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  • 1.
    Bergman, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Langeland, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Vidakovic, Aleksandar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Environmental and biodiversity performance of a novel single cell protein for rainbow trout feed2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 907, article id 168018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood has an important role to play to achieve a sustainable food system that provides healthy food to a growing world population. Future seafood production will be increasingly reliant on aquaculture where feed innovation is essential to reduce environmental impacts and minimize feed and food competition. This study aimed to investigate whether a novel single cell protein feed ingredient based on Paecilomyces variotii grown on a side stream from the forest industry could improve environmental sustainability of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by replacing the soy protein concentrate used today. A Life Cycle Assessment including commonly addressed impacts but also the rarely assessed biodiversity impacts was performed. Furthermore, feeding trials were included for potential effects on fish growth, i.e., an assessment of the environmental impacts for the functional unit ‘kg feed required to produce 1 kg live-weight rainbow trout’. Results showed that the best experimental diet containing P. variotii performed 16–73 % better than the control diet containing soy protein concentrate in all impact categories except for energy demand (21 % higher impact). The largest environmental benefits from replacing soy protein with P. variotii in rainbow trout diets was a 73 % reduction of impact on biodiversity and halved greenhouse gas emissions. The findings have high relevance for the aquaculture industry as the production scale and feed composition was comparable to commercial operations and because the effect on fish growth from inclusion of the novel ingredient in a complete diet was evaluated. The results on biodiversity loss from land use change and exploitation through fishing suggest that fishery can dominate impacts and exclusion thereof can greatly underestimate biodiversity impact. Finally, a novel feed ingredient grown on side streams from the forest industry has potential to add to food security through decreasing the dependence on increasingly scarce agricultural land resources. 

  • 2.
    Booth, Andy
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Størseth, Trond
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Altin, Dag
    BioTrix, Norway.
    Fornara, Andrea
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Jungnickel, Harald
    BfR German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Germany.
    Laux, Peter
    BfR German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Germany.
    Luch, Andreas
    BfR German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Germany.
    Sørensen, Lisbet
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Freshwater dispersion stability of PAA-stabilised cerium oxide nanoparticles and toxicity towards Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 505, p. 596-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An aqueous dispersion of poly (acrylic acid)-stabilised cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (PAA-CeO2) was evaluated for its stability in a range of freshwater ecotoxicity media (MHRW, TG 201 and M7), with and without natural organic matter (NOM). In a 15day dispersion stability study, PAA-CeO2 did not undergo significant aggregation in any media type. Zeta potential varied between media types and was influenced by PAA-CeO2 concentration, but remained constant over 15days. NOM had no influence on PAA-CeO2 aggregation or zeta potential. The ecotoxicity of the PAA-CeO2 dispersion was investigated in 72h algal growth inhibition tests using the freshwater microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. PAA-CeO2 EC50 values for growth inhibition (GI; 0.024mg/L) were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than pristine CeO2 EC50 values reported in the literature. The concentration of dissolved cerium (Ce3+/Ce4+) in PAA-CeO2 exposure suspensions was very low, ranging between 0.5 and 5.6μg/L. Free PAA concentration in the exposure solutions (0.0096-0.0384mg/L) was significantly lower than the EC10 growth inhibition (47.7mg/L) value of pure PAA, indicating that free PAA did not contribute to the observed toxicity. Elemental analysis indicated that up to 38% of the total Cerium becomes directly associated with the algal cells during the 72h exposure. TOF-SIMS analysis of algal cell wall compounds indicated three different modes of action, including a significant oxidative stress response to PAA-CeO2 exposure. In contrast to pristine CeO2 nanoparticles, which rapidly aggregate in standard ecotoxicity media, PAA-stabilised CeO2 nanoparticles remain dispersed and available to water column species. Interaction of PAA with cell wall components, which could be responsible for the observed biomarker alterations, could not be excluded. This study indicates that the increased dispersion stability of PAA-CeO2 leads to an increase in toxicity compared to pristine non-stabilised forms.

  • 3.
    Bour, Agathe
    et al.
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Budde Christensen, Thomas
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Hunka, Agnieszka D.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Palmqvist, Annemette
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Skjold, Else
    Royal Danish Academy, Denmark.
    Syberg, Kristian
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Implications of circular textile policies for the future regulation of hazardous substances in textiles in the European Union2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 896, article id 165153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The textile industry's business model is currently unsustainable and systemic changes must be made. The transition to a circular textile economy can be a major lever for this. However, it faces multiple issues, including the (in)ability of current legislations to provide sufficient protection regarding hazardous chemicals in recirculating materials. It is therefore crucial to identify legislative gaps that prevent the implementation of a safe circular textile economy, and to identify which chemicals could jeopardize this process. With this study, we aim to identify hazardous substances that could be found in recirculated textiles, to identify and discuss gaps in current regulations covering chemicals in textiles, and to suggest solutions to ensure better safety of circular textiles. We compile and analyze data on 715 chemicals and their associated functions, textile production stage, and hazard data. We also present how chemicals have been regulated over time and discuss regulations' strengths and weaknesses in the perspective of circular economy. We finally discuss the recently proposed Ecodesign regulation, and which key point should be included in the future delegated acts. We found that most of the compiled chemicals present at least one recognized or suspected hazard. Among them, there were 228 CMR (carcinogenic, mutagenic, reprotoxic substances), 25 endocrine disruptors, 322 skin allergens or sensitizers, and 51 respiratory allergens or sensitizers. 30 chemicals completely or partially lack hazard data. 41 chemicals were found to present a risk for consumers, among which 15 recognized or suspected CMR and 36 recognized or suspected allergens/sensitizers. Following the analysis of regulations, we argue that an improved risk assessment of chemicals should consider chemicals specific hazardous properties and product's multiple life cycles, instead of being limited to the product's end-of-life stage. We especially argue that implementing a safe circular textile economy requires that chemicals of concern are eliminated from the market.

  • 4.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Schneider, Jerusa
    University of Campinas, Brazil; Federal University of Grande Dourados, Brazil.
    Alam, Mohammad
    Universidad de Atacama, Chile.
    Niazi, Nabeel
    University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.
    Herath, Indika
    University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Parvez, Faruque
    Columbia University, USA.
    Tomaszewska, Barbara
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Guilherme, Luiz
    Federal University of Lavras, Brazil.
    Maity, Jyoti
    National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan.
    López, Dina
    Ohio University, USA.
    Cirelli, Alicia
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Pérez-Carrera, Alejo
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Morales-Simfors, Nury
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems. University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Alarcón-Herrera, Maria
    Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados SC Unidad Durango, Mexico.
    Baisch, Paulo
    Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Brazil.
    Mohan, Denish
    Jawaharlal Nehru University, India; University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Indian Institute of Technology, India.
    Seven potential sources of arsenic pollution in Latin America and their environmental and health impacts2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 780, article id 146274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review presents a holistic overview of the occurrence, mobilization, and pathways of arsenic (As) from predominantly geogenic sources into different near-surface environmental compartments, together with the respective reported or potential impacts on human health in Latin America. The main sources and pathways of As pollution in this region include: (i) volcanism and geothermalism: (a) volcanic rocks, fluids (e.g., gases) and ash, including large-scale transport of the latter through different mechanisms, (b) geothermal fluids and their exploitation; (ii) natural lixiviation and accelerated mobilization from (mostly sulfidic) metal ore deposits by mining and related activities; (iii) coal deposits and their exploitation; (iv) hydrocarbon reservoirs and co-produced water during exploitation; (v) solute and sediment transport through rivers to the sea; (vi) atmospheric As (dust and aerosol); and (vii) As exposure through geophagy and involuntary ingestion. The two most important and well-recognized sources and mechanisms for As release into the Latin American population's environments are: (i) volcanism and geothermalism, and (ii) strongly accelerated As release from geogenic sources by mining and related activities. Several new analyses from As-endemic areas of Latin America emphasize that As-related mortality and morbidity continue to rise even after decadal efforts towards lowering As exposure. Several public health regulatory institutions have classified As and its compounds as carcinogenic chemicals, as As uptake can affect several organ systems, viz. dermal, gastrointestinal, peptic, neurological, respiratory, reproductive, following exposure. Accordingly, ingesting large amounts of As can damage the stomach, kidneys, liver, heart, and nervous system; and, in severe cases, may cause death. Moreover, breathing air with high As levels can cause lung damage, shortness of breath, chest pain, and cough. Further, As compounds, being corrosive, can also cause skin lesions or damage eyes, and long-term exposure to As can lead to cancer development in several organs. 

  • 5. Engström, E.
    et al.
    Balfors, B.
    Mörtberg, U.
    Thunvik, R.
    Gaily, T.
    Mangold, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Watsan MSF-OCB, South Sudan.
    Prevalence of microbiological contaminants in groundwater sources and risk factor assessment in Juba, South Sudan2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 515-516, p. 181-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In low-income regions, drinking water is often derived from groundwater sources, which might spread diarrheal disease if they are microbiologically polluted. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of fecal contamination in 147 improved groundwater sources in Juba, South Sudan and to assess potential contributing risk factors, based on bivariate statistical analysis. Thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) were detected in 66% of the investigated sources, including 95 boreholes, breaching the health-based recommendations for drinking water. A significant association (p<. 0.05) was determined between the presence of TTCs and the depth of cumulative, long-term prior precipitation (both within the previous five days and within the past month). No such link was found to short-term rainfall, the presence of latrines or damages in the borehole apron. However, the risk factor analysis further suggested, to a lesser degree, that the local topography and on-site hygiene were additionally significant. In summary, the analysis indicated that an important contamination mechanism was fecal pollution of the contributing groundwater, which was unlikely due to the presence of latrines; instead, infiltration from contaminated surface water was more probable. The reduction in fecal sources in the environment in Juba is thus recommended, for example, through constructing latrines or designating protection areas near water sources. The study results contribute to the understanding of microbiological contamination of groundwater sources in areas with low incomes and high population densities, tropical climates and weathered basement complex environments, which are common in urban sub-Saharan Africa. 

  • 6.
    Gros, Meritxell
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Catalan Institute for Water Research, Spain; University of Girona, Spain.
    Ahrens, Luutz
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Leven, Lotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Koch, Alina
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Dalahmeh, Sahar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ljung, Emilie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lundin, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Eveborn, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Wiberg, Karin
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Pharmaceuticals in source separated sanitation systems: Fecal sludge and blackwater treatment2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, article id 135530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated, for the first time, the occurrence and fate of 29 multiple-class pharmaceuticals (PhACs) in two source separated sanitation systems based on: (i) batch experiments for the anaerobic digestion (AD) of fecal sludge under mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (52 °C) conditions, and (ii) a full-scale blackwater treatment plant using wet composting and sanitation with urea addition. Results revealed high concentrations of PhACs in raw fecal sludge and blackwater samples, with concentrations up to hundreds of μg L−1 and μg kg−1 dry weight (dw) in liquid and solid fractions, respectively. For mesophilic and thermophilic treatments in the batch experiments, average PhACs removal rates of 31% and 45%, respectively, were observed. The average removal efficiency was slightly better for the full-scale blackwater treatment, with 49% average removal, and few compounds, such as atenolol, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide, showed almost complete degradation. In the AD treatments, no significant differences were observed between mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. For the full-scale blackwater treatment, the aerobic wet composting step proved to be the most efficient in PhACs reduction, while urea addition had an almost negligible effect for most PhACs, except for citalopram, venlafaxine, oxazepam, valsartan and atorvastatin, for which minor reductions (on average 25%) were observed. Even though both treatment systems reduced initial PhACs loads considerably, significant PhAC concentrations remained in the treated effluents, indicating that fecal sludge and blackwater fertilizations could be a relevant vector for dissemination of PhACs into agricultural fields and thus the environment.

  • 7. Hospido, A.
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The environmental impact of mastitis: A case study of dairy herds2005In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 343, no 42007, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mastitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of udder tissue to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury, which causes heavy financial losses and milk wastage throughout the world. Until now, studies have focused on the economic aspects from which perspective mastitis can generally be considered as the most serious disease in dairy cows; however, costs are not the only negative consequence resulting from the infection. The environmental impact is also significant; milk is discarded, which means lower efficiency and hence a greater environmental impact per produced liter of milk. Less milk is produced, which leads to an increased need for calf feed, and meat production is also affected. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the environmental impact of mastitis incidence. A standard scenario (representative of present-day reality in Galicia, Spain) and an improved scenario (in which mastitis incidence rate is reduced by diverse actions) have been defined and compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Among the impact categories studied, acidification, eutrophication and global warming were found to be the most significant environmental impacts. In all these categories, it was revealed that a decrease in mastitis incidence has a positive influence as the environmental impact is reduced. Even if the quantitative results cannot show a considerable decrease in the environmental burden, the impact cannot be regarded as negligible when the total consumption or total production of a region is considered. For example, the outcome of the proposed improvement measures for Spain's greenhouse gas emissions can be quantified as 0.06% of total emissions and 0.56% of emissions by the agricultural sector. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Hutinel, Marion
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg,Sweden.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    University of Gothenburg,Sweden.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg,Sweden.
    Antibiotic resistance genes of emerging concern in municipal and hospital wastewater from a major Swedish city.2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 812, article id 151433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is to a large extent mediated by mobile antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The prevalence and geographic distribution of several newly discovered ARGs, as well as some clinically important ARGs conferring resistance to last resort antibiotics, are largely unknown. Targeted analysis of wastewater samples could allow estimations of carriage in the population connected to the sewers as well as release to the environment. Here we quantified ARGs conferring resistance to linezolid (optrA and cfr(A)) and colistin (mcr-1, -2, -3, -4 and -5) and the recently discovered gar (aminoglycoside ARG) and sul4 (sulphonamide ARG) in raw hospital and municipal wastewater as well as treated municipal wastewater during five years in a low antibiotic resistance prevalence setting (Gothenburg, Sweden). Additionally, variations in bacterial composition of the wastewaters characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing were related to the variations of the ARGs in an attempt to reveal if the presence of known or suspected bacterial host taxa could explain the presence of the ARGs in wastewater. The mcr-1, mcr-3, mcr-4, mcr-5, sul4 and gar genes were detected regularly in all types of wastewater samples while optrA and cfr(A) were detected only in hospital wastewater. The most abundant genes were mcr-3 and mcr-5, especially in municipal wastewater. The detection of optrA was restricted to a peak during one year. Most of the ARGs correlated with taxa previously described as bacterial hosts and associated with humans. Although some of the tentative hosts may include bacteria also thriving in wastewater environments, detection of the ARGs in the wastewaters could reflect their presence in the gut flora of the contributing populations. If so, they could already today or in the near future hinder treatment of bacterial infections in a setting where they currently are rarely targeted/detected during clinical surveillance.

  • 9. Hynes, M.J.
    et al.
    Forde, S.
    Jonson, Bo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Element migration from glass compositions containing no added lead2004In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 319, no 1, p. 39-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six crystal glass compositions without added lead were used to prepare standard beakers having a volume of ca. 240 ml. The experimentally determined concentrations of the elements in the glass beakers were in satisfactory agreement with the theoretically predicted values. The degree of leaching of selected elements from these beakers was determined using 4% acetic acid as described in the ISO 7086-1:2000 standard test. In addition, to the degree of leaching by 4% acetic acid, migration into cola, red wine, 40% ethanol and 0.3% citric acid was also determined. Elements tested included antimony, barium, bismuth and zinc as these were considered to be of most interest. The results show that it is possible to produce durable glass containing no added lead. The overall quality of the glasses was good and the concentrations of the various elements migrating (leaching) into the various test solutions used was very small and it is clear that they would not present a hazard to consumers in the event that they were to use glasses of any of these compositions for consumption of either alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverages. The original ISO7086-1:2000 test using a 4% acetic acid leaching solution was developed to test for lead migration from crystal containing added lead and ceramic ware containing lead glazes or colouring. This work also shows that it is an excellent leaching agent for assessing the safety of crystal containing no added lead as it gave the highest degree of migration for all the glass compositions and all the elements tested. In the case of glasses containing ZnO, it was shown that the degree of zinc migration was linearly related to the mole-% of ZnO in the glass. With respect to the durability of glasses, it was shown that the degree of attack increases when the degree of silica depolymerisation increases. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Ita-Nagy, Diana
    et al.
    Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian
    Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Kahhat, Ramzy
    Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Quispe, Isabel
    Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Clauser, Nicolas
    National University of Misiones, Argentina.
    Area, Maria
    National University of Misiones, Argentina.
    Life cycle assessment of bagasse fiber reinforced biocomposites2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 720, article id 137586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate the life cycle environmental implications of producing fiber-reinforced biocomposite pellets, compared with sugarcane- and petroleum-based polyethylene (PE) pellets. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to evaluate the production of four types of pellets. LCA allows the evaluation of the benefits of improving the production of biobased materials by replacing part of the sugarcane bioPE with bagasse fibers. The functional unit selected was the production of 1 kg of plastic pellets. Primary data were collected from laboratory tests designed to obtain pulp fibers from bagasse and mix them with sugarcane bioPE. Two processes were studied to obtain fibers from bagasse: soda fractionation and hot water-soda fractionation. The results from the LCA show environmental improvements when reducing the amount of bioPE by replacing it with bagasse fibers in the categories of global warming, ozone formation, terrestrial acidification and fossil resource scarcity, when comparing to 100% sugarcane bioPE, and a reduction in global warming and fossil resource scarcity when compared to fossil-based PE. In contrast, results also indicate that there could be higher impacts in terms of ozone formation, freshwater eutrophication, and terrestrial acidification. Even though biocomposites result as a preferred option to bioPE, several challenges need to be overcome before a final recommendation is placed. The sensitivity analysis showed the importance of the energy source on the impacts of the processing of fibers. Thus, using clean energy to produce biobased materials may reduce the impacts related to the production stage. These results are intended to increase the attention of the revalorization of these residues and their application to generate more advanced materials. Further outlook should also consider a deeper evaluation of the impacts during the production of a plastic object and possible effects of the biobased materials during final disposal.

  • 11.
    Kjellberg Jensen, Johan
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ziegler, A-K
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaxon, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jiménez-Gallardo, Lucia
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Garcia Domínguez, Susana
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, J-Å
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Caroline
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Quantifying the influence of urban biotic and abiotic environmental factors on great tit nestling physiology2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 859, article id 160225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a long history of avian studies investigating the impacts of urbanization. While differences in several life-history traits have been documented, either between urban and rural populations or across generalized urbanization gradients, a detailed understanding of which specific environmental variables cause these phenotypic differences is still lacking. Here, we quantified several local environmental variables coupled to urbanization (air pollution, tree composition, ambient temperature, and artificial light at night [ALAN]) within territories of breeding great tits (Parus major). We linked the environmental variables to physiological measures of the nestlings (circulating fatty acid composition [FA], antioxidant capacity and an oxidative damage marker [malondialdehyde; MDA]), to garner a mechanistic understanding of the impact of urbanization. We found that the antioxidant capacity of nestlings decreased with higher numbers of oak trees and levels of PM2.5 (airborne particulate matter with a diameter &lt; 2.5 μm). Furthermore, the ratio of ω6:ω3 polyunsaturated FAs, important for immune function, was positively correlated with PM2.5 concentration, while being negatively associated with ambient temperature and number of non-native trees in the territory. Body mass and wing length both increased with the number of local oak trees. We also show, through a principal component analysis, that while the environmental variables fall into an urbanization gradient, this gradient is insufficient to explain the observed physiological responses. Therefore, accounting for individual environmental variables in parallel, and thus allowing for interactions between these, is crucial to fully understand of the urban ecosystem. © 2022 The Authors

  • 12.
    Kong, Xiangrui
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Salvador, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Staffan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Pathak, Ravikant
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Le Breton, Michael
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gaita, Samuel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mitra, Kalyan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallquist, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Hallquist, Mattias
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Molecular characterization and optical properties of primary emissions from a residential wood burning boiler2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 754, article id 142143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern small-scale biomass burners have been recognized as an important renewable energy source because of the economic and environmental advantages of biomass over fossil fuels. However, the characteristics of their gas and particulate emissions remain incompletely understood, and there is substantial uncertainty concerning their health and climate impacts. Here, we present online measurements conducted during the operation of a residential wood-burning boiler. The measured parameters include gas and particle concentrations, optical absorption and chemical characteristics of gases and particles. Positive matrix factorization was performed to analyze data from a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) equipped with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols (FIGAERO). Six factors were identified and interpreted. Three factors were related to the chemical composition of the fuel representing lignin pyrolysis products, cellulose/hemicellulose pyrolysis products, and nitrogen-containing organics, while three factor were related to the physical characteristics of the emitted compounds: volatile compounds, semi-volatile compounds, and filter-derived compounds. An ordinal analysis was performed based on the factor fractions to identify the most influential masses in each factor, and by deconvoluting high-resolution mass spectra fingerprint molecules for each factor were identified. Results from the factor analysis were linked to the optical properties of the emissions, and lignin and cellulose/hemicellulose pyrolysis products appeared to be the most important sources of brown carbon under the tested burning conditions. It is concluded that the emissions from the complex combustion process can be described by a limited set of physically meaningful factors, which will help to rationalize subsequent transformation and tracing of emissions in the atmosphere and associated impacts on health and climate. 

  • 13.
    Morales-Simfors, Nury
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems. University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    University of Southern Queensland, Australia; National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan.
    Arsenic-rich geothermal fluids as environmentally hazardous materials – A global assessment2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 817, article id 152669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic-rich geothermal fluids are hazardous materials of global impact, affecting different environments (groundwater, surface water, seawater, sediments, soils, atmosphere) and human and animal health. They can be released naturally or through human activities. For the first time, a systematic global assessment of geothermal arsenic (As) in fluids of the six principal types of geothermal reservoirs and their environmental impact (e.g. freshwater sources used for drinking and irrigation), distinguishing between different uses (if any), was performed based on research of the geochemical characteristics and geotectonic setting of the formation of natural geothermal reservoirs worldwide. This will assist to further improve the sustainability of geothermal energy use, which can be an excellent environmental friendly renewable energy resource for electric power production and direct heat use. Arsenic in geothermal fluids (up to several tens of mg/L) originates especially in deep seated (several kilometers) reservoirs. Proper management of geothermal fluids during exploration, exploitation, use and disposal of resulting waste products through sustainable As mitigation strategies are essential. However, more research about As speciation and volatile As is necessary to fulfil this aim. Therefore As (and its principal species) needs to be included as parameter for standard analysis and monitoring program in any project using geothermal fluids from exploration to management of resulting wastes as base to define appropriate mitigation actions.

  • 14.
    Morales-Simfors, Nury
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems. University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Herath, Indika
    University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Inguaggiato, Claudio
    Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Mexico.
    Caselli, Alberto
    Universidad Nacional de Rio Negro, Argentina.
    Tapia, Joseline
    Universidad de Santo Tomás, Chile.
    Choquehuayta, Fredy
    INGEMMET, Chile.
    Armienta, Maria
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Ormachea, Mauricio
    Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Bolivia.
    Joseph, Erouscilla
    University of West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago.
    López, Dina
    Ohio University, USA.
    Arsenic in Latin America: A critical overview on the geochemistry of arsenic originating from geothermal features and volcanic emissions for solving its environmental consequences2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 716, article id 135564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geothermal fluids and volcanic emissions are important sources of arsenic (As), resulting in elevated concentrations of As in ground-, surface-water and soil, which may adversely affect the environment. Arsenic originating from geothermal features and volcanic activities is common in Latin America forming a serious threat to the livelihoods of millions of people. This review attempts to provide a critical overview of the geochemistry of As originating from these sources in Latin America to understand what information exists about and what future research needs to be undertaken. This study evaluated 15 countries in Latin America. In total, 423 sites were characterized with As originating from geothermal sources, mostly related to present volcanic activity (0.001 < As<73 mg/L, mean: 36.5 mg/L) and the transboundary Guarani Aquifer System (0.001 < As<0.114 mg/L, mean: 0.06 mg/L). Many of the geothermal systems and volcanoes discussed in this study are close to densely populated cities, including Bogota, Managua, San José, Guatemala City and Mexico City, where total As concentrations in natural ground- and surface- water exceed the safe drinking water guideline of 0.01 mg/L, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, the wide geographical occurrence of As in geothermal fluids and volcanic emissions of this region is by far not fully understood, so that development of geographical maps based on geographic information system (GIS) is an urgent necessity to understand the real nature of the problem. The assessment of environmental risks and the potential impacts on human health both inadequate and scarce and hence, these gaps need to be addressed by future research. The present holistic assessment of As originating from geothermal features and volcanic emissions would be a driving force to formulate a plan for establishing a sustainable As mitigation in vulnerable areas of Latin America in the near future. An assessment of the geochemistry, mobility and distribution of As would augment the effectiveness of the plan.

  • 15.
    Nordborg, Maria
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Cederberg, Christel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Freshwater ecotoxicity impacts from pesticide use in animal and vegetable foods produced in Sweden2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 581-582, p. 448-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical pesticides are widely used in modern agriculture but their potential negative impacts are seldom considered in environmental assessments of food products. This study aims to assess and compare the potential freshwater ecotoxicity impacts due to pesticide use in the primary production of six food products: chicken fillet, minced pork, minced beef, milk, pea soup, and wheat bread. The assessment is based on a detailed and site-specific inventory of pesticide use in the primary production of the food products, all of which are produced in Sweden. Soybeans, used to produce the animal-based food products, are grown in Brazil. Pesticide emissions to air and surface water were calculated using PestLCI v. 2.0.5. Ecotoxicity impacts were assessed using USEtox v. 2.01, and expressed in relation to five functional units. The results show that the animal-based food products have considerably larger impact potentials than the plant-based food products. In relation to kg pea soup, impact potentials of bread, milk, minced beef, chicken fillet and minced pork are ca. 2, 3, 50, 140 and 170 times larger, respectively. All mass-based functional units yield the same ranking. Notably, chicken fillet and minced pork have larger impacts than minced beef and milk, regardless of functional unit, due to extensive use of pesticides, some with high toxicity, in soybean production. This result stands in sharp contrast to typical carbon footprint and land use results which attribute larger impacts to beef than to chicken and pork. Measures for reducing impacts are discussed. In particular, we show that by substituting soybeans with locally sourced feed crops, the impact potentials of minced pork and chicken fillet are reduced by ca. 70 and 90%, respectively. Brazilian soybean production is heavily reliant on pesticides. We propose that weak legislation, in combination with tropical climate and agronomic practices, explains this situation.

  • 16. Pascal, Suer
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Reproducing ten years of road ageing: accelerated carbonation and leaching of EAF steel slag2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 18, p. 5110-5118Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Saagi, R.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Jeppsson, U.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    City-wide model-based analysis of heat recovery from wastewater using an uncertainty-based approach2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 820, article id 153273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Around 90% of the energy requirement for urban water systems management is for heating domestic tap water. In addition, the energy content of wastewater is mainly in the form of heat (85%). Hence, there is an obvious interest in recovering a large portion of this heat. However, city-wide scenario analyses that evaluate heat recovery at various locations while considering impacts on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) performance are currently very limited. This study presents a comprehensive model-based city-wide evaluation considering four different heat recovery locations (appliance, household, precinct and WWTP effluent) for a Swedish city with varying degrees of implementation using an uncertainty-based approach. Results show that heat recovery at the appliance level, with heat exchangers installed at 77% of the showers at domestic households, leads to a mean energy recovery of 127 MWh/day with a 0.25 °C reduction in mean WWTP inlet temperature compared to the default case without heat recovery. The highest mean temperature reduction compared to the default case is 1.5 °C when heat is recovered at the precinct level for 77% of the domestic wastewater flow rate. Finally, the impact on WWTP nitrification capacity is negligible in this case due to its large existing capacity and design. © 2022 The Authors

  • 18.
    Spångberg, Johanna
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Environmental impact of recycling nutrients in human excreta to agriculture compared with enhanced wastewater treatment2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 493, p. 209-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human excreta are potential sources of plant nutrients, but are today usually considered a waste to be disposed of. The requirements on wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to remove nitrogen and phosphorus are increasing and to meet these requirements, more energy and chemicals are needed by WWTPs. Separating the nutrient-rich wastewater fractions at source and recycling them to agriculture as fertiliser is an alternative to removing them at the WWTP. This study used life cycle assessment methodology to compare the environmental impact of different scenarios for recycling the nutrients in the human excreta as fertiliser to arable land or removing them in an advanced WWTP. Three scenarios were assessed. In blackwater scenario, blackwater was source-separated and used as fertiliser. In urine scenario, the urine fraction was source-separated and used as fertiliser and the faecal water treated in an advanced WWTP. In NP scenario, chemical fertiliser was used as fertiliser and the toilet water treated in an advanced WWTP. The emissions from the WWTP were the same for all scenarios. This was fulfilled by the enhanced reduction in the WWTP fully removing the nutrients from the excreta that were not source-separated in the NP and urine scenarios. Recycling source-separated wastewater fractions as fertilisers in agriculture proved efficient for conserving energy and decreasing global warming potential (GWP). However, the blackwater and urine scenarios had a higher impact on potential eutrophication and potential acidification than the WWTP-chemical fertiliser scenario, due to large impacts by the ammonia emitted from storage and after spreading of the fertilisers. The cadmium input to the arable soil was very small with urine fertiliser. Source separation and recycling of excreta fractions as fertiliser thus has potential for saving energy and decreasing GWP emissions associated with wastewater management. However, for improved sustainability, the emissions from storage and after spreading of these fertilisers must decrease.

  • 19.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hilborn, Richard
    University of Washington, USA.
    Fished or farmed: Life cycle impacts of salmon consumer decisions and opportunities for reducing impacts2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 854, article id 158591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Salmon is a nutritious and popular food among consumers predominantly in wealthy countries around the world. Since the mid-1990s farmed salmon production has exceeded wild salmon harvest, and is now 80 % of total global salmon supply. The environmental impacts of farmed salmon are frequently discussed and consumers are faced with a multitude of choices even after deciding to have salmon for dinner: species, production method, origin, product form. We present life cycle impacts of fresh and frozen salmon products, originating in purse seine fisheries for pink salmon and gill net fisheries for sockeye salmon in Alaska, when sold on markets in Europe and the United States. Norwegian salmon products are then modelled to the same markets in fresh and frozen form, based on literature data. Impact categories included were greenhouse gas emissions, marine eutrophication, marine ecotoxicity and land use. A fish in, fish out ratio is also calculated and differences in content of nutrients and contaminants described. Frozen products from wild sockeye and pink salmon had the lowest emissions in both markets. For consumers in the U.S. and Europe, wild salmon products have 46–86 % and 12–71 % lower greenhouse gas emissions than farmed Norwegian salmon, respectively, depending on species and product form. Farmed salmon also had higher land use, marine ecotoxic and eutrophying emissions and fish in, fish out ratio. Important differences exist in nutritional and contaminant content between the three types of salmon production. Improvement options as well as an optimized supply chain are modelled showing greenhouse gas reduction opportunities of 40–50 % also for the best performing chains. Results can be used as a baseline for improved data collection and emission reductions. Recommendations for consumers, industry and policymakers who can facilitate and even drive development towards more sustainable salmon products are provided. © 2022 The Authors

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