first order kinetics. An effect of small primary sizes (<15 nm) was observed, leading to increased dissolution rate constants and solubility in some cases. However, the often extensive particle agglomeration can result in reduced nanospecific effects on dissolution and also an increased uncertainty related to the surface area, a parameter that largely influence the extent of dissolution. Promising ways to model surface areas of NPs in solution using fractal dimensions and size distributions are discussed in addition to nanospecific aspects related to other processes such as corrosion, adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM), presence of capping agents, and existence of surface defects. The importance of the experimental design on the results of dissolution experiments of metal and metal oxide NPs is moreover highlighted, including the influence of ionic metal solubility and choice of particle dispersion methodology.

  • 4.
    Johnson, Matthew Stanley
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nilsson, Elna J.K.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Svensson, Erik A.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Langer, Sarka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Gas-phase advanced oxidation for effective, efficient in situ control of pollution2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 15, p. 8768-8776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, gas-phase advanced oxidation, a new method for pollution control building on the photo-oxidation and particle formation chemistry occurring in the atmosphere, is introduced and characterized. The process uses ozone and UV-C light to produce in situ radicals to oxidize pollution, generating particles that are removed by a filter; ozone is removed using a MnO2 honeycomb catalyst. This combination of in situ processes removes a wide range of pollutants with a comparatively low specific energy input. Two proof-of-concept devices were built to test and optimize the process. The laboratory prototype was built of standard ventilation duct and could treat up to 850 m3/h. A portable continuous-flow prototype built in an aluminum flight case was able to treat 46 m3/h. Removal efficiencies of >95% were observed for propane, cyclohexane, benzene, isoprene, aerosol particle mass, and ozone for concentrations in the range of 0.4-6 ppm and exposure times up to 0.5 min. The laboratory prototype generated a OH * concentration derived from propane reaction of (2.5 ± 0.3) × 1010 cm-3 at a specific energy input of 3 kJ/m3, and the portable device generated (4.6 ± 0.4) × 109 cm-3 at 10 kJ/m3. Based on these results, in situ gas-phase advanced oxidation is a viable control strategy for most volatile organic compounds, specifically those with a OH* reaction rate higher than ca. 5 × 10-13 cm3/s. Gas-phase advanced oxidation is able to remove compounds that react with OH and to control ozone and total particulate mass. Secondary pollution including formaldehyde and ultrafine particles might be generated, depending on the composition of the primary pollution.

  • 5. Pelletier, N.
    et al.
    Tyedmers, P.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Scholz, A.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Flysjö, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Not all salmon are created equal: Life cycle assessment (LCA) of global salmon farming systems2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 23, p. 8730-8736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a global-scale life cycle assessment of a major food commodity, farmed salmon. Specifically, we report the cumulative energy use, biotic resource use, and greenhouse gas, acidifying, and eutrophying emissions associated with producing farmed salmon in Norway, the UK, British Columbia (Canada), and Chile, as well as a production-weighted global average. We found marked differences in the nature and quantity of material/energy resource use and associated emissions per unit production across regions. This suggests significant scope for improved environmental performance in the industry as a whole. We identify key leverage points for improving performance, most notably the critical importance of least-environmental cost feed sourcing patterns and continued improvements in feed conversion efficiency. Overall, impacts were lowest for Norwegian production in most impact categories, and highest for UK farmed salmon. Our results are of direct relevance to industry, policy makers, eco-labeling programs, and consumers seeking to further sustainability objectives in salmon aquaculture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  • 6.
    Quant, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Mallin, Tove
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ecotoxicity Evaluation of Fire-Extinguishing Water from Large-Scale Battery and Battery Electric Vehicle Fire Tests2023In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrified transport has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns, for example, the flammable formulations used in lithium-ion batteries. Fires in traction batteries can be difficult to extinguish because the battery cells are well protected and hard to reach. To control the fire, firefighters must prolong the application of extinguishing media. In this work, extinguishing water from three vehicles and one battery pack fire test were analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants, including particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot content. Additionally, the acute toxicity of the collected extinguishing water on three aquatic species was determined. The vehicles used in the fire tests were both conventional petrol-fueled and battery electric. For all of the tests, the analysis of the extinguishing water showed high toxicity toward the tested aquatic species. Several metals and ions were found in concentrations above the corresponding surface water guideline values. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances were detected in concentrations ranging between 200 and 1400 ng L–1. Flushing the battery increased the concentration of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances to 4700 ng L–1. Extinguishing water from the battery electric vehicle and the battery pack contained a higher concentration of nickel, cobalt, lithium, manganese, and fluoride compared with the water samples analyzed from the conventional vehicle.

  • 7.
    Rissler, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Preger, Calle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Axel
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lin, Jack
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Prisle, Nønne
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Svenningsson, Birgitta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Missed Evaporation from Atmospherically Relevant Inorganic Mixtures Confounds Experimental Aerosol Studies2023In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, no 7, p. 2706-2714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea salt aerosol particles are highly abundant in the atmosphere and play important roles in the global radiative balance. After influence from continental air, they are typically composed of Na+, Cl-, NH4+, and SO42- and organics. Analogous particle systems are often studied in laboratory settings by atomizing and drying particles from a solution. Here, we present evidence that such laboratory studies may be consistently biased in that they neglect losses of solutes to the gas phase. We present experimental evidence from a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer and an aerosol mass spectrometer, further supported by thermodynamic modeling. We show that, at normally prevailing laboratory aerosol mass concentrations, for mixtures of NaCl and (NH4)2SO4, a significant portion of the Cl- and NH4+ ions are lost to the gas phase, in some cases, leaving mainly Na2SO4 in the dry particles. Not considering losses of solutes to the gas phase during experimental studies will likely result in misinterpretation of the data. One example of such data is that from particle water uptake experiments. This may bias the explanatory models constructed from the data and introduce errors inte predictions made by air quality or climate models. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 8.
    Saadatmand, Soheil
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Albertsson, Ann Christine
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Sverker
    RISE, Innventia.
    Dahlman, Olof B.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Prehydrolysis in softwood pulping produces a valuable biorefinery fraction for material utilization2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, no 15, p. 8389-8396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A scaled-up prehydrolysis process was elaborated to demonstrate an industrially feasible operation step in a pulping process that generates a valuable side product in addition to the cellulose pulp. The valuable side product is aqueous process liquor, a softwood hydrolysate (SWH) herein produced in 60 L batches, and its components were recovered and utilized as materials. The process parameters were shown to influence the yield, composition, and quality of the obtained hydrolysates. Furthermore, the process conditions were shown to influence the ability of SWHs to form free-standing, foldable films in blends with either microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Films with oxygen permeabilities (OP) as low as 0.35 cm3 μm day-1 m-2 kPa-1 at 50% relative humidity, were produced from aqueous solutions providing a viable and green alternative to petroleum-based packaging barriers. The OPs were very low regardless of SWH film composition and upgrading conditions, whereas the films' tensile performance was directly controlled by the ratio of SWH to cocomponent.

  • 9.
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Mellin, Pelle
    Swerim, Sweden.
    Levenstam, Oscar A
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production.
    Liagkouridis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ribbenstedt, Anton
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hanning, Anne-Charlotte
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Schultes, Lara
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Plassmann, Merle M
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Persson, Caiza
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Cousins, Ian T
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Benskin, Jonathan P
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Release of Side-Chain Fluorinated Polymer-Containing Microplastic Fibers from Functional Textiles During Washing and First Estimates of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Emissions.2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 24, p. 14329-14338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantity and composition of fibers released from functional textiles during accelerated washing were investigated using the GyroWash method. Two fabrics [polyamide (PA) and polyester/cotton (PES/CO)] were selected and coated with perfluorohexane-based side-chain fluorinated polymers. Fibers released during washing ranged from ∼10 to 500 μ with a similar distribution for the two textile types. The PA-based fabric released considerably more fibers >20 μm in length compared to the PES/CO-based fabric (>1000/GyroWash for PA vs ∼200/GyroWash fibers for PES/CO). After one GyroWash (2-15 domestic washes), fibers that contained approximately 240 and 1300 μg total fluorine per square meter (μg F/m2) were released from the PA and PES/CO fabrics, respectively. Current understanding of the fate of microplastic fibers suggests that a large fraction of these fibers reach the environment either in effluent wastewater or sewage sludge applied to land. In the environment, the fluorinated side chains will be slowly cleaved from the backbone of the side-chain fluorinated polymers coated on the fibers and then transformed into short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids. On the European scale, emissions of up to ∼0.7 t of fluorotelomer alcohol (6:2 FTOH) per year were estimated for outdoor rain jackets treated with fluorotelomer-based side-chain fluorinated polymers.

  • 10.
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Liagkouridis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Sweden; IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Awad, Raed
    Stockholm University, Sweden; IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Khan, Stuart
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Plassmann, Merle
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Peters, Gregory
    University of New South Wales, Australia; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Benskin, Jonathan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    An Outdoor Aging Study to Investigate the Release of Per- And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) from Functional Textiles2022In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 56, p. 3471-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emission of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from functional textiles was investigated via an outdoor weathering experiment in Sydney, Australia. Polyamide (PA) textile fabrics treated with different water-repellent, side-chain fluorinated polymers (SFPs) were exposed on a rooftop to multiple natural stressors, including direct sunlight, precipitation, wind, and heat for 6-months. After weathering, additional stress was applied to the fabrics through abrasion and washing. Textile characterization using a multiplatform analytical approach revealed loss of both PFAS-containing textile fragments (e.g., microfibers) as well as formation and loss of low molecular weight PFAS, both of which occurred throughout weathering. These changes were accompanied by a loss of color and water repellency of the textile. The potential formation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from mobile residuals was quantified by oxidative conversion of extracts from unweathered textiles. Each SFP-textile finish emitted a distinct PFAA pattern following weathering, and in some cases the concentrations exceeded regulatory limits for textiles. In addition to transformation of residual low molecular weight PFAA-precursors, release of polymeric PFAS from degradation and loss of textile fibers/particles contributed to overall PFAS emissions during weathering. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 11.
    Van Der Veen, Ike
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit, Netherlands.
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hanning, Anne-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Stare, Ann
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    De Boer, Jacob
    Vrije Universiteit, Netherlands.
    Weiss, Jana M.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Leonards, Pim E. G.
    Vrije Universiteit, Netherlands.
    Fate of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances from Durable Water-Repellent Clothing during Use2022In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 56, no 9, p. 5886-5897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To make outdoor clothing water- or dirt-repellent, durable water-repellent (DWR) coatings based on side-chain fluorinated polymers (SFPs) are used. During use of outdoor clothing, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can be emitted from the DWR to the environment. In this study, the effects of aging, washing, and tumble drying on the concentration of extractable PFASs in the DWR of perfluorohexane-based short-chain SFPs (FC-6 chemistry) and of perfluorooctane-based long-chain SFPs (FC-8 chemistry) were assessed. For this purpose, polyamide (PA) and polyester (PES) fabrics were coated with FC-6- and FC-8-based DWRs. Results show that aging of the coated fabrics causes an increase in concentration and formation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). The effect of aging on the volatile PFASs depends on the type of fabric. Washing causes a decrease in PFAA concentrations, and in general, volatile PFASs are partly washed out of the textiles. However, washing can also increase the extractable concentration of volatile PFASs in the fabrics. This effect becomes stronger by a combination of aging and washing. Tumble drying does not affect the PFAS concentrations in textiles. In conclusion, aging and washing of fabrics coated with the DWR based on SFPs release PFASs to the environment.

  • 12.
    Wei, Xin-Feng
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yin, Haiyan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Microplastics Originating from Polymer Blends: An Emerging Threat?2021In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 4190-4193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    No one can have missed the growing global environmental problems with plastics ending up as microplastics in food, water, and soil, and the associated effects on nature, wildlife, and humans. A hitherto not specifically investigated source of microplastics is polymer blends. A 1 g polymer blend can contain millions to billions of micrometer-sized species of the dispersed phase and therefore aging-induced fragmentation of the polymer blends can lead to the release of an enormous amount of microplastics. Especially if the stability of the dispersed material is higher than that of the surrounding matrix, the risk of microplastic migration is notable, for instance, if the matrix material is biodegradable and the dispersed material is not. The release can also be much faster if the matrix polymer is biodegradable. The purpose of writing this feature article is to arise public and academic attention to the large microplastic risk from polymer blends during their development, production, use, and waste handling.

  • 13.
    Xue, Li
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Liu, Gang
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Parfitt, Julian
    Anthesis Group, UK.
    Liu, Xiaojie
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Van Herpen, Erica
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    O'Connor, Clementine
    World Resources Institute, USA.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Cheng, Shengkui
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Missing Food, Missing Data?: A Critical Review of Global Food Losses and Food Waste Data2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 12, p. 6618-6633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food losses and food waste (FLW) have become a global concern in recent years and emerge as a priority in the global and national political agenda (e.g., with Target 12.3 in the new United Nations Sustainable Development Goals). A good understanding of the availability and quality of global FLW data is a prerequisite for tracking progress on reduction targets, analyzing environmental impacts, and exploring mitigation strategies for FLW. There has been a growing body of literature on FLW quantification in the past years; however, significant challenges remain, such as data inconsistency and a narrow temporal, geographical, and food supply chain coverage. In this paper, we examined 202 publications which reported FLW data for 84 countries and 52 individual years from 1933 to 2014. We found that most existing publications are conducted for a few industrialized countries (e.g., the United Kingdom and the United States), and over half of them are based only on secondary data, which signals high uncertainties in the existing global FLW database. Despite these uncertainties, existing data indicate that per-capita food waste in the household increases with an increase of per-capita GDP. We believe that more consistent, in-depth, and primary-data-based studies, especially for emerging economies, are badly needed to better inform relevant policy on FLW reduction and environmental impacts mitigation.

  • 14.
    Xue, Li
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Prass, Neele
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Gollnow, Sebastian
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Scherhaufer, Silvia
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Cheng, Shengkui
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Liu, Gang
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Efficiency and Carbon Footprint of the German Meat Supply Chain2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 9, p. 5133-5142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meat production and consumption contribute significantly to environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These emissions can be reduced via various strategies ranging from production efficiency improvement to process optimization, food waste reduction, trade pattern change, and diet structure change. On the basis of a material flow analysis approach, we mapped the dry matter mass and energy balance of the meat (including beef, pork, and poultry) supply chain in Germany and discussed the emission reduction potential of different mitigation strategies in an integrated and mass-balance consistent framework. Our results reaffirmed the low energy conversion efficiency of the meat supply chain (among which beef was the least efficient) and the high GHG emissions at the meat production stage. While diet structure change (either reducing the meat consumption or substituting meat by edible offal) showed the highest emissions reduction potential, eliminating meat waste in retailing and consumption and byproducts generation in slaughtering and processing were found to have profound effect on emissions reduction as well. The rendering of meat byproducts and waste treatment were modeled in detail, adding up to a net environmental benefit of about 5% of the entire supply chain GHG emissions. The combined effects based on assumed high levels of changes of important mitigation strategies, in a rank order considering the level of difficulty of implementation, showed that the total emission could be reduced by 43% comparing to the current level, implying a tremendous opportunity for sustainably feeding the planet by 2050.

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