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  • 1. Carlsson, L.
    et al.
    Fall, Andreas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Chaduc, I.
    Wågberg, L.
    Charleux, B.
    Malmström, E.
    D’Agosto, F.
    Lansalot, M.
    Carlmark, A.
    Modification of cellulose model surfaces by cationic polymer latexes prepared by RAFT-mediated surfactant-free emulsion polymerization2014Inngår i: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 5, nr 20, s. 6076-6086Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the successful surface modification of a model cellulose substrate by the preparation and subsequent physical adsorption of cationic polymer latexes. The first part of the work introduces novel charged polymer nanoparticles constituted of amphiphilic block copolymers based on cationic poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(DMAEMA-co-MAA)) as the hydrophilic segment, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as the hydrophobic segment. First, RAFT polymerization of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) in water was performed at pH 7, below its pKa. The simultaneous hydrolysis of DMAEMA led to the formation of a statistical copolymer incorporating mainly protonated DMAEMA units and some deprotonated methacrylic acid units at pH 7. The following step was the RAFT-mediated surfactant-free emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using P(DMAEMA-co-MAA) as a hydrophilic macromolecular RAFT agent. During the synthesis, the formed amphiphilic block copolymers self-assembled into cationic latex nanoparticles by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). The nanoparticles were found to increase in size with increasing molar mass of the hydrophobic block. The cationic latexes were subsequently adsorbed to cellulose model surfaces in a quartz crystal microbalance equipment with dissipation (QCM-D). The adsorbed amount, in mg m-2, increased with increasing size of the nanoparticles. This approach allows for physical surface modification of cellulose, utilizing a water suspension of particles for which both the surface chemistry and the surface structure can be altered in a well-defined way. 

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Hult, Karl
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Trey, Stacy
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Martinelle, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    One-pot enzymatic polycondensation to telechelic methacrylate-functional oligoesters used for film formation2011Inngår i: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 714-719Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on largely renewable monomers, an enzymatic one-pot polycondensation route towards functional oligomers with targeted molecular weights and end-groups was developed. This one-pot synthesis was performed by combining Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), ethylene glycol, and divinyl adipate under reduced pressure (72 mbar) at 60 °C. The polymerization went to completion (>95% conversion for all monomers) within 24 h and the fraction of methacrylate end-groups was >90%. Three targeted dimethacrylate functional oligomers with molecular weights of 920, 1700 and 2500 g mol-1 (degrees of polymerization 4, 8, and 13 respectively) were synthesized. The oligomer products were characterized by NMR, MALDI-TOF MS and SEC. The dimethacrylate functional oligomers were further UV homopolymerized or combined with a tetrathiol crosslinker to demonstrate the potential to produce novel networks with tunable thermal properties dependent on chain length of the telechelic building blocks. This research is the first to demonstrate methacrylate functionalization and condensation polymerization in a one step process, which expands the growing toolbox for polymer/material chemists towards an increased throughput in available macromonomers used in material design.

  • 3.
    Gårdebjer, Sofie
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Engström, J.
    AkzoNobel, Sweden.
    Restorp, P.
    AkzoNobel, Sweden.
    Persson, Michael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; AkzoNobel, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anette
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using Hansen solubility parameters to predict the dispersion of nano-particles in polymeric films2016Inngår i: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 7, nr 9, s. 1756-1764Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We suggest a rough and straightforward method to predict the dispersibility of modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) in nanocomposites using Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). The surface of CNC was modified using a novel approach where Y-shaped substituents with two different carbon chain lengths were attached to the surface. Approximate HSP values were calculated for the modified CNC, and dispersions of unmodified and modified CNC in solvents with varying HSPs were studied. The best dispersibility was observed in dichloromethane, when the CNC surface was modified with longer carbon chains. Dichloromethane has HSP similar to low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Nanocomposites with both unmodified and modified CNC were produced. The materials with modified CNC showed increased adhesion between the filler and the matrix, followed by a decreased water permeability compared to unmodified CNC, suggesting a better dispersibility of modified CNC in LDPE and confirming the usefulness of this approach.

  • 4.
    Lee, Jookyeong
    et al.
    Sungkyunkwan University, Republic of Korea .
    Choi, Eun Jung
    Sungkyunkwan University, Republic of Korea .
    Varga, Imre
    Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Yta, process och formulering. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yun, Sang-Ho
    Inha University, Republic of Korea.
    Song, Changsik
    Sungkyunkwan University, Republic of Korea .
    Terpyridine-functionalized stimuli-responsive microgels and their assembly through metal-ligand interactions2018Inngår i: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 9, nr 8, s. 1032-1039Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed a terpyridine-functionalized microgel (tpy-mG) for its supramolecular assembly. Tpy-mG was synthesized by amidation between 3-(4-([2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridin]-4′-yl)phenoxy)propan-1-amine and carboxylates of a thermo-responsive p(NIPAM-co-MAA) microgel (A-mG), which was synthesized by emulsion polymerization. After decorating terpyridine, its effects on the hydrodynamic radius, volume phase transition temperature (VPTT), and the colloidal stability of the microgel were investigated. Tpy-mG can be assembled reversibly with several metal ions (Ni2+, Fe2+, Co2+, or Zn2+), and interestingly the assembled tpy-mG-M2+ showed different rheological properties depending on the metal ion type; the weakly bound ions (Co2+, Zn2+) indicated fast dynamics for "inter-particular" exchange, resulting in much higher storage (G′) and loss (G′′) moduli. Photocatalysts such as Ru dyes can be easily introduced into tpy-mGvia metal-ligand interactions, and the photooxidation of benzylamine was tested. The free Ru dye showed almost the same conversions at 25 and 50 °C, whereas the assembled Ru-tpy-mG-Mg2+ displayed reduced conversion at 50 °C (>VPTT). This is suggested to be due to the collapsed or "locked" structure around the photocatalytic center (Ru). Tpy-mG can be utilized as a good platform for developing responsive functional materials via reversible metal-ligand complexation.

  • 5.
    Warlin, Niklas
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. Plasman, Sweden.
    Guo, Zengwei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Mankar, Smita
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Valsange, Nitin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rehnberg, Nicola
    Lund University, Sweden; Bona AB, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Stefan
    Perstorp AB. Sweden.
    Jannasch, Patric
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zhang, Baozhong
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Synthesis and melt-spinning of partly bio-based thermoplastic poly(cycloacetal-urethane)s toward sustainable textiles2021Inngår i: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 12, nr 34, s. 4942-4953Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A rigid diol with a cyclic acetal structure was synthesized by facile acetalation of fructose-based 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) and partly bio-based di-trimethylolpropane (di-TMP). This diol (Monomer T) was copolymerized with potentially bio-based flexible polytetrahydrofuran and diisocyanates to prepare thermoplastic poly(cycloacetal-urethane)s. A modified one-step solution polymerization protocol resulted in relatively high molecular weights (Mn ∼ 41.5-98.9 kDa). All the obtained poly(cycloacetal-urethane)s were amorphous with tuneable glass transition temperatures up to 104 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that these polymers were thermally stable up to 253 °C and had a relatively high pyrolysis char residue, which may indicate potential inherent flame resistance. Melt rheology measurements were performed to determine a suitable processing window between 165-186 °C, after which the polymer was successfully melt-spun into ∼150 meters of homogeneous fibres at 185 °C. The resulting fibres could be readily hydrolysed under acidic conditions, resulting in partial recovery of the original chemical building blocks.

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