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  • 1.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Kawahara, J
    Berggren, M
    Printed passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 3371-3378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible displays are attracting considerable attention as a visual interface for applications such as in electronic papers paper electronics. Passive or active matrix addressing of individual pixels require display elements that include proper signal addressability, which is typically provided by non-linear device characteristics or by incorporating transistors into each pixel. Including such additional devices into each pixel element make manufacturing of flexible displays using adequate printing techniques very hard complicated. Here, we report all-printed passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays (PMAD), built up from a very robust three-layer architecture, which can be manufactured using standard printing tools. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) serves as the conducting electrochromic pixel electrodes carbon paste is used as the pixel counter electrodes. These electrodes sandwich self-assembled layers of a polyelectrolyte that are confined to desired pixel areas via surface energy patterning. The particular choice of materials results in a desired current vs. voltage threshold that enables addressability in electronic cross-point matrices. The resulting PMAD operates at less than 3 V, exhibits high colour switch contrast without cross-talk promises for high-volume low-cost production of flexible displays using reel-to-reel printing tools on paper or plastic foils._x000D_

  • 2.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, D
    Kawahara, J
    Gustafsson, G
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, M
    Fast-switching all-printed organic electrochemical transistors2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1276-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symmetric fast (ˆ¼5 ms) on-to-off off-to-on drain current switching characteristics have been obtained in screen printed organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) including PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid)) as the active transistor channel material. Improvement of the drain current switching characteristics is made possible by including a carbon conductor layer on top of PEDOT:PSS at the drain electrode that is in direct contact with both the channel the electrolyte of the OECT. This carbon conductor layer suppresses the effects from a reduction front that is generated in these PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs. In the off-state of these devices this reduction front slowly migrate laterally into the PEDOT:PSS drain electrode, which make off-to-on switching slow. The OECT including carbon electrodes was manufactured using only standard printing process steps may pave the way for fully integrated organic electronic systems that operate at low voltages for applications such as logic circuits, sensors active matrix addressed displays._x000D_

  • 3. Isaksson, J
    et al.
    Nilsson, D
    Kjall, P
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Robinson, N D
    Richter-Dahlfors, A
    Berggren, M
    Electronically Controlled Ph Gradients Proton Oscillations2008In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 9, p. 303-309Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Kawahara, J
    et al.
    Andersson Ersman, P
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Engquist, I
    Berggren, M
    Improving the color switch contrast in PEDOT:PSS-based electrochromic displays2012In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 13, p. 469-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Kawahara, J
    et al.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Wang, X
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Gustafsson, G
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Granberg, H
    Berggren, M
    Reconfigurable sticker label electronics manufactured from nanofibrillated cellulose-based self-adhesive organic electronic materials2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 11, p. 3061-3069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low voltage operated electrochemical devices can be produced from electrically conducting polymers polyelectrolytes. Here, we report how such polymers polyelectrolytes can be cast together with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) derived from wood. The resulting films, which carry ionic or electronic functionalities, are all-organic, disposable, light-weight, flexible, self-adhesive, elastic self-supporting. The mechanical self-adhesive properties of the films enable simple flexible electronic systems by assembling the films into various kinds of components using a €œcut stick€ method. Additionally, the self-adhesive surfaces provide a new concept that not only allows for simplified system integration of printed electronic components, but also allows for a unique possibility to detach reconfigure one or several subcomponents by a €œpeel stick€ method to create yet another device configuration. This is demonstrated by a stack of two films that first served as the electrolyte layer the pixel electrode of an electrochromic display, which then was detached from each other transferred to another configuration, thus becoming the electrolyte gate electrode of an electrochemical transistor. Further, smart pixels, consisting of the combination of one electrochromic pixel one electrochemical transistor, have successfully been manufactured with the NFC-hybridized materials. The concept of system reconfiguration was further explored by that a pixel electrode charged to its colored state could be detached then integrated on top of a transistor channel. This resulted in spontaneous discharging associated current modulation of the transistor channel without applying any additional gate voltage. Our peel stick approach promises for novel reconfigurable electronic devices, e.g. in sensor, label security applications._x000D_

  • 6. Kawahara, J.
    et al.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Wang, X.
    Gustafsson, G.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE, Innventia.
    Berggren, M.
    Reconfigurable sticker label electronics manufactured from nanofibrillated cellulose-based self-adhesive organic electronic materials2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, no 11, p. 3061-3069Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Said, E
    et al.
    Andersson, P
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Engquist, I
    Crispin, X
    Berggren, M
    Electrochromic Display Cells Driven by an Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor2009In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 10, p. 1195-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Wang, Xin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Grimoldi, Andrea
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Mengistie, Desalegn
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Anisotropic conductivity of Cellulose-PEDOT:PSS composite materials studied with a generic 3D four-point probe tool2019In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 66, p. 258-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is widely used in organic electronics and printed electronics due to its excellent electronic and ionic conductivity. PEDOT:PSS films exhibit anisotropic conductivities originating from the interplay of film deposition processes and chemical structure. The previous studies found that high boiling point solvent treated PEDOT:PSS exhibits an anisotropy of 3–4 orders magnitude. Even though both the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities are important for the device performance, the out-of-plane conductivity is rarely studied due to the complexity with the experiment procedure. Cellulose-based paper or films can also exhibit anisotropic behavior due to the combination of their intrinsic fibric structure and film formation process. We have previously developed a conductive paper based on PEDOT:PSS and cellulose which could be used as the electrodes in energy storage devices. In this work we developed a novel measurement set-up for studying the anisotropy of the charge transport in such composite materials. A tool with two parallel plates mounted with spring loaded probes was constructed enabling probing both lateral and vertical directions and resistances from in-plane and out-of-plane directions to be obtained. The measurement results were then input and analyzed with a model based on a transformation method developed by Montgomery, and thus the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities could be detangled and derived. We also investigated how the conductivity anisotropy depends on the microstructure of the cellulose template onto which the conductive polymer self-organizes. We show that there is a relatively small difference between the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities which is attributed to the unique 3D-structure of the composites. This new knowledge gives a better understanding of the possibilities and limitations for using the material in electronic and electrochemical devices.

  • 9. Xuan, Y
    et al.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, M
    Crispin, X
    An all-polymer-air PEDOT battery2012In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 13, p. 623-7Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 9 of 9
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