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  • 1.
    Alisic, S.
    et al.
    Institute of Metrology of B&H, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Gutfelt, Bengt
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Beaudoux, F.
    Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais, France.
    Bezjak, M.
    State Office of Metrology, Croatia.
    Coenegrachts, M.
    FPS Economy, Belgium.
    Davidson, S.
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Grgić, G.
    Metrology Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, Slovenia.
    Hanrahan, R.
    NSAI National Metrology Laboratory, Ireland.
    Geel, J. L. W. A. V.
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Kacmaz, S.
    Ulusal Metroloji Enstitüsü, Turkey.
    Mangutova-Stoilkovska, B.
    Bureau of metrology, Macedonia.
    Miteva, M.
    Bulgarian Institute of Metrology, Bulgaria.
    Navrozidis, G.
    Hellenic Institute of Metrology, Greece.
    Neuvonen, P. T.
    Justervesenet, Norway.
    Nielsen, L.
    Danish Fundamental Metrology, Denmark.
    Ojanen-Saloranta, M.
    VTT, Finland.
    Pantić, D.
    Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals, Serbia.
    Pärn, A.
    AS Metrosert, Estonia.
    Popa, G. F.
    Institutul National de Metrologie, Romania.
    Snopko, L.
    Slovenský Metrologický Ústav, Slovakia.
    Spohr, I.
    Instituto Português da Qualidade, Portugal.
    Conceição, P.
    Instituto Português da Qualidade, Portugal.
    Stock, M.
    Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France.
    Vámossy, C.
    Government Office of the Capital City Budapest, Hungary.
    Wüthrich, C.
    Eidgenössisches Institut für Metrologie, Switzerland.
    Žandarova, T.
    Latvian National Metrology Centre Ltd, Latvia.
    Zelenka, Z.
    Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Austria.
    Zůda, J.
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Alqarni, S. M.
    Saudi Standards Metrology and Quality Org, Saudi Arabia.
    Final report on EURAMET comparison on 1 kg stainless steel mass standards2020In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 57, no 1 A, article id 07011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to demonstrate the equivalence in calibration of mass standards among National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of EURAMET this key comparison (KC) on 1 kg stainless steel mass standards has been carried out under the auspices of EURAMET. The comparison was undertaken with reference to the International Prototype Kilogram (IPK) as the definition of the unit of mass. The overall result shows good consistency among the participants. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  • 2.
    Altlntaş, A.
    et al.
    Force, Denmark.
    Koçaş, I.
    Ume, Turkey.
    Durgut, Y.
    Ume, Turkey.
    Bartolo, J.
    MCCAA-SMI, Malta.
    Bergoglio, M.
    Inrim, Italy.
    Bermanec, L. G.
    FSB-LPM, Croatia.
    Bošnjaković, A.
    fIMBiH Institute of Metrology of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina .
    Burzić, S.
    fIMBiH Institute of Metrology of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina .
    Condereys, A.
    SMD, Belgium.
    Dobre, M.
    SMD, Belgium.
    Farar, P.
    Smu Slovakia Institute of Metrology, Slovakia.
    Hetherington, P.
    Nsai Nml National Metrology Laboratory, Ireland.
    Medina, N.
    Sem, Spain.
    Sabuga, W.
    PTB, Germany.
    Ott, O.
    PTB, Germany.
    Konczak, T.
    PTB, Germany.
    Sandu, I.
    Inm, Romania.
    Setina, J.
    MIRS/IMT/LMT, Slovenia.
    Steindl, D.
    Bev, Austria.
    Vámossy, C.
    Mkeh, Hungary.
    Waller, B.
    NPL, UK.
    Wuethrich, C.
    Metas, Switzerland.
    Brzozowski, A.
    GUM, Poland.
    Geel, J. V.
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Saxholm, S.
    VTT, Finland.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Final report on key comparison EURAMET.M.P-K1.c in the range 0.7 MPa to 7.0 MPa of gas gauge pressure2020In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 57, no 1, article id 07022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A EURAMET key comparison of the national pressure standards in the range 0.7 MPa to 7.0 MPa of gas gauge pressure was carried out. The circulation of the transfer standard began in November 2011 and lasted until November 2016. The measurand of the comparison was the effective area of the piston-cylinder assembly determined by gauge pressure measurements in the range from 0.7 MPa to 7.0 MPa. As the comparison reference value, the weighted mean of the results of the laboratories with primary pressure standards was used. With this reference value, all the participants who delivered the results demonstrated equivalence respective to the reference value within expanded uncertainties (k = 2) on all the range. The results of this comparison were linked to CCM key comparison CCM.P-K1.c. Also in relation to the reference values of CCM.P-K1.c, all participants demonstrated agreement within expanded uncertainties (k = 2) at all pressure points.

  • 3.
    Amer, Eynas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Towards traceable dynamic pressure calibration using a shock tube with an optical probe for accurate phase determination2022In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 59, no 3, article id 035001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce a robust method for dynamic characterization of pressure measuring systems used in time-varying pressure applications. The dynamic response of the pressure measuring systems in terms of sensitivity and phase as a function of frequency at various amplitudes of the measurand can be provided. The shock tube which is the candidate primary standard for dynamic pressure calibration at the National Laboratory for pressure, Sweden, was used to realize the dynamic pressure. The shock tube setup used in this study can realize reference pressure with amplitudes up to 1.7 MPa in the frequency range from below a kilohertz up to a megahertz. The amplitude of the realized step pressure was calculated using the Rankine–Hugoniot step relations. In addition, the accurate time of arrival of the generated shock at the device under test (DUT) was measured using an optical probe based on shadowgraphy. The optical detector has a response time in nanosecond time scale which is several orders of magnitude faster than the response time of any pressure measuring system. Hereby, the latency between physical stimuli and response of the DUT can be measured. By the knowledge of the amplitude and the accurate time of arrival of the reference step pressure, the transfer function of the DUT can be calculated and presented in Bode diagrams of sensitivity and phase response versus frequency. The uncertainty in sensitivity and phase measurements was estimated. The information provided by this work is useful for developing reliable models of dynamic pressure measuring system and provide accurate information about their dynamic response. That in turn will contribute to establish a traceability chain for dynamic pressure calibration.

  • 4.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Garnacho, F.
    LCOE Laboratorio Central Oficial de Electrotecnia, Spain.
    Grishin, M.
    Russian Research Institute for Metrological Service, Russia.
    Dimitrov, E.
    BIM Bulgarian Institute of Metrology, Bulgaria.
    Draxler, K.
    CMI Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Dubrovskaya, T.
    Russian Research Institute for Metrological Service, Russia.
    Kikalo, V.
    All-Ukrainian State Research and Production Center for Standardization, Metrology, Certification and Consumers' Rights Protection, Ukraine.
    Kiselev, V.
    Russian Research Institute for Metrological Service, Russia.
    Kopshin, V.
    State Enterprise “All-Ukrainian State Research and Production Center for Standardization, Metrology, Certification and Consumers' Rights Protection”, Ukaraine.
    Kumanova, G.
    BIM Bulgarian Institute of Metrology, Bulgaria.
    Martin, R.
    LCOE Laboratorio Central Oficial de Electrotecnia, Spain.
    Styblikova, R.
    CMI Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Hallstrom, Ja.
    Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.
    Supplementary comparisons of national standards of ratio error and phase displacement of AC voltage of power frequency COOMET 411/RU-a/07 (COOMET.EM-S6)2023In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 60, no 1A, article id 01011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The supplementary comparisons of national standards of ratio error and phase displacement of AC voltage of power frequency have been performed among the following national metrological institutes (NMIs): VNIIMS, MIKES-TKK, SP, CMI, LCOE, BIM and SE “Ukrmetrteststandard”. Its description and measurement results are presented below. 

  • 5.
    Bich, Walter
    et al.
    INRIM, Italy.
    Cox, Maurice G.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Dybkær, Rene
    Region H Frederiksberg Hospital, Denmark.
    Elster, Clemens
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Estler, W. Tyler
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Hibbert, D. Brynn
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Imai, Hidetaka
    National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Japan.
    Kool, Willem
    Bureau International de Métrologie Légale, France.
    Michotte, Carine
    Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France.
    Nielsen, Lars
    Danish Fundamental Metrology Ltd, Denmark.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Sidney, Steve
    National Laboratory Association, South Africa.
    van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.
    Van Swinden Laboratorium, The Netherlands.
    Wöger, Wolfgang
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Revision of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement'2012In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 702-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology, Working Group 1, JCGM-WG1, is currently revising the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement'. In this communication, the motivation for undertaking such a revision is given and the main changes with respect to the current, 2008 edition are outlined.

  • 6.
    Brand, U.
    et al.
    PTB, Germany.
    Matus, M.
    BEV, Austria.
    Carcedo, L.
    CEM, Spain.
    Slusarski, L.
    GUM, Poland.
    Picotto, G. B.
    INRIM, Italy.
    Lassila, A.
    VTT, Finland.
    Hungwe, F.
    NMISA, South Africa.
    Flys, Olena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Aksulu, M.
    Tubi˙tak Ume, Turkey.
    Kosteev, V.
    Vniims Russian Research Institute for Metrological Service, Russia.
    Measurement of groove depth standards in the range 1 μm up to 1 mm (EURAMET project 1407)2020In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 57, no 1 A, article id 04001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison measurement between 10 national metrology institutes on two types of depth setting standards was conducted using mostly tactile but also two optical instruments for measurement. Three etched silicon standards with depths of 5, 20 and 50 μm and one diamond turned nickel coated copper standard with depths of 200, 600 and 900 μm were measured. The cross section of the grooves was trapezoidal. Most of the participants confirmed their CMC entries. Since many measurements had to be made, contamination of the standards and heavy wear on the standards were also observed after the comparison was completed. The wear consists of indentation marks from stylus instruments on both types of standards and as many as 70 scratch marks on the nickel coated copper artefact used. This indicates that the contact pressure of the tactile measuring devices used by some partners was too high. This can be caused by a too high probing force or a too small probing tip radius. Thus, for future comparisons the actual probing force and actual tip radius need to be measured during the comparison by the participants to assure that the recommended values (2 μm tip radius and 0.7 mN probing force) are not exceeded. The recently published German standard DIN 32567-3 "Determination of the influence of materials on the optical and tactile dimensional metrology-Part 3: Derivation of correction values for tactile measuring devices" describes methods to do both. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA)

  • 7. Calcatelli, A.
    et al.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Bergoglio, M.
    Greenwood, J.
    Kangi, R.
    Jousten, K.
    Legras, J. C.
    Rantanen, M.
    Verbeek, J.
    Vicente, C. M.
    Szaulich, D.
    Results of the regional key comparison EUROMET.M.P-K1.a in the pressure range from 0.1 Pa to 1000 Pa2005In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 42, no SUPPL., article id 07004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within EUROMET a regional key comparison (EUROMET.M.P-K1.a) was performed in order to compare national vacuum standards in the pressure range from 0.1 Pa to 1000 Pa. The participants were BNM-LNE (France), CEM (Spain), OMH (Hungary), IMGC-CNR (Italy), NPL (United Kingdom), MIKES (Finland), PTB (Germany), NMi (The Netherlands), SP (Sweden) and UME (Turkey). IMGC-CNR acted as pilot laboratory. The measurements were carried out from November 1998 to April 2002. The chosen pressure values (from 0.1 Pa to 1000 Pa) cover the most commonly required range for calibration in low-pressure applications. The transfer standards were commercially available capacitance diaphragm gauges (CDGs): one of them was prepared for the comparison by BNM-LNE (Fr) and two were prepared by IMGC-CNR (It). Two sensors had 133 Pa full scale (one absolute and one relative used as absolute) and one 1333 Pa full scale (absolute). For the two 133 Pa full scale sensors seven pressure steps were generated between 0.1 Pa and 100 Pa; for the 1333 Pa full scale sensor nine pressure steps were generated generally between 0.1 Pa and 1000 Pa. The uncertainty of the generated pressure was reported by each participant in the tables of the results that consisted in the generated pressure value, the uncertainty of the generated pressure, the reading of the gauge and the temperature of the standard at each target pressure. The pilot laboratory has analysed the results, after application of the correction for thermal transpiration, in terms of gauge factors for each gauge, and the combined uncertainty was evaluated by considering, besides the component due to the standards, taking into account the components due to the transfer standards to guarantee a uniform uncertainty analysis for all the participants. At each target pressure a EUROMET reference pressure was calculated; finally the difference between the pressures generated by each laboratory from the reference values was calculated and compared with its expanded uncertainty. The results of most of the laboratories showed a good agreement with the reference values. Only a few values of two laboratories were significantly off the reference values. From the available data a linkage to the CCM.P-K4 key comparison results from 1 Pa to 1000 Pa was possible by means of the results of three laboratories in the (1-30) Pa range and two for the (100-1000) Pa range who took part in both the comparisons. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  • 8.
    Carlsson, G
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Kastberg, A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Pendrill, L
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Absolute wave-number measurement of CsD2 resonance line1997In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 387-391Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Del Campo, D.
    et al.
    CEM, Spain.
    Abdelaziz, Y.
    NIS, Egypt.
    Anagnostou, M.
    EIM, Greece.
    Arifovic, N.
    TUBITAK UME, Turkey.
    Bergerud, R. A.
    JV, Norway.
    Bojkovski, J.
    MIRS/UL-FE/LMK, Slovenia.
    Ciocarlan, E.
    INM, Romania.
    Edler, F.
    PTB, Germany.
    Elliot, C.
    NPL, UK.
    Hathela, O.
    MIKES, Finland.
    Hodzic, N.
    IMBiH, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Holmsten, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Iacomini, L.
    INRIM, Italy.
    Kozicki, M.
    GUM, Poland.
    Nedialkov, S.
    BIM, Bulgaria.
    Sadli, M.
    CNAM, France.
    Simic, S.
    DMDM, Serbia.
    Strnad, R.
    CMI, Czech Republic.
    Turzó-András, E.
    BFKH, Hungary.
    Calibration of thermocouples from 419,527 °C (freezing point of Zn) up to 1492 °C (melting point of the Pd-C eutectic), by the temperature fixed point and comparison methods2020In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 57, no 1 A, p. 1-121, article id 03006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report present the results of the EURAMET inter-comparison carried out to compare the calibration of thermocouples from 419,527 °C (freezing point of Zn) up to 1492 °C (melting point of the Pd-C eutectic). This inter-comparison is intended to be used to support the calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) of the participants in the calibration of thermocouples. The comparison was organized in three loops with nineteen participating laboratories and it allowed the performance of the measurement either in fixed points and/or by comparison. The method used to analyse the results of the comparison was the generalized weighted mean that takes into account the full covariance matrix that includes correlations between the participants which have similar traceability sources and between measurements performed by the same laboratory (i.e. the pilots that performed measurements at the beginning and at the end of each loop and the measurements performed by the same laboratory in fixed points and by comparison at the same calibration point). Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA). 

  • 10.
    Dimarcq, N.
    et al.
    Université Côte d’Azur, France.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Rieck, Carsten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Ashby, N
    NIST, USA.
    Roadmap towards the redefinition of the second2024In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 61, no 1, article id 012001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines the roadmap towards the redefinition of the second, which was recently updated by the CCTF Task Force created by the CCTF in 2020. The main achievements of optical frequency standards (OFS) call for reflection on the redefinition of the second, but open new challenges related to the performance of the OFS, their contribution to time scales and UTC, the possibility of their comparison, and the knowledge of the Earth’s gravitational potential to ensure a robust and accurate capacity to realize a new definition at the level of 10−18 uncertainty. The mandatory criteria to be achieved before redefinition have been defined and their current fulfilment level is estimated showing the fields that still needed improvement. The possibility to base the redefinition on a single or on a set of transitions has also been evaluated. The roadmap indicates the steps to be followed in the next years to be ready for a sound and successful redefinition.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Frennberg, M, Sacconi A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    International comparison of high-accuracy roundness measurements1996In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 539-544Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Furuichi, N.
    et al.
    NMIJ/AIST National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology / National Metrology Institute of Japan, Japan.
    Arias, R.
    Cenam Centro Nacional de Metrología, Mexico.
    Yang, C. -T
    Itri Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan.
    Chun, S.
    Kriss Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, South Korea.
    Meng, T.
    Nim National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Shinder, I.
    Nist National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Frahm, E.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Mills, C.
    Tüv Süd National Engineering Laboratory, UK.
    Akselli, B.
    Tubitak Ume National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Smits, F. M.
    VSL National Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Final report "Key comparison CCM.FF-K1.2015 - water flow: 30 m3/h ... 200 m3/h"2022In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 59, no 1 A, article id 07013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Main text The objective of the Key Comparison CCM.FF-K1.2015 for water flow measurement was to support and prove the Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMC) of the participating NMIs of Japan (AIST), Mexico (CENAM), Chinese Taipei (ITRI), Korea (KRISS), P.R. China (NIM), Germany (PTB), USA (NIST), Sweden (RISE), UK (NEL), Turkey (TUBITAK UME) and Netherlands (VSL). The comparison was organized as a round robin, started in December 2015 at PTB and finished in April 2018, also at PTB. As pilot laboratory, the national metrology institute of Germany (PTB) organised the comparison. A combined setup of a turbine meter and Coriolis meter was used as a transfer standard (TS), which was provided by the pilot laboratory. The nominal calibration conditions of the KC were defined within the flow range between 30 m3/h and 200 m3/h, 20 °C fluid temperature and 3 bar line pressure. A special focus of the comparison was to estimate the uncertainties of the transfer standard (u TS). Both transfer meters were subjected to extensive characterization measurements at pilot laboratory, with the following investigated parameters: fluid temperature, line pressure, repeatability, flow stability, meter sensitivity to varying inflow conditions and hysteresis effects. For turbine meter, all labs passed the E N criteria of ≤ 1.20. The calibrations of the turbine meter were strongly affected by the presence of the large values for u TS with > 0.12 % k =1) which were mainly caused by the meter sensitivity to disturbed inflow conditions. This effect led to inconclusive calibration results for all laboratories. The evaluation criteria u comp/u base exceeded the critical value of 2.00. Finally, the turbine meter was not suitable for a confirmation of all submitted CMC values. For Coriolis meter, all labs passed the E N criteria of ≤ 1.20. In contrast to turbine meter, the evaluation criteria u comp/u base exceeded the critical value of 2.00 for one laboratory, only. The maximum uncertainty u TS of Coriolis meter was estimated with 0.022 % (k =1). In summary, the comparison was successfully finished for a confirmation of the submitted CMC values, related to mass calibrations. For volume related CMCs this comparison was not suitable. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database https://www.bipm.org/kcdb/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA). 

  • 13.
    Haitjema, H
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Frennberg, Matz
    International comparison of roundness profiles with nanometric accuracy1996In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 67-73Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    He, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lara-Avila, Samuel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Kim, Kyung
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fletcher, Nick
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Rozhko, Sergiy
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Cedergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Park, Yung
    Seoul National University, South Korea; University of Pennsylvania, US.
    Tzalenchuk, Alexander
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Kubatkin, Sergey
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of London, UK.
    Polymer-encapsulated molecular doped epigraphene for quantum resistance metrology2019In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 56, no 4, article id 045004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the aspirations of quantum metrology is to deliver primary standards directly to end-users thereby significantly shortening the traceability chains and enabling more accurate products. Epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (epigraphene) is known to be a viable candidate for a primary realisation of a quantum Hall resistance standard, surpassing conventional semiconductor two-dimensional electron gases, such as those based on GaAs, in terms of performance at higher temperatures and lower magnetic fields. The bottleneck in the realisation of a turn-key quantum resistance standard requiring minimum user intervention has so far been the need to fine-tune the carrier density in this material to fit the constraints imposed by a simple cryo-magnetic system. Previously demonstrated methods, such as via photo-chemistry or corona discharge, require application prior to every cool-down as well as specialist knowledge and equipment. To this end we perform metrological evaluation of epigraphene with carrier density tuned by a recently reported permanent molecular doping technique. Measurements at two National Metrology Institutes confirm accurate resistance quantisation below 5n-1. Furthermore, samples show no significant drift in carrier concentration and performance on multiple thermal cycles over three years. This development paves the way for dissemination of primary resistance standards based on epigraphene

  • 15.
    Hobiger, Thomas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rieck, Carsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rüdiger, Haas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Koyama, Yasuhiro
    National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan.
    Combining GPS and VLBI for inter-continental frequency transfer2015In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 251-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades the global positioning system (GPS) has been the only space geodetic technique routinely used for inter-continental frequency transfer applications. In the past very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) has also been considered for this purpose and the method's capabilities were studied several times. However, compared to GPS current VLBI technology only provides few observations per hour, thus limiting its potential to improve frequency comparisons. We therefore investigate the effect of combining GPS and VLBI on the observation level in order to draw the maximum benefit from the strength of each individual technique. As a test-bed for our study we use the CONT11 campaign observed in 2011. First we review the frequency transfer performance that can be achieved with independent technique-specific analyses, both with individual software packages and with the multitechnique software c5++. With this analysis approach both techniques, GPS and VLBI, show similar frequency link instabilities at the level of 10 -14 to 10 -15 (MDEV) on inter-continental baselines for averaging times of one day. Then we use the c5++ software for a combined analysis of GPS and VLBI data on the observation level. We demonstrate that our combination approach leads to small but consistent improvements for frequency transfer of up to 10%, in particular for averaging periods longer than 3000 s.

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  • 16.
    Hällström, J.
    et al.
    VTT, Finland.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Havunen, J.
    VTT, Finland.
    Garnacho, F.
    LCOE, Spain.
    Supplementary comparison EURAMET.EM-S42 comparison of lightning impulse (LI) reference measuring systems2020In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 58, no 1 A, p. 1-170Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Jiang, Zhiheng
    et al.
    BIPM Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France.
    Zhang, Victor S.
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Huang, Yi Jiun
    TL National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory, Taiwan.
    Achkar, Joseph
    Observatoire de Paris, France.
    Piester, Dirk
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Lin, Shinn Yan Calvin
    TL National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory, Taiwan.
    Wu, Wenjun
    NTSC National Time Service Center, China.
    Naumov, Andrey
    Main Metrological Center for State Service of Time and Frequency, Russia.
    Yang, Sunghoon
    KRISS: Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, South Korea.
    Nawrocki, Jerzy
    AOS Space Research Center, Poland.
    Sesia, Ilaria
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Schlunegger, Christian
    Metas Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Yang, Zhiqiang
    NIM National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Fujieda, Miho
    NICT National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan.
    Czubla, Albin
    Central Office of Measures, Poland.
    Esteban, Hector
    Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada, Spain.
    Rieck, Carsten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Whibberley, Peter B.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Use of software-defined radio receivers in two-way satellite time and frequency transfers for UTC computation2018In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 685-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) is a primary technique for the generation of coordinated universal time (UTC). About 20 timing laboratories around the world continuously operate TWSTFT using satellite time and ranging equipment (SATRE19) modems for remote time and frequency comparisons in this context. The precision of the SATRE TWSTFT as observed today is limited by an apparent daily variation pattern (diurnal) in the TWSTFT results. The observed peak-to-peak variation have been found as high as 2 ns in some cases. Investigations into the origins of the diurnals have so far provided no complete understanding about the cause of the diurnals. One major contributor to the diurnals, however, could be related to properties of the receive part in the modem. In 2014 and 2015, it was demonstrated that bypassing the receive part and the use of software-defined radio (SDR) receivers in TWSTFT ground stations (SDR TWSTFT) instead could considerably reduce both the diurnals and the measurement noise. In 2016, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) and the Consultative Committee for Time and Frequency (CCTF) working group (WG) on TWSTFT launched a pilot study on the application of SDR receivers in the TWSTFT network for UTC computation. The first results of the pilot study were reported to the CCTF WG on TWSTFT annual meeting in May 2017, demonstrating that SDR TWSTFT shows superior performance compared to that of SATRE TWSTFT for practically all links between participating stations. In particular, for continental TWSTFT links, in which the strongest diurnals appear, the use of SDR TWSTFT results in a significant suppression of the diurnals by a factor of between two and three. For the very long inter-continental links, e.g. the Europe-to-USA links where the diurnals are less pronounced, SDR TWSTFT achieved a smaller but still significant gain of 30%. These findings are supported by an evaluation of some of the links with an alternate technique based on GPS signals (GPS IPPP) as reported in this paper. Stimulated by these results, the WG on TWSTFT prepared a recommendation for the 21st CCTF meeting, which proposed the introduction of SDR TWSTFT in UTC generation. With CCTF approval of the recommendation, a roadmap was developed for the implementation of SDR TWSTFT in UTC generation. In accordance with the roadmap, most of the stations that participated in the pilot study have updated the SDR TWSTFT settings to facilitate the use of SDR TWSTFT data in UTC generation. In addition, the BIPM conducted a final evaluation to validate the long-term stability of SDR TWSTFT links, made test runs using the BIPM standard software for the calculation of UTC, now including SDR TWSTFT data, and started to calculate SDR TWSTFT time links as backup from October 2017. The use of SDR TWSTFT in UTC generation will begin in 2018.

  • 18.
    Malengo, A.
    et al.
    INRIM, Italy.
    Batista, E.
    IPQ, Portugal.
    Arias, R.
    CENAM, Mexico.
    Mićić, L.
    DMDM, Serbia.
    Bošnjaković, A.
    IMBiH, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Mirjana, M.
    Mbm Podgorica, Montenegro.
    Piluri, E.
    DPM, Albania.
    Svendsen, G. K.
    JV Justervesenet, Norway.
    Huu, M. D.
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Sarevska, A.
    BoM, North Macedonia.
    Mišovich, M.
    SMU, Slovakia.
    Turnšek, U.
    MIRS, Slovenia.
    Xhuraj, A.
    KMA, Kosovo.
    Miteva, M.
    BIM, Bulgaria.
    Milkamanavičienė, I.
    VMC, Lithuania.
    Smits, E.
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Terradillos González, J. Á
    CEM, Spain.
    Wennergren, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Niessner, A.
    BEV, Austria.
    Czibulka, C.
    MKEH, Hungary.
    Benkova, M.
    CMI, Czech Republic.
    Final report on EURAMET project 1395/EURAMET.M.FF-K4.1.2016: Volume comparison at 20 L2020In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 57, no 1, article id 07021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the EURAMET TC-F annual meeting, held in Boras in 2015, it was agreed to perform the follow up of the CCM.FF-K4.1.2011 organized for the EURAMET NMIs for volume of liquids at 20 L. The transfer standard was a 20 L pipette supplied by CENAM. The participants of this comparison also involved in the comparison CCM.FF-K4.1.2011 were: CENAM, INRIM, IPQ, RISE and VSL, in total there were twenty-one participants. The comparison was organized in two petals, INIRM perform three measurements, at the beginning, after the first petal and at the end of the circulation. The comparison measurements started in April 2016 and ended in October 2017. It should be noted that most of the participants (thirteen) declared an expanded uncertainty less than 0,005 %. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA). 

  • 19.
    Mari, Luca
    et al.
    Università Cattaneo LIUC, Italy.
    Ehrlich, Charles
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Measurement units as quantities of objects or values of quantities: a discussion2018In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 716-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurement units have historically been defined as quantities (i.e., specific properties) of objects, such as the mass of a particular piece of metal or the length of a particular rod. While the current International System of Units (SI) Brochure endorses this position, the draft 9th SI Brochure proposes to change it, and instead define measurement units as values of quantities. The reason for this proposed change is not provided, but it does not seem plausible that it is related to the redefinition of the SI units in terms of fundamental constants of nature: the very concept of what a unit is does not depend on the concrete way any given unit is defined. This paper is intended to open a discussion of whether measurement units should be defined as quantities or as quantity values, and provides our rationale for maintaining the definition of units as quantities.

  • 20. Martín, Ricardo
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Hällström, J
    Final report on supplementary comparison EURAMET.EM-S29: Traceability of DC high voltage reference measuring systems up to 200 kV2012In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 49, p. 1001-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the EURAMET supplementary comparison EURAMET.EM-S29 was to compare the calibration and measurement capabilities of the participating institutes. The pilot laboratory was the Laboratorio Central Oficial de Electrotecnia (LCOE, Madrid, Spain), and the other participants were the following other six EURAMET national metrology institutes: BIM (Bulgaria), MIKES (Finland), PTB (Germany), SP (Sweden), UME (Turkey) and VSL (The Netherlands), and the COOMET national institute VNIIMS (Russia). A 200 kV DC reference measuring system provided by LCOE was used as a travelling reference measuring system (TRMS). The comparison measurements were carried out between November 2007 and April 2010. According to the technical protocol, two different types of measurements had to be made: determination of the assigned scale factor of the TRMS between 1 kV and 200 kV, positive and negative polarity, and short-term stability of the measuring systems used. For each voltage level and polarity, a comparison reference value was calculated. Compatibility of each participant with the corresponding comparison reference values and between any pair of laboratories was also obtained. Results of the comparison offered a good opportunity to check the calibration and measurement capabilities of the participants in the field of high voltage DC measurement. The reported results also demonstrate the importance of taking care in order to cancel the influence of the self-heating of the TRMS. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report [http://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/final_reports/EM/S29/EURAMET.EM-S29.pdf] . Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/ [http://kcdb.bipm.org/] . The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  • 21.
    Matthews, Clare E.
    et al.
    National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Pennecchi, Francesca Romana
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Eichstädt, Sascha
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Malengo, Andrea
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Esward, Trevor J.
    National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Smith, Ian M.
    National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Elster, Clemens
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Knott, Andy
    National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Lakka, Antti
    MIKES Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Finland.
    Mathematical modelling to support traceable dynamic calibration of pressure sensors2014In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 326-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the mathematical modelling required to support the development of new primary standard systems for traceable calibration of dynamic pressure sensors. We address two fundamentally different approaches to realizing primary standards, specifically the shock tube method and the drop-weight method. Focusing on the shock tube method, the paper presents first results of system identification and discusses future experimental work that is required to improve the mathematical and statistical models. We use simulations to identify differences between the shock tube and drop-weight methods, to investigate sources of uncertainty in the system identification process and to assist experimentalists in designing the required measuring systems. We demonstrate the identification method on experimental results and draw conclusions.

  • 22.
    Matus, M.
    et al.
    BEV Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying, Austria.
    Haas, S.
    BEV Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying, Austria.
    Piree, H.
    SMD Service Métrologie Scientifique, Belgium.
    Gavalyugov, V.
    BIM Bulgarian Institute of Metrology, Bulgaria.
    Tamakyarska, D.
    BIM Bulgarian Institute of Metrology, Bulgaria.
    Thalmann, R.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Balling, P.
    CMI Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Garnæs, J.
    DFM Danish Fundamental Metrology, Denmark.
    Hald, J.
    DFM Danish Fundamental Metrology, Denmark.
    Farid, N.
    NIS National Institute of Standards, Egypt.
    Prieto, E.
    CEM Centro Espanol de Metrologia, Spain.
    Lassila, A.
    MIKES Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Finland.
    Salgado, J. A.
    LNE Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais, France.
    Lewis, A.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Bandis, C.
    EIM Hellenic Institute of Metrology, Greece.
    Mudronja, V.
    HMI Croatian Metrology Institute, Croatia.
    Banreti, E.
    MKEH Hungarian Trade Licensing Office, Hungary.
    Balsamo, A.
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Pedone, P.
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Bergmans, R.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Karlsson, H.
    JV Norwegian Metrology Service, Norway.
    Ramotowski, Z.
    GUM Central Office of Measures, Poland.
    Eusébio, L.
    IPQ Portuguese Quality Institute, Portugal.
    Saraiva, F.
    IPQ Portuguese Quality Institute, Portugal.
    Duta, A.
    INM National Institute of Metrology, Romania.
    Zelenika, S.
    DMDM Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals, Serbia.
    Bergstrand, Sten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Fira, R.
    SMU Slovak Institute of Metrology, Slovakia.
    Yandayan, T.
    TÜBİTAK UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Şendoğdu, D.
    TÜBİTAK UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Ganioğlu, O.
    TÜBİTAK UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Akgöz, S. A.
    TÜBİTAK UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Franke, P.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Key Comparison EURAMET.L-K1.2011 Measurement of gauge blocks by interferometry2016In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 53, no 1AArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key comparison EURAMET.L-K1.2011 on gauge blocks was carried out in the framework of a EURAMET project starting in 2012 and ending in 2015. It involved the participation of 24 National Metrology Institutes from Europe and Egypt, respectively. 38 gauge blocks of steel and ceramic with nominal central lengths between 0.5 mm and 500 mm were circulated. The comparison was conducted in two loops with two sets of artifacts. A statistical technique for linking the reference values was applied. As a consequence the reference value of one loop is influenced by the measurements of the other loop although they did not even see the artifacts of the others. This influence comes solely from three "linking laboratories" which measure both sets of artifacts. In total there were 44 results were not fully consistent with the reference values. This represents 10% of the full set of 420 results which is a considerable high number. At least 12 of them are clearly outliers where the participants have been informed by the pilot as soon as possible. The comparison results help to support the calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) of the laboratories involved in the CIPM MRA.

  • 23.
    Medvedevskikh, Maria
    et al.
    UNIIM Ural Scientific Research Institute for Metrology, Russia.
    Krasheninina, Maria
    UNIIM Ural Scientific Research Institute for Metrology, Russia.
    Rego, Elaine C. P. D.
    INMETRO National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology, Brazil.
    Wollinger, Wagner
    INMETRO National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology, Brazil.
    Monteiro, Taina M.
    INMETRO National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology, Brazil.
    Carvalho, Lucas J. D.
    INMETRO National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology, Brazil.
    Garcia, Steve Ali Acco
    INACAL Instituto Nacional de Calidad, Peru.
    Haraldsson, Conny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Rodriguez, M Alejandra
    INTI National Institute of Industrial Technology, Argentina.
    Rodriguez, Gabriella
    INTI National Institute of Industrial Technology, Argentina.
    Salvo, Karino
    LATU Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay, Uruguay.
    Gavrilkin, Vladimir
    UkrCSM State Enterprise All-Ukrainian State Research and production Center of Standardization Metrology, Certification and Consumers' Rights Protection, Ukraine.
    Kulyk, Sergiy
    UkrCSM State Enterprise All-Ukrainian State Research and production Center of Standardization Metrology, Certification and Consumers' Rights Protection, Ukraine.
    Samuel, Laly
    MSL Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand, New Zealand.
    Report of the CCQM-K130: Nitrogen mass fraction measurements in glycine2017In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 54, no 1AArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass fraction of nitrogen is very important pointer because the results of these measurements are often used for determination of protein mass fraction that is an important indicator of the quality of the vast majority of food products and raw materials, in particular dry milk powder. Proteins-enzymes catalyze chemical reactions, protein along with fats and carbohydrates is one of the indicators characterizing the energy value of food, so its definition is mandatory for all food products. The aim of this key comparison CCQM-K130 and pilot study P166 is to support National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) and Designated Institutes (DIs) to demonstrate the validity of the procedures the employed for determination of nitrogen mass fraction in glycine. The study material for this key comparison and pilot study has been selected to be representative as one of the aminoacid-the simplest part of the protein. Glycine is an amino acid, single acid that does not have any isomers (melting point-290 °C; specific heat of evaporation-528,6 J/kg; specific melting heat-981,1 J/kg; pKa-2,34, molar mass-75,07 g/mol, density-1,607 g/cm3). Ural Scientific Research Institute for Metrology (UNIIM) acted as the coordinating laboratory of this comparison and pilot study. Eight NMIs participated in this key comparison and two NMIs participated in Pilot study. The results of Pilot study are excluded from the Report B.

  • 24.
    Molloy, E
    et al.
    Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zeal, New Zealand.
    Koo, A
    Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zeal, New Zealand.
    Gevaux, L
    LNE-CNAM, France.
    Obein, G
    LNE-CNAM, France.
    Yang, Li
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Use of bidirectional transmittance distribution function measurements to determine transmittance haze2023In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 60, no 5, article id 055003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate and traceable measurements of transmittance haze are required for quality control in various different industries, such as optoelectronics, automobiles, and agriculture. Transmittance haze is defined as the fraction of light transmitted through a material that deviates from the incident beam by more than 2.5∘. Various documentary standards specify the use of an integrating sphere with a prescribed geometry for the measurement of transmittance haze. This paper uses goniometric measurements of the bidirectional transmittance distribution function (BTDF) to calculate transmittance haze according to the definition and demonstrates that the sphere-based realisation of transmittance haze specified in the documentary standards does not agree with the definition, with the difference being up to 20% for some samples. The BTDF measurements are also used to simulate the integrating sphere haze, allowing the sensitivity of the sphere haze to errors in the integrating sphere geometry to be calculated. 

  • 25.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Using measurement uncertainty in decision-making & conformity assessment2014In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 51, p. S206-S218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements often provide an objective basis for making decisions, perhaps when assessing whether a product conforms to requirements or whether one set of measurements differs significantly from another. There is increasing appreciation of the need to account for the role of measurement uncertainty when making decisions, so that a 'fit-for-purpose' level of measurement effort can be set prior to performing a given task. Better mutual understanding between the metrologist and those ordering such tasks about the significance and limitations of the measurements when making decisions of conformance will be especially useful. Decisions of conformity are, however, currently made in many important application areas, such as when addressing the grand challenges (energy, health, etc), without a clear and harmonized basis for sharing the risks that arise from measurement uncertainty between the consumer, supplier and third parties. In reviewing, in this paper, the state of the art of the use of uncertainty evaluation in conformity assessment and decision-making, two aspects in particular—the handling of qualitative observations and of impact—are considered key to bringing more order to the present diverse rules of thumb of more or less arbitrary limits on measurement uncertainty and percentage risk in the field. (i) Decisions of conformity can be made on a more or less quantitative basis—referred in statistical acceptance sampling as by 'variable' or by 'attribute' (i.e. go/no-go decisions)—depending on the resources available or indeed whether a full quantitative judgment is needed or not. There is, therefore, an intimate relation between decision-making, relating objects to each other in terms of comparative or merely qualitative concepts, and nominal and ordinal properties. (ii) Adding measures of impact, such as the costs of incorrect decisions, can give more objective and more readily appreciated bases for decisions for all parties concerned. Such costs are associated with a variety of consequences, such as unnecessary re-manufacturing by the supplier as well as various consequences for the customer, arising from incorrect measures of quantity, poor product performance and so on.

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    fulltext
  • 26.
    Roziková, M.
    et al.
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Vičarová, M.
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Thirstrup, C.
    Danish Fundamental Metrology A/S, Denmark.
    Dumańska, J.
    Central Office of Measures, Poland.
    Gonzaga, F. B.
    Instituto National de Metrologia Qualidade e Tecnologia, Brazil.
    da Cruz Cunha, K.
    Instituto National de Metrologia Qualidade e Tecnologia, Brazil.
    Galli, A.
    Centro de Química, Argentina.
    Stoica, D.
    Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais, France.
    WANG, H.
    National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Seitz, S.
    PTB, Germany.
    Haraldsson, Conny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Smirnov, A.
    D.I.Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, Russia.
    Electrolytic conductivity at pure water level final report2020In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 58, no 1 AArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrolytic conductivity in aqueous solutions is one of the most common electrochemical measurement techniques in industry. Since it is sensitive to the amount content of dissolved ions in a solution, a limiting value for conductivity is a clear and simple quality criterium for the ionic purity of water. The relevant measuring range for pure water applications is roughly between 0.055 μS cm-1 (ultrapure water) and 150 μS cm-1 at 25 °C. For instance, the European, Japanese and United States (USP) Pharmacopoeia have specified the requirements for purified water, highly purified water and water for injection for pharmaceutical use based on conductiv-ity. Sectors that also use conductivity limits for water purity are electrical power production, food industry, electronic industry and analytical laboratories. At low conductivity levels it is not feasible to circulate water samples for comparison measure-ments, since the conductivity value is instable due to inevitable ionic contamination. The main contamination results from carbon dioxide in ambient air that dissolves in water and builds H3O+ and hydrogen carbonate ions. The contribution of these ions to conductivity is around 1 μS cm-1. Hence, it is impossible to provide stable samples having usable uncertainties in the conductivity range of interest. EURAMET 1271, performed in 2013, was the first successful comparison measurement of pure water conductivity. In the meanwhile, more NMIs, the majority of which is situated in Europe, have built measurement capabilities in the pure water range. EURAMRET 1271 covered a measurement range up to 50 μS cm-1, whereas more and more customers request conductivity cell calibration in the range up to 150 μS cm-1. Consequently, this comparison intends to extend the measurement range and to enable more NMIs to get support for potential CMCs. Therefore, this comparison is additionally intended being a supplementary CCQM comparison. A commercial conductivity measurement meter, including a conductivity measurement cell, was used for the comparison in a Round-Robin scheme. The devices were provided by PTB and were sent from one institute to another. Each institute had to measure the conductivity of a reference solution using the conductivity meter. The reference solution could either be pure water or a measurement standard solution that was reasonably stable in the range of interest. In the first scheme, the cell had to be integrated in a closed pure water flow though system to minimize impurification by CO2. An adequate fixture for this setup was provided by PTB. In the second scheme, the cell was immersed into the measurement standard solution under tem-perature-controlled conditions. Essentially, the institutes had to report the conductivity values indicated by the conductivity meter and the conductivity reference value assigned to the water in the flow though system or that of the measurement standard solution, respectively. The co-ordinating institute calculated adjusted cell constants for the cell from the reported values, which were used to calculate linking conductivities, the actual quantities to be finally compared. The results showed good equivalence in all conductivity ranges, with only a few inconsistent values. Adequate comparison reference values are suggested that can serve to calculate robust degrees of equivalences for the participants usable to support respective CMC claims. 

  • 27.
    Rubin, T.
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Silander, I.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Zakrisson, J.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hao, M.
    Northeastern University, China.
    Forssén, C
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Asbahr, P.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Bernien, M.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kussicke, A.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Liu, K.
    Northeastern University, China.
    Zelan, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Axner, O.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Thermodynamic effects in a gas modulated Invar-based dual Fabry-Pérot cavity refractometer2022In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 59, no 3, article id 035003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By measuring the refractivity and the temperature of a gas, its pressure can be assessed from fundamental principles. The highest performing instruments are based on Fabry-Perot cavities (FPC). Gas modulation refractometry (GAMOR) is a methodology that has the ability to reduce the influence of disturbances to such an extent that high-precision (sub-parts-per-million) assessments of pressure can be made by the use of FPCs of Invar. To allow for high accuracy assessments, it is of importance to assess the uncertainty contribution from the thermodynamic effects that are associated with the gas filling and emptying of the cavity (pV-work). This paper presents a detailed scrutiny of the influence of the gas exchange process on the assessment of gas temperature on an Invar-based dual-FPC (DFPC) instrumentation. It is shown that by virtue of a combination of a number of carefully selected design entities (a small cavity volume with a bore radius of 3 mm, a spacer material with high heat capacitance, large thermal conductivity, and no regions that are connected with low thermal conductance, i.e. no heat islands, and a continuous assessment of temperature of the cavity spacer) the system is not significantly affected by pV-work. Simulations show that 10 s after the filling all temperature gradients in the system are well into the sub-mK range. Experiments support that refractivity assessments initiated after 40 s are not significantly affected by the pV-work. The analysis given in this work indicates that an upper limit for the influence of pV-work on the Invar-based DFPC system using 100 s long gas modulation cycles is 0.5 mK/100 kPa (or 1.8 ppm/100 kPa). Consequently, thermodynamic effects will not be a limiting factor when the Invar-based DFPC GAMOR system is used for assessments of pressure or as a primary pressure standard up to atmospheric pressures. 

  • 28.
    Shetty, Naveen
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Avila, Samuel Lara
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; NPL, UK.
    Kubatkin, Sergey
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Cedergren, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    He, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Long-term stability of molecular doped epigraphene quantum Hall standards: single elements and large arrays (R K/236 ≈ 109 Ω)2023In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 60, no 5, article id 055009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we investigate the long-term stability of epitaxial graphene (epigraphene) quantum Hall resistance standards, including single devices and an array device composed of 236 elements providing (R K/236 ≈ 109 Ω) , with R K the von Klitzing constant. All devices utilize the established technique of chemical doping via molecular dopants to achieve homogenous doping and control over carrier density. However, optimal storage conditions and the long-term stability of molecular dopants for metrological applications have not been widely studied. In this work we aim to identify simple storage techniques that use readily available and cost-effective materials which provide long-term stability for devices without the need for advanced laboratory equipment. The devices are stored in glass bottles with four different environments: ambient, oxygen absorber, silica gel desiccant, and oxygen absorber/desiccant mixture. We have tracked the carrier densities, mobilities, and quantization accuracies of eight different epigraphene quantum Hall chips for over two years. We observe the highest stability (i.e. lowest change in carrier density) for samples stored in oxygen absorber/desiccant mixture, with a relative change in carrier density below 0.01% per day and no discernable degradation of quantization accuracy at the part-per-billion level. This storage technique yields a comparable stability to the currently established best storage method of inert nitrogen atmosphere, but it is much easier to realize in practice. It is possible to further optimize the mixture of oxygen absorber/desiccant for even greater stability performance in the future. We foresee that this technique can allow for simple and stable long-term storage of polymer-encapsulated molecular doped epigraphene quantum Hall standards, removing another barrier for their wide-spread use in practical metrology. 

  • 29.
    Simón, P.
    et al.
    LCOE-FFII, Laboratorio Central Oficial de Electrotecnia, Spain.
    Hällström, J.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland.
    Bergman, A.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Supplementary comparison for the traceability in high voltage capacitance and dissipation factor measurements (EURAMET.EM-S34)2022In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 59, no 1 A, article id 01009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Main text The intercomparison consisted of calibrating the capacitance and loss factor (tan δ) of a set of reference capacitors at different voltage levels, including high voltage up to 200 kV, for frequencies between 50 Hz and 1kHz in low voltage measurements and 50 Hz in high voltage measurements. The travelling standards consisted of a set of four reference capacitors (TRC) with fixed input and grounding leads and the corresponding connection cables of the following rated characteristics: ∗ System 1: 100 pF and rated voltage of 200 kV. ∗ System 2: 100 pF and rated voltage of 700 V. ∗ System 3: 500 nF and rated voltage of 10 V. ∗ System 4: 5000 nF and rated voltage of 10 V. The coordinating laboratory was LCOE (Spain) and the participating institutes were LNE (France), VTT MIKES (Finland), RISE (Sweden), TÜBITAK UME (Türkiye), PTB (Germany) and LCOE (Spain). Participants used their best measurement procedures and setups in order to achieve their best calibration capabilities. Some of the institutes did not perform all the measurements, therefore comparison reference values are based sometimes in the results of only 4 institutes. Not all the laboratories measured at the same ambient temperature; to prevent this inconvenience and to be able to compare results, all capacitance values were corrected at 23 °C. The long drift of the high voltage capacitor of system 1, probably due to some small SF6 leakage, was also considered to calculate the CRV of each institute. Very good agreement between institutes is obtained for high voltage capacitance measurements (high voltage capacitance coefficient determination) and for low or high voltage dissipation factor measurements. Only a few low voltage measurements of capacitance are considered not compatible. Undertaking the work collaboratively through EURAMET proved to be an excellent tool to compare calibration and measurement capabilities of NMI and DI, as well as an opportunity for several institutes to improve their CMCs. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database https://www.bipm.org/kcdb/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  • 30.
    Simón, P.
    et al.
    LCOE-FFII Laboratorio Central Oficial de Electrotecnia, Spain.
    Hällström, J.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland.
    Bergman, A.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Supplementary comparison for the traceability of AC high voltage reference measuring systems up to 200 kV (EURAMET.EM-S33)2022In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 59, no 1 A, article id 01008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Main text The intercomparison consisted of calibrating a High Voltage Travelling Reference Measuring System, TRMS, using peak and rms voltage values, at the frequency of 50 Hz and with voltages of 750 V, 1 kV, 40 kV, 80 kV, 120 kV, 160 kV and 200 kV. The TRMS consisted of a capacitive divider with fixed input and grounding leads, a coaxial cable, a HP 3458A digital multimeter and a computer with a printer. The TRMS had two ranges, 20 kV and 200 kV, depending on the low voltage arm connected to the high voltage capacitor. The TRMS included the low voltage digital multimeter, in such a way that the measuring error of high voltage TRMS should be measured to determine the scale factor of the high voltage divider. Intercomparison results are expressed as the scale factor of the travelling high voltage capacitive divider, the scale factor is dimensionless. Complementary low voltage measurements were also performed to check how the peak voltage is evaluated when harmonics or distortion are superimposed to sinusoidal waveforms. To evaluate this performance an arbitrary waveform generator was included among the travelling devices in such a way that it was possible to compare the peak voltage measured by the TRMS using the provided digital multimeter and the specific intercomparison software and the peak voltage measured by each participant. The coordinating laboratory was LCOE (Spain) and the participating institutes were LNE (France), VTT MIKES (Finland), RISE (Sweden), TÜBITAK UME (Türkiye), PTB (Germany), BIM (Bulgaria), INRiM (Italy), VSL (Netherlands), VNIMS (Russia) and LCOE (Spain). Results of the comparison proved the calibration and measurement capabilities, CMCs, of the participants in the field of high voltage AC measurement, especially when performing peak hv measurements up to 200 kV with expanded uncertainties in the range of 40 mV/V to 80 mV/V. The discrepancy between the results of the two labs claiming the lowest uncertainties, PTB and VTT, was on some measurements significantly larger than the respective uncertainties. One of these labs redesigned its measuring system and a subsequent bilateral comparison arranged between PTB and VTT solved the discrepancy. Undertaking the work collaboratively through EURAMET proved to be an excellent tool to compare calibration and measurement capabilities of NMI and DI, as well as an opportunity for several institutes to improve their CMCs. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database https://www.bipm.org/kcdb/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA). 

  • 31.
    Stahlberg, B Pendrill
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    L, Kärn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at lambda=633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). Part I: Second comparison of Northern European lasers at lambda=633 nm1997In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 301-307Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Stock, KD Liedquist, Leif et al
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Detector-stabilzed FEL lamps as transfer standards in an international comparison of spectral irradiance2000In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 441-444Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Thalmann, R.
    et al.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Nicolet, A.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Meli, F.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Picotto, G. B.
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Matus, M.
    BEV Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying, Austria.
    Carcedo, L.
    CEM Centro Espanol de Metrologia, Spain.
    Hemming, B.
    MIKES Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Finland.
    Ganioğlu, O.
    TÜBİTAK UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    De Chiffre, L.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Saraiva, F.
    IPQ Portuguese Quality Institute, Portugal.
    Bergstrand, Sten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Zelenika, S.
    DMDM Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals, Serbia.
    Tonmueanwai, A.
    NIMT National Institute of Metrology, Thailand.
    Tsai, C. -L.
    CMS Center for Measurement Standards, Taiwan.
    Shihua, W.
    NMC National Metrology Centre, Singapore.
    Kruger, O.
    NMISA National Metrology Institute of South Africa, South Africa.
    de Souza, M. M.
    INMETRO National Institute of Metrology Standardization and Industrial Quality, Brazil.
    Salgado, J. A.
    LNE Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais, France.
    Ramotowski, Z.
    GUM Central Office of Measures, Poland.
    Key comparison EURAMET.L-K8.2013 calibration of surface roughness standards2016In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 53, no 1AArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key comparison EURAMET.L-K8.2013 on roughness was carried out in the framework of a EURAMET project starting in 2013 and ending in 2015. It involved the participation of 17 National Metrology Institutes from Europe, Asia, South America and Africa representing four regional metrology organisations. Five surface texture standards of different type were circulated and on each of the standards several roughness parameters according to the standard ISO 4287 had to be determined. 32 out of 395 individual results were not consistent with the reference value. After some corrective actions the number of inconsistent results could be reduced to 20, which correspond to about 5% of the total and can statistically be expected. In addition to the material standards, two softgauges were circulated, which allow to test the software of the instruments used in the comparison. The comparison results help to support the calibraton and measurement capabilities (CMCs) of the laboratories involved in the CIPM MRA.

  • 34.
    Van den Berg, Steven
    et al.
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Dekker, Paul
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Harris, Subrena
    NPL, UK.
    Goodman, Teresa
    NPL, UK.
    Šmíd, Marek
    CMI, Czech Republic.
    Szajna, Grzegorz
    GUM, Poland.
    Gran, Jarle
    Justervesenet, Norway.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Källberg, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Bazkir, Özkan
    UME, Turkey.
    Meric, Seval
    UME, Turkey.
    Key comparison EURAMET.PR-K2.a.2011-spectral responsivity in the range of 900 nm to 1600 nm2020In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 57, no 1 A, article id 02003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Euramet.PR-K2.a comparison on spectral responsivity for the wavelength range 900 nm to 1600 nm, as described in this report, was carried out to establish the degree of equivalence for the participating European laboratories with respect to the Key Comparison Reference Value (KCRV) of the CCPR-K2.a-2003 comparison. Seven laboratories, including pilot and link laboratory, participated. The comparison was piloted by VSL (Netherlands). Both VSL and NPL (UK) act as link laboratories to the CCPR-K2.a-2003 comparison. Most laboratories show a DoE within 1 % from the CCPR KCRV for almost the full wavelength range, with some slightly larger differences mostly above 1450 nm. One laboratory shows larger deviations, up to 3%. This report provides an overview of the comparison, a description of the characterization of the reference detectors, the data-analysis, participant results and their uncertainties and the degree of equivalence of participating laboratories with the CCPR KCRV. The full Technical Reports of the participants are included in the Appendix of the comparison report. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCPR, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA). 

  • 35.
    Van Der Veen, A. M. H.
    et al.
    Van Swinden Laboratorium, Netherlands.
    Zalewska, E. T.
    Van Swinden Laboratorium, Netherlands.
    Van Osselen, D. R. V.
    Van Swinden Laboratorium, Netherlands.
    Fernández, T. E.
    CEM Centro Español de Metrología, Spain.
    Gómez, C.
    CEM Centro Español de Metrología, Spain.
    Beránek, J.
    CMI Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Oudwater, R. J.
    INMETRO Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial, Brazil.
    Sobrinho, D. C.
    INMETRO Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial, Brazil.
    Brum, M. C.
    INMETRO Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial, Brazil.
    Augusto, C. R.
    INMETRO Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial, Brazil.
    Fükö, J.
    BFKH Government Office of the Capital City Budapest , Hungary.
    Büki, T.
    BFKH Government Office of the Capital City Budapest , Hungary.
    Nagyné Szilági, Z.
    BFKH Government Office of the Capital City Budapest , Hungary.
    Brewer, P. J.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Downey, M. L.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Brown, R. J. C.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Valkova, M.
    SMU Slovak Institute of Metrolog, Slovakia.
    Durisova, Z.
    SMU Slovak Institute of Metrolog, Slovakia.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Yaghooby, Haleh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Tarhan, T.
    UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Engin, E.
    UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Konopelko, L. A.
    VNIIM D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, Russia.
    Popova, T. A.
    VNIIM D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, Russia.
    Pir, M. N.
    VNIIM D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, Russia.
    Efremova, O. V.
    VNIIM D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, Russia.
    International comparison CCQM-K112 biogas2020In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 57, no 1 A, article id 08011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the highest metrological level, biogas standards are commonly prepared gravimetrically as PSMs (primary standard mixtures). This international key comparison addresses the composition of biogas, to support calibration and measurement services for this renewable energy gas. The mixtures contain nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen and oxygen and represent the composition of biogas from landfills. The results in this Track C key comparison on the composition of biogas are generally good. Some of the datasets, especially that of oxygen, showed substantial extra dispersion, that could not be explained by the stated uncertainties. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA). 

  • 36.
    Viallon, J.
    et al.
    BIPM Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France.
    Meyer, C.
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Moussay, P.
    BIPM Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France.
    Schmidt, J.
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Maxwell, S.
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Wielgosz, R. I.
    BIPM Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France.
    A high accuracy reference facility for ongoing comparisons of CO2 in air standards2023In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 60, no 6, article id 065014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design, performance characteristics and validation of a next generation reference facility for carbon dioxide (CO2) in air standards based on manometry is presented. Novel attributes of the facility include automated operation, avoidance of significant pressure corrections for measurements on extracted CO2, fully characterized trapping efficiencies, and reduced measurement uncertainty. Improvements in system performance have been achieved using specific materials, notably Silconert®-treated stainless-steel, providing increased mechanical stability whilst minimizing carbon dioxide adsorption on surfaces, and avoiding use of elastomer O-rings, which would lead to losses of CO2. Full automation of the cryogenic extraction process of CO2 from air has been achieved, avoiding any manual intervention within the temperature stabilized section of the facility, and allowed full characterization and correction for trapping efficiencies and trace water measurement. The facility has been validated across the CO2 in air amount fraction range of (380-800) µmol mol−1 using standards with values traceable to the reference value of the CCQM−K120 (2018) comparison. It was demonstrated to operate with a standard measurement uncertainty of 0.09 µmol mol−1 at 400 µmol mol−1. The automation allows five measurement results per day to be produced with a typical standard deviation of the mean at or below 0.02 µmol mol−1. The facility will be used as a stable reference in the future BIPM.QM−K2 ongoing comparison, to compare consistency of amount fraction values in different CO2 in air standards. The CO2 amount fraction in two ensembles of nine BIPM standards covering the same range will also be measured with the facility to provide their SI-traceable values, and further monitored on a longer time scale. Each ensemble will constitute a CO2 in air scale to be compared with other available scales such as WMO.CO2.X2019 through the BIPM.QM−K5 comparison.

  • 37.
    Wang, J.
    et al.
    NIM National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Chao, J.
    NIM National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Wei, C.
    NIM National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Li, H.
    NIM National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Wang, Q.
    NIM National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Song, P.
    NIM National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Lu, H.
    NIM National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Zhou, Y.
    NIM National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Tang, Y.
    NIM National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Wang, S.
    NIM National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Yang, L.
    National Research Council Canada, Canada.
    Nadeau, K.
    National Research Council Canada, Canada.
    Pihillagawa, I. G.
    National Research Council Canada, Canada.
    Johnson, M. E.
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, US.
    Yu, L. L.
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, US.
    Näykki, T.
    SYKE, Finland.
    Sara-Aho, T.
    SYKE, Finland.
    Pérez Zambra, R.
    LATU, Uruguay.
    Napoli, R.
    LATU, Uruguay.
    Rienitz, O.
    PTB, Germany.
    Noordmann, J.
    PTB, Germany.
    Pape, C.
    PTB, Germany.
    Towara, J.
    PTB, Germany.
    Tsz-Chun, C.
    GLHK, Hong Kong.
    Hei-Shing, C.
    GLHK, Hong Kong.
    Stakheev, A.
    VNIIFTRI, Russia.
    Dobrovolskiy, V.
    VNIIFTRI, Russia.
    Stolboushkina, T.
    VNIIFTRI, Russia.
    Glinkova, A.
    VNIIFTRI, Russia.
    Taebunpakul, S.
    NIMT, Thailand.
    Thiengmanee, U.
    NIMT, Thailand.
    Kaewkhomdee, N.
    NIMT, Thailand.
    Uribe, C.
    INACAL, Peru.
    Carrasco, E.
    INACAL, Peru.
    Botha, A.
    NMISA, South Africa.
    Fisicaro, P.
    LNE, France.
    Oster, C.
    LNE, France.
    Ahumada, D. A. F.
    INMC, Colombia.
    Abella, J. P.
    INMC, Colombia.
    Segura, S.
    INMC, Colombia.
    Shin, R.
    HSA, Singapore.
    Deborah, S. L. P.
    HSA, Singapore.
    Dewi, F.
    HSA, Singapore.
    Kiat, B. T. M.
    HSA, Singapore.
    Zongrong, W. Y.
    HSA, Singapore.
    Wah, L. H.
    HSA, Singapore.
    Haraldsson, Conny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Merrick, J.
    NMIA, Australia.
    Antin, L.
    NMIA, Australia.
    White, I.
    NMIA, Australia.
    Goenaga-Infante, H.
    LGC, UK.
    Hill, S.
    LGC, UK.
    Entwisle, J.
    LGC, UK.
    Jaćimović, R.
    JSI, Slovenia.
    Zuliani, T.
    JSI, Slovenia.
    Fajon, V.
    JSI, Slovenia.
    Yim, Y. -H
    KRISS, South Korea.
    Heo, S. W.
    KRISS, South Korea.
    Lee, K. -S
    KRISS, South Korea.
    Lee, J. W.
    KRISS, South Korea.
    Lim, Y.
    KRISS, South Korea.
    Okumu, T. O.
    KEBS, Kenya.
    Ndege, M.
    KEBS, Kenya.
    Wangui, L.
    KEBS, Kenya.
    Can, S. Z.
    UME, Turkey.
    Coskun, F. G.
    UME, Turkey.
    Tunc, M.
    UME, Turkey.
    Giannikopoulou, P.
    EXHM, Greece.
    Kakoulides, E.
    EXHM, Greece.
    Inagaki, K.
    NMIJ, Japan.
    Miyashita, S. -I
    NMIJ, Japan.
    Klich, H.
    INRAP, Tunisia.
    Jebali, R.
    INRAP, Tunisia.
    Chaaban, N.
    INRAP, Tunisia.
    Bergamaschi, L.
    INRIM, Italy.
    Sobina, E.
    NUIIM, Russia.
    Tabatchikova, T.
    NUIIM, Russia.
    Migal, P.
    NUIIM, Russia.
    Final report of the CCQM-K145: Toxic and essential elements in bovine liver2020In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 57, no 1 A, article id 08013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liver plays a major role in metabolism and acts as a source of energy for the body by storing glycogen. With the growing interest and investigation in the biological effects in recent years, it is important and necessary to develop accurate and comparable analytical methods for elements in bio-samples. It has, however, been 10 years since the tissue sample (bovine liver) of CCQM-K49 key comparison. The purpose of CCQM-K145 is to ensure the comparable and traceable measurement results for essential and toxic elements such as P, S, Zn, Mn, Ni, Mo, Sr, Cr, Co, Pb, As and Hg in bovine liver among NMIs and other designated measurement bodies worldwide. The comparison was agreed by IAWG as 6th IAWG Benchmarking Exercise with Zn and Ni as exemplary elements at the meeting in Korea in the early October 2016. The results of CCQM-K145 are expected to cover the measurement capability and support CMCs claiming for inorganic elements in the similar biological tissue materials and food samples. 30 NMIs and DIs registered in CCQM-K145. With respect to the methodology, a variety of techniques such as IDMS, ICP-OES, ICP-MS(non-ID), AAS and NAA were adopted by the participants. For Zn, Ni, Sr, Pb and Hg measurements, most participants chose ID-ICP-MS method, which showed the better performance in terms of consistency and reliability of the measurement results. In aspect of the traceability for the measurement results in CCQM-K145, most participants used their own (in house) CRMs or other NMI's CRMs to guarantee trace to SI unit. Most participants used similar matrix CRMs for quality control or method validation. Base on different statistic way to calculate the reference mass fraction values and associated uncertainties for each measurand, removal of the suspected extreme values, and discussion at the IAWG meetings, the median values are proposed as the KCRV for Zn, Ni, Mn, Mo, Cr, Pb and Hg; the arithmetic mean values are proposed as the KCRV for P, S, Sr, Co and As. In general, the performances of the majority of CCQM-K145 participants are very good, illustrating their measurement capabilities for Zn, Ni, P, S, Mn, Mo, Sr, Cr, As, Co, Pb and Hg in a complex biological tissue matrix. Bovine liver contains many kinds of nutrients and microelements, it can be regarded as a typical representative material of biological tissue and food. In CCQM-K145, the analytes involved alkali metals and transition elements, metalloids/semi-metals and non metals with a range of mass fraction from mg/g to μg/kg. CCQM-K145 also tested the ability of NMIs/DIs to determine elements that were easy to be lost and polluted, and interfered significantly. The chemical pretreatment methods of samples used in the comparison is suitable for general food and biological matrix samples. A variety of measurement methods used in the comparison represent the main instrumental technology for elemental analysis. Therefore, for supporting CMC claim, CCQM-K145 is readily applicable to measurement of more elements in a wide range of biological materials (including liquids and solids) and meat products. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  • 38.
    Warnecke, H.
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kroner, C.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Ogheard, F.
    Centre Technique des Industries Aérauliques et Thermiques, France.
    Kondrup, J. B.
    FORCE Technology, Denmark.
    Christoffersen, N.
    FORCE Technology, Denmark.
    Benková, M.
    Cesky Metrologicky Institut, Czech Republic.
    Büker, Oliver
    Haack, S.
    Teknologisk Institut, Denmark.
    Huovinen, M.
    VTT Oy, Finland.
    Ünsal, B.
    TUBITAK THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF TURKEY, Turkey.
    New metrological capabilities for measurements of dynamic liquid flows2022In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 59, no 2, article id 025007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capability to calibrate flow and volume devices dynamically has gained increasing interest over the years. Within the scope of the EMPIR project 17IND13 'Metrology for real-world domestic water metering', several test rigs were developed with which dynamic flow profiles can be generated and measured that reflect characteristics of real-world drinking water consumption. The dynamic component of the test rigs is realized based on different technologies such as valves, cavitation nozzles or piston provers. For validation purposes, an intercomparison of the test rigs was carried out in the scope of an EURAMET pilot study no. 1506. Between September 2020 and February 2021, a transfer standard specially developed for the intercomparison was calibrated at eight laboratories. The measurement error was determined for three dynamic flow profiles representative of drinking water consumption in Europe. In addition to determining the measurement errors and the degree of equivalence, five additional key parameters were derived to characterize the test rig properties: (1) repeatability of the profile measurements, (2) mean value of the residuals, (3) deviation between measured total mass and total mass resulting from the given profile and (4) duration of the flow change for an increasing change (5) and duration of the flow change for a decreasing change. These key parameters comprehensively describe the quality with which the dynamic flow profiles were generated and measured on the test rigs and can be used for evaluations in future intercomparisons of this kind. A main outcome of the intercomparison is that there is no technology to be preferred in terms of technical implementation. All test rigs agree well with each other, taking into account their expanded measurement uncertainties. 

  • 39.
    Zelan, Martin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Mollmyr, Oscar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Simea Optics AB, Sweden.
    Characterization of a fiber-optic pressure sensor in a shock tube system for dynamic calibrations2015In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 48-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of mechanical quantities such as pressure often take place under dynamic conditions, yet no traceable standards for the primary dynamic calibration of pressure sensors currently exist. In theory, shock tubes can provide a close to perfect step-function ideal for the calibration of pressure transducers. In this paper we investigate a system consisting of a shock tube and an ultra-fast fiber-optical sensor that is designed to be a future primary system for dynamic pressure calibrations. For reference, the fiber-optical sensor is compared to a piezoelectric sensor, and their corresponding frequency spectra are calculated. Furthermore, an investigation of the repeatability of the fiber-optical sensor, as well as a comparison with a second shock tube, is performed.

1 - 39 of 39
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