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  • 1.
    Somani, M. C.
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Pyykkonen, Juha
    RISE., Swerea, KIMAB. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Porter, D. A.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Karjalainen, L. P.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Komi, J. I.
    SSAB, Finland.
    Influence of composition and prior deformation on phase transformation temperatures and hardness in direct quenching using physical simulation2015Inngår i: Materials Performance and Characterization, ISSN 2379-1365, E-ISSN 2165-3992, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 341-364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For conventional reheated and quenched (RQ) steels, the level of alloying necessary to achieve a given hardenability and hardness can be estimated from calculated Jominy curves or ideal critical diameters (DI) given in ASTM A255-10(2014). However, for thermomechanically rolled direct quenched (DQ) steels, little data are available. In this study, the accuracy of the ASTM approach was estimated by designing an experiment to study the main effects of seven alloying elements (C, Mn, Cr, Ni, Mo, Nb, and V) at two levels with eight boron steels based on an eight-run resolution III partial factorial designed experiment. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams covering cooling rates of 1.5°C/s-48°C/s were determined using Gleeble simulations with or without controlled deformation below Tnr. The effects of deformation below Tnr and the alloying elements were clearly revealed. In general, low temperature straining of the austenite led to higher levels of hardness than quenching from unstrained austenite. The start of the bainite transformation Ar3 (bainite) was modelled as a function of chemical composition and cooling rate. The data in the CCT diagrams were used to derive equivalent ideal critical diameters (DIB) for strained and unstrained prior austenite. The hardenability index DIB calculated from experimental Jominy curves generally agreed well with those of CCT data for unstrained austenite. In order to apply the ASTM A255 approach to the calculation of DIB, boron factors (BF) for steels with alloy factors (AFs) greater than 26 were estimated by extrapolating the ASTM data. However, this approach did not give satisfactory predictions for either strained or unstrained austenite. Preliminary analysis indicated that Cr, Mo, and V might be less effective at increasing hardenability than implied from their AFs. New formulae were given to allow estimations of the hardness to be expected in connection with direct quenching. 

  • 2.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Troell, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Induction hardening - Establishing the process window for induction quenching by using experimental results and computational tools2014Inngår i: Materials Performance and Characterization, ISSN 2379-1365, E-ISSN 2165-3992, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 352-368Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To establish the process window for the spray quenching step of the induction hardening process is essential for quality control and optimized use of the quenching capacity supplied by the quenching unit. In general, the process window is established by an empirical approach, where the processing is related to the mechanical properties. On the other hand, there has been a rapid development of computational tools that may facilitate and accelerate process optimization. In the present work it is demonstrated how such tools, e.g., FE-simulation and multivariate analysis, can be applied to couple quenching characteristics to mechanical properties. The methodology is applied to induction hardened steel cylinders that were quenched with different flow rates, temperatures and composition of the quenchant. The results show how mechanical properties can be related to characteristics of the quenching, e.g., heat transfer coefficients and characteristics of the cooling curve. Moreover, the work discusses and exemplifies how the process window can be established and how computational tools allow the user to virtually alter the processing and estimate the impact it may have on the mechanical properties.

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