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  • 1.
    Booth, Andy
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Størseth, Trond
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Altin, Dag
    BioTrix, Norway.
    Fornara, Andrea
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Jungnickel, Harald
    BfR German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Germany.
    Laux, Peter
    BfR German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Germany.
    Luch, Andreas
    BfR German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Germany.
    Sørensen, Lisbet
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Freshwater dispersion stability of PAA-stabilised cerium oxide nanoparticles and toxicity towards Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 505, p. 596-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An aqueous dispersion of poly (acrylic acid)-stabilised cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (PAA-CeO2) was evaluated for its stability in a range of freshwater ecotoxicity media (MHRW, TG 201 and M7), with and without natural organic matter (NOM). In a 15day dispersion stability study, PAA-CeO2 did not undergo significant aggregation in any media type. Zeta potential varied between media types and was influenced by PAA-CeO2 concentration, but remained constant over 15days. NOM had no influence on PAA-CeO2 aggregation or zeta potential. The ecotoxicity of the PAA-CeO2 dispersion was investigated in 72h algal growth inhibition tests using the freshwater microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. PAA-CeO2 EC50 values for growth inhibition (GI; 0.024mg/L) were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than pristine CeO2 EC50 values reported in the literature. The concentration of dissolved cerium (Ce3+/Ce4+) in PAA-CeO2 exposure suspensions was very low, ranging between 0.5 and 5.6μg/L. Free PAA concentration in the exposure solutions (0.0096-0.0384mg/L) was significantly lower than the EC10 growth inhibition (47.7mg/L) value of pure PAA, indicating that free PAA did not contribute to the observed toxicity. Elemental analysis indicated that up to 38% of the total Cerium becomes directly associated with the algal cells during the 72h exposure. TOF-SIMS analysis of algal cell wall compounds indicated three different modes of action, including a significant oxidative stress response to PAA-CeO2 exposure. In contrast to pristine CeO2 nanoparticles, which rapidly aggregate in standard ecotoxicity media, PAA-stabilised CeO2 nanoparticles remain dispersed and available to water column species. Interaction of PAA with cell wall components, which could be responsible for the observed biomarker alterations, could not be excluded. This study indicates that the increased dispersion stability of PAA-CeO2 leads to an increase in toxicity compared to pristine non-stabilised forms.

  • 2. Hospido, A.
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The environmental impact of mastitis: A case study of dairy herds2005In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 343, no 42007, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mastitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of udder tissue to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury, which causes heavy financial losses and milk wastage throughout the world. Until now, studies have focused on the economic aspects from which perspective mastitis can generally be considered as the most serious disease in dairy cows; however, costs are not the only negative consequence resulting from the infection. The environmental impact is also significant; milk is discarded, which means lower efficiency and hence a greater environmental impact per produced liter of milk. Less milk is produced, which leads to an increased need for calf feed, and meat production is also affected. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the environmental impact of mastitis incidence. A standard scenario (representative of present-day reality in Galicia, Spain) and an improved scenario (in which mastitis incidence rate is reduced by diverse actions) have been defined and compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Among the impact categories studied, acidification, eutrophication and global warming were found to be the most significant environmental impacts. In all these categories, it was revealed that a decrease in mastitis incidence has a positive influence as the environmental impact is reduced. Even if the quantitative results cannot show a considerable decrease in the environmental burden, the impact cannot be regarded as negligible when the total consumption or total production of a region is considered. For example, the outcome of the proposed improvement measures for Spain's greenhouse gas emissions can be quantified as 0.06% of total emissions and 0.56% of emissions by the agricultural sector. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Hynes, M.J.
    et al.
    Forde, S.
    Jonson, Bo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Element migration from glass compositions containing no added lead2004In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 319, no 1, p. 39-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six crystal glass compositions without added lead were used to prepare standard beakers having a volume of ca. 240 ml. The experimentally determined concentrations of the elements in the glass beakers were in satisfactory agreement with the theoretically predicted values. The degree of leaching of selected elements from these beakers was determined using 4% acetic acid as described in the ISO 7086-1:2000 standard test. In addition, to the degree of leaching by 4% acetic acid, migration into cola, red wine, 40% ethanol and 0.3% citric acid was also determined. Elements tested included antimony, barium, bismuth and zinc as these were considered to be of most interest. The results show that it is possible to produce durable glass containing no added lead. The overall quality of the glasses was good and the concentrations of the various elements migrating (leaching) into the various test solutions used was very small and it is clear that they would not present a hazard to consumers in the event that they were to use glasses of any of these compositions for consumption of either alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverages. The original ISO7086-1:2000 test using a 4% acetic acid leaching solution was developed to test for lead migration from crystal containing added lead and ceramic ware containing lead glazes or colouring. This work also shows that it is an excellent leaching agent for assessing the safety of crystal containing no added lead as it gave the highest degree of migration for all the glass compositions and all the elements tested. In the case of glasses containing ZnO, it was shown that the degree of zinc migration was linearly related to the mole-% of ZnO in the glass. With respect to the durability of glasses, it was shown that the degree of attack increases when the degree of silica depolymerisation increases. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Nordborg, Maria
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Cederberg, Christel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Freshwater ecotoxicity impacts from pesticide use in animal and vegetable foods produced in Sweden2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 581-582, p. 448-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical pesticides are widely used in modern agriculture but their potential negative impacts are seldom considered in environmental assessments of food products. This study aims to assess and compare the potential freshwater ecotoxicity impacts due to pesticide use in the primary production of six food products: chicken fillet, minced pork, minced beef, milk, pea soup, and wheat bread. The assessment is based on a detailed and site-specific inventory of pesticide use in the primary production of the food products, all of which are produced in Sweden. Soybeans, used to produce the animal-based food products, are grown in Brazil. Pesticide emissions to air and surface water were calculated using PestLCI v. 2.0.5. Ecotoxicity impacts were assessed using USEtox v. 2.01, and expressed in relation to five functional units. The results show that the animal-based food products have considerably larger impact potentials than the plant-based food products. In relation to kg pea soup, impact potentials of bread, milk, minced beef, chicken fillet and minced pork are ca. 2, 3, 50, 140 and 170 times larger, respectively. All mass-based functional units yield the same ranking. Notably, chicken fillet and minced pork have larger impacts than minced beef and milk, regardless of functional unit, due to extensive use of pesticides, some with high toxicity, in soybean production. This result stands in sharp contrast to typical carbon footprint and land use results which attribute larger impacts to beef than to chicken and pork. Measures for reducing impacts are discussed. In particular, we show that by substituting soybeans with locally sourced feed crops, the impact potentials of minced pork and chicken fillet are reduced by ca. 70 and 90%, respectively. Brazilian soybean production is heavily reliant on pesticides. We propose that weak legislation, in combination with tropical climate and agronomic practices, explains this situation.

  • 5. Pascal, Suer
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Reproducing ten years of road ageing: accelerated carbonation and leaching of EAF steel slag2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 18, p. 5110-5118Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6. Spangberg, J.
    et al.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Jonsson, H.
    Environmental impact of recycling nutrients in human excreta to agriculture compared with enhanced wastewater treatment2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 493, p. 209-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human excreta are potential sources of plant nutrients, but are today usually considered a waste to be disposed of. The requirements on wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to remove nitrogen and phosphorus are increasing and to meet these requirements, more energy and chemicals are needed by WWTPs. Separating the nutrient-rich wastewater fractions at source and recycling them to agriculture as fertiliser is an alternative to removing them at the WWTP. This study used life cycle assessment methodology to compare the environmental impact of different scenarios for recycling the nutrients in the human excreta as fertiliser to arable land or removing them in an advanced WWTP. Three scenarios were assessed. In blackwater scenario, blackwater was source-separated and used as fertiliser. In urine scenario, the urine fraction was source-separated and used as fertiliser and the faecal water treated in an advanced WWTP. In NP scenario, chemical fertiliser was used as fertiliser and the toilet water treated in an advanced WWTP. The emissions from the WWTP were the same for all scenarios. This was fulfilled by the enhanced reduction in the WWTP fully removing the nutrients from the excreta that were not source-separated in the NP and urine scenarios. Recycling source-separated wastewater fractions as fertilisers in agriculture proved efficient for conserving energy and decreasing global warming potential (GWP). However, the blackwater and urine scenarios had a higher impact on potential eutrophication and potential acidification than the WWTP-chemical fertiliser scenario, due to large impacts by the ammonia emitted from storage and after spreading of the fertilisers. The cadmium input to the arable soil was very small with urine fertiliser. Source separation and recycling of excreta fractions as fertiliser thus has potential for saving energy and decreasing GWP emissions associated with wastewater management. However, for improved sustainability, the emissions from storage and after spreading of these fertilisers must decrease. © 2014.

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