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  • 1.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Kawahara, Jun
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden; Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Printed passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays2013Inngår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, nr 12, s. 3371-3378Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible displays are attracting considerable attention as a visual interface for applications such as in electronic papers paper electronics. Passive or active matrix addressing of individual pixels require display elements that include proper signal addressability, which is typically provided by non-linear device characteristics or by incorporating transistors into each pixel. Including such additional devices into each pixel element make manufacturing of flexible displays using adequate printing techniques very hard complicated. Here, we report all-printed passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays (PMAD), built up from a very robust three-layer architecture, which can be manufactured using standard printing tools. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) serves as the conducting electrochromic pixel electrodes carbon paste is used as the pixel counter electrodes. These electrodes sandwich self-assembled layers of a polyelectrolyte that are confined to desired pixel areas via surface energy patterning. The particular choice of materials results in a desired current vs. voltage threshold that enables addressability in electronic cross-point matrices. The resulting PMAD operates at less than 3 V, exhibits high colour switch contrast without cross-talk promises for high-volume low-cost production of flexible displays using reel-to-reel printing tools on paper or plastic foils.

  • 2.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Kawahara, Jun
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo. Lintec Corporation, Japan; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fast-switching all-printed organic electrochemical transistors2013Inngår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 1276-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Symmetric fast (ˆ¼5 ms) on-to-off off-to-on drain current switching characteristics have been obtained in screen printed organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) including PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid)) as the active transistor channel material. Improvement of the drain current switching characteristics is made possible by including a carbon conductor layer on top of PEDOT:PSS at the drain electrode that is in direct contact with both the channel the electrolyte of the OECT. This carbon conductor layer suppresses the effects from a reduction front that is generated in these PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs. In the off-state of these devices this reduction front slowly migrate laterally into the PEDOT:PSS drain electrode, which make off-to-on switching slow. The OECT including carbon electrodes was manufactured using only standard printing process steps may pave the way for fully integrated organic electronic systems that operate at low voltages for applications such as logic circuits, sensors active matrix addressed displays.

  • 3. Isaksson, J
    et al.
    Nilsson, D
    Kjall, P
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Robinson, N D
    Richter-Dahlfors, A
    Berggren, M
    Electronically Controlled Ph Gradients Proton Oscillations2008Inngår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 9, s. 303-309Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4. Kawahara, J
    et al.
    Andersson Ersman, P
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Engquist, I
    Berggren, M
    Improving the color switch contrast in PEDOT:PSS-based electrochromic displays2012Inngår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 13, s. 469-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Kawahara, Jun
    et al.
    Lintec Corporation, Japan; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Improving the color switch contrast in PEDOT:PSS-based electrochromic displays2012Inngår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 469-474Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) chemically doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) is a material system commonly used as a conductive and transparent coating in several important electronic applications. The material is also electrochemically active and exhibits electrochromic (EC) properties making it suitable as the active element in EC display applications. In this work uniformly coated PEDOT:PSS layers were used both as the pixel electrode and as the counter electrode in EC display components. The pixel and counter electrodes were separated by a whitish opaque and water-based polyelectrolyte and the thicknesses of the two EC layers were varied independently in order to optimize the color contrast of the display element. A color contrast (ΔE∗, CIE L∗a∗b∗ color space) exceeding 40 was obtained with maintained relatively short switching time at an operational voltage less than 2V.

  • 6.
    Kawahara, Jun
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden; Lintec Corporation, Japan.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Wang, Xin
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE., Innventia.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Reconfigurable sticker label electronics manufactured from nanofibrillated cellulose-based self-adhesive organic electronic materials2013Inngår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, nr 11, s. 3061-3069Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low voltage operated electrochemical devices can be produced from electrically conducting polymers and polyelectrolytes. Here, we report how such polymers and polyelectrolytes can be cast together with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) derived from wood. The resulting films, which carry ionic or electronic functionalities, are all-organic, disposable, light-weight, flexible, self-adhesive, elastic and self-supporting. The mechanical and self-adhesive properties of the films enable simple and flexible electronic systems by assembling the films into various kinds of components using a "cut and stick" method. Additionally, the self-adhesive surfaces provide a new concept that not only allows for simplified system integration of printed electronic components, but also allows for a unique possibility to detach and reconfigure one or several subcomponents by a "peel and stick" method to create yet another device configuration. This is demonstrated by a stack of two films that first served as the electrolyte layer and the pixel electrode of an electrochromic display, which then was detached from each other and transferred to another configuration, thus becoming the electrolyte and gate electrode of an electrochemical transistor. Further, smart pixels, consisting of the combination of one electrochromic pixel and one electrochemical transistor, have successfully been manufactured with the NFC-hybridized materials. The concept of system reconfiguration was further explored by that a pixel electrode charged to its colored state could be detached and then integrated on top of a transistor channel. This resulted in spontaneous discharging and associated current modulation of the transistor channel without applying any additional gate voltage. Our peel and stick approach promises for novel reconfigurable electronic devices, e.g. in sensor, label and security applications.

  • 7. Said, E
    et al.
    Andersson, P
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Engquist, I
    Crispin, X
    Berggren, M
    Electrochromic Display Cells Driven by an Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor2009Inngår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 10, s. 1195-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Wang, Xin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Grimoldi, Andrea
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi, Papperstillverkning och förpackningar.
    Mengistie, Desalegn
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Anisotropic conductivity of Cellulose-PEDOT:PSS composite materials studied with a generic 3D four-point probe tool2019Inngår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 66, s. 258-264Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is widely used in organic electronics and printed electronics due to its excellent electronic and ionic conductivity. PEDOT:PSS films exhibit anisotropic conductivities originating from the interplay of film deposition processes and chemical structure. The previous studies found that high boiling point solvent treated PEDOT:PSS exhibits an anisotropy of 3–4 orders magnitude. Even though both the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities are important for the device performance, the out-of-plane conductivity is rarely studied due to the complexity with the experiment procedure. Cellulose-based paper or films can also exhibit anisotropic behavior due to the combination of their intrinsic fibric structure and film formation process. We have previously developed a conductive paper based on PEDOT:PSS and cellulose which could be used as the electrodes in energy storage devices. In this work we developed a novel measurement set-up for studying the anisotropy of the charge transport in such composite materials. A tool with two parallel plates mounted with spring loaded probes was constructed enabling probing both lateral and vertical directions and resistances from in-plane and out-of-plane directions to be obtained. The measurement results were then input and analyzed with a model based on a transformation method developed by Montgomery, and thus the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities could be detangled and derived. We also investigated how the conductivity anisotropy depends on the microstructure of the cellulose template onto which the conductive polymer self-organizes. We show that there is a relatively small difference between the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities which is attributed to the unique 3D-structure of the composites. This new knowledge gives a better understanding of the possibilities and limitations for using the material in electronic and electrochemical devices.

  • 9. Xuan, Y
    et al.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, M
    Crispin, X
    An all-polymer-air PEDOT battery2012Inngår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 13, s. 623-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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  • en-US
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  • html
  • text
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