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  • 1.
    Bergström, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Derivation of expressions for the spontaneous curvature, mean and Gaussian bending constants of thermodynamically open surfactant monolayers and bilayers2003In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 118, p. 1440-1452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have derived expressions for the spontaneous curvature H0, the mean and Gaussian bending constants, kc and c, respectively, for a surfactant film of finite thickness that is open in a thermodynamic sense. Geometrical packing constraints are taken into account and give rise to explicit large and important contributions to kc c, and kcH0. From its contribution to the latter quantity we may deduce that surfactant aggregates (micelles, vesicles, microemulsion droplets) are expected to dramatically increase their size with increasing surfactant tail length. Moreover, the coupling between free energy contributions related to surfactant head group and tail with geometrical packing constraints give rise to dominant terms on the form 2 pH0, where p is the thickness of a planar film, in the expressions for kc In the case of repulsive head group effects that favor a large spontaneous curvature, such as electrostatics, these terms raise kc and thus increase the rigidity of the film. Due to the constraint of constant free monomer chemical potentials, the composition of the film becomes a function of curvature. As a result, the ability of a surfactant film to have different surfactant compositions in differently curved parts (e.g., inner and outer layer of a vesicle, central parts and end caps of rod or threadlike micelles, etc.) may considerably reduce kc, whereas c and kcH0 are mainly unaffected by mixing. The magnitude of the reduction of kc of a binary surfactant film increases with increasing asymmetry between the two surfactants with respect to charge number, head group size, and tail volume

  • 2.
    Bergström, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Thermodynamics of anisotropic surfactant micelles. I. The influence of the curvature free energy on the micellar size and shape2000In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 113, p. 5559-5568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel theory for the structural behavior of surfactant micelles is expounded. The micelles are considered to be generally shaped as triaxial tablets with distinct thickness width and length, respectively, and may become spherical, spherocylindrical or disk-shaped in the special cases where two or more of the dimensions are equal. It is demonstrated that the average width and length of a tablet-shaped micelle with a fixed thickness is mainly determined by two constants, k1 and k2, related to the first and second order correction in curvature of the micellar end caps. The size of the micelles is found to be mainly determined by k1, whereas k2 influences the shape, i.e., the length-to-width ratio, of the micelles so that the micellar size increases with increasing k1 and the length-to-width ratio decreases with increasing k2. Hence, large positive values of k2 promote the formation of tablets rather than very long spherocylinders. An additional parameter related to the curvature of the straight cylindrical rims may influence the structure of the tablet-shaped micelles insofar k2 is close to or below zero.

  • 3.
    Bergström, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Thermodynamics of anisotropic surfactant micelles. II. A molecular interpretation of the micellar curvature free energy2000In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 113, p. 5569-5579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explicit expressions have been derived for the two curvature constants k1 and k2 that mainly influence the size and shape, respectively, of generally shaped micelles (triaxial tablets with a thickness

  • 4.
    Gillberg-La Force, G
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    La Force, RC
    The ESR line shape of free radicals in aqueous environments1973In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 58, p. 5402-5406Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Herder, CE
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ninham, BW
    Australian National University, Australia.
    Christenson, HK
    Australian National University, Australia.
    Interactions of hydrocarbon monolayer surfaces across N-alkanes: A steric repulsion1989In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 90, p. 5801-5805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results of force measurements between hydrocarbon monolayer surfaces across n-alkanes (hexane, decane, and tetradecane). The interaction id qualitatively different from that of any previously system and, in particular, bears no resemblance to an oscillatory solvation force. Instead, the force is repulsive from about 2.5 nm, with the exeption of a shallow minimum just outside a force maximum at 0.8-0.9 nm. At smaller separations the force becomes attractive and there is a waek adhesion at contact. We suggest that the force law is due to a steric effect____a repulsive interaction originating in restrictions on chain conformations of the alkanes at small surface separations. This interaction is acessible via simple mean-field theories. The similarity of the liquid-liquid and liquid-surface interactions allows this to dominate over solvation effects. The results are of significance for interaggregate interactions in lamellar liquid crystals, microemulsions, and surfactant- stabilized dispersions.

  • 6.
    Loren, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hagslatt, H.
    Nyden, M.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Water mobility in heterogeneous emulsions determined by a new combination of confocal laser scanning microscopy, image analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance diffusometry, and finite element method simulation2005In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 24716-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were combined in a quantitative way in finite element calculations of water propagation in CLSM images obtained from a very heterogeneous emulsion. The propagators calculated on the basis of microstructure were Fourier transformed and subsequently compared with the echo decays obtained by the NMR diffusometry method. The results showed very good agreement between microstructure based calculations and experiments, indicating that the short gradient pulse approximation in the NMR diffusometry experiment holds for a certain q range. Furthermore, the CLSM was able to achieve a relevant two-dimensional microstructure although some discrepancy at low q values was noted. This effect is attributed to the inherent three-dimensional connectivity between the water domains in this type of structures, making the calculations slightly underestimate the water diffusion at longer distances. © 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  • 7.
    Pilkington, Georgia A.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Harris, Kathryn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bergendal, Erik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Reddy, Akepati Bhaskar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Palsson, Gunnar K.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Vorobiev, Alexei
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Antzutkin, Oleg N.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden ; Ghent University, Belgium.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Electro-responsivity of ionic liquid boundary layers in a polar solvent revealed by neutron reflectance2018In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 148, no 19, article id 193806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using neutron reflectivity, the electro-responsive structuring of the non-halogenated ionic liquid (IL) trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium-bis(mandelato)borate, [P6,6,6,14][BMB], has been studied at a gold electrode surface in a polar solvent. For a 20% w/w IL mixture, contrast matched to the gold surface, distinct Kiessig fringes were observed for all potentials studied, indicative of a boundary layer of different composition to that of the bulk IL-solvent mixture. With applied potential, the amplitudes of the fringes from the gold-boundary layer interface varied systematically. These changes are attributable to the differing ratios of cations and anions in the boundary layer, leading to a greater or diminished contrast with the gold electrode, depending on the individual ion scattering length densities. Such electro-responsive changes were also evident in the reflectivities measured for the pure IL and a less concentrated (5% w/w) IL-solvent mixture at the same applied potentials, but gave rise to less pronounced changes. These measurements, therefore, demonstrate the enhanced sensitivity achieved by contrast matching the bulk solution and that the structure of the IL boundary layers formed in mixtures is strongly influenced by the bulk concentration. Together these results represent an important step in characterising IL boundary layers in IL-solvent mixtures and provide clear evidence of electro-responsive structuring of IL ions in their solutions with applied potential.

  • 8. Pink, David A
    et al.
    Hanna, Charles B
    Sandt, Christophe
    MacDonald, Adam J: MacEachern
    Ronald, Corkery
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Robert, Rousseau
    Modeling the solid-liquid phase transition in saturated triglycerides2010In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 132, no 5, article id art no 54502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated theoretically two competing published scenarios for the melting transition of the triglyceride trilaurin (TL): those of (1) Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)], in which the average state of each TL molecule in the liquid phase is a discotic "Y" conformer whose three chains are dynamically twisted, with an average angle of similar to 120 degrees between them, and those of (2) Cebula et al. [J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 130 (1992)], in which the liquid-state conformation of the TL molecule in the liquid phase is a nematic h*-conformer whose three chains are in a modified "chair" conformation. We developed two competing models for the two scenarios, in which TL molecules are in a nematic compact-chair (or "h") conformation, with extended, possibly all-trans, chains at low-temperatures, and in either a Y conformation or an h* conformation in the liquid state at temperatures higher than the phase-transition temperature, T*=319 K. We defined an h-Y model as a realization of the proposal of Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)], and explored its predictions by mapping it onto an Ising model in a temperature-dependent field, performing a mean-field approximation, and calculating the transition enthalpy Delta H. We found that the most plausible realization of the h-Y model, as applied to the solid-liquid phase transition in TL, and likely to all saturated triglycerides, gave a value of Delta H in reasonable agreement with the experiment. We then defined an alternative h-h* model as a realization of the proposal of Cebula et al. [J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 130 (1992)], in which the liquid phase exhibits an average symmetry breaking similar to an h conformation, but with twisted chains, to see whether it could describe the TL phase transition. The h-h* model gave a value of Delta H that was too small by a factor of similar to 3-4. We also predicted the temperature dependence of the 1132 cm(-1) Raman band for both models, and performed measurements of the ratios of three TL Raman bands in the temperature range of -20 degrees C <= T <= 90 degrees C. The experimental results were in accord with the predictions of the h-Y model and support the proposal of Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)] that the liquid state is made up of molecules that are each, on average, in a Y conformation. Finally, we carried out computer simulations of minimal-model TLs in the liquid phase, and concluded that although the individual TL molecules are, on average, Y conformers, long-range discotic order is unlikely to exist.

  • 9. Valle-Delgado, JJ
    et al.
    Molina-Bolivar, JA
    Galisteo-González, F
    Gálvez-Ruiz, MJ
    Feiler, A
    Rutland, MW
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Hydration forces between silica surfaces: Experimental data and predictions from different theories2005In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 123, article id Art No 034708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silica is a very interesting system that has been thoroughly studied in the last decades. One of the most outstanding characteristics of silica suspensions is their stability in solutions at high salt concentrations. In addition to that, measurements of direct-interaction forces between silica surfaces, obtained by different authors by means of surface force apparatus or atomic force microscope AFM , reveal the existence of a strong repulsive interaction at short distances below 2 nm that decays exponentially. These results cannot be explained in terms of the classical Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek DLVO theory, which only considers two types of forces: the electrical double-layer repulsion and the London–van der Waals attraction. Although there is a controversy about the origin of the short-range repulsive force, the existence of a structured layer of water molecules at the silica surface is the most accepted explanation for it. The overlap of structured water layers of different surfaces leads to repulsive forces, which are known as hydration forces. This assumption is based on the very hydrophilic nature of silica. Different theories have been developed in order to reproduce the exponentially decaying behavior as a function of the separation distance of the hydration forces. Different mechanisms for the formation of the structured water layer around the silica surfaces are considered by each theory. By the aid of an AFM and the colloid probe technique, the interaction forces between silica surfaces have been measured directly at different pH values and salt concentrations. The results confirm the presence of the short-range repulsion at any experimental condition even at high salt concentration . A comparison between the experimental data and theoretical fits obtained from different theories has been performed in order to elucidate the nature of this non-DLVO repulsive force

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