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  • 1.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Fossdal, Carl Gunnar
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    New insight regarding mode of action of brown rot decay of modified wood based on DNA and gene expression studies: A review2015Ingår i: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 5-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modified wood shows resistance against wood deteriorating fungi, but the mechanisms are still not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to summarise the molecular studies performed on modified wood with regard to brown rot decay fungi. The DNA data showed that fungi are present inside the laboratory wood test samples already after two weeks of inoculation. Generally the fungal DNA content reflects mass loss and wood moisture content. The oxidative gene expression seems to be higher in modified wood than in untreated wood and it tend to increase during incubation. Based on the gene expression data we suggest that the hypothesis of lack of substrate recognition by the fungus should be rejected. In the reviewed studies, total wood moisture content in the samples was generally not low enough to inhibit fungal colonisation. Hence, moisture distribution within the wood should be studied more closely.

  • 2.
    Ehmcke, Gabriele
    et al.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Koch, Gerald
    Thünen Institute of Wood Research, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Improvement of a method for topochemical investigations of degraded furfurylated wood2016Ingår i: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 96-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is an increasing demand for wood protection systems which are based on low environmental impact technologies. The aim of this study was to improve a method for investigating furfurylated Pinus radiata, both in terms of the furfuryl alcohol polymerisation process in the wood cell wall and the detection of initial signs of brown rot degradation. It is an established theory today that brown rot degradation starts with lignin modification in the outermost part of the secondary cell wall and the combined middle lamella. We adapted a method (cellular UV microspectrophotometry, UMSP) which enables direct imaging of the lignin distribution and modification within individual cell wall layers. Furfurylated P. radiata, incubated with Postia placenta, were scanned with monochromatic UV-light at 280 nm. The results showed that USMP is a promising method to study furfurylated wood and early fungal degradation damages in the cell wall of furfurylated wood.

  • 3.
    Källbom, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rautkari, Lauri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Leena-Sisko
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Campbell, Joseph
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jones, Dennis
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Laine, Kristiina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Water vapour sorption characteristics and surface chemical composition of thermally modified spruce2016Ingår i: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 116-123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work was to study the hygroscopicity and surface chemical composition of thermally modified (TM) spruce. An effort was also made to study if those features were influenced by a previous exposure to a significant increase in relative humidity (RH). TM and unmodified Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst) samples, both in solid and ground form, were prepared. Water vapour sorption characteristics of the ground samples were obtained by measuring sorption isotherms using a dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). The surface chemical composition of the solid samples, both acetone extracted and non-extracted, were analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The DVS analysis indicated that the TM wood exposed to the 75% RH revealed a decrease in isotherm hysteresis. The XPS analysis indicated a decrease of acetone extractable or volatile organic components and a relative increase of non-extractable components for the samples exposed to the increased RH condition.

  • 4.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Olsson, Anders
    Johansson, Marie
    School of Engineering.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Serrano, Erik
    Strength grading of narrow dimension Norway spruce side boards in the wet state using first axial resonance frequency2011Ingår i: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 108-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Brischke, Christian
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Windeisen, Elizabeth
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Incipient brown rot decay in modified wood: patterns of mass loss, structural integrity, moisture and acetyl content in high resolution2017Ingår i: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 172-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of degradation and growth patterns of fungi in modified wood may increase the understanding of their mode of action and may lead to more accurate service-life predictions. The aim of this paper was to study the degradation and growth patterns of brown rot fungi in modified wood and to measure moisture content (MC), structural integrity and the acetyl content by frequent monitoring over 300 days. Mass loss (ML) in the modified wood materials increased slowly up to 3% for 50–100 days after which it flattened out and remained constant during the remainder of the test. Structural integrity and acetyl content were maintained in the modified wood materials and MC was lower compared to untreated wood throughout the decay test. ML results of untreated wood indicate that fungi in solid wood go through distinct phases; the degradation patterns in the modified wood materials were more difficult to interpret.

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  • 6.
    Wålinder, Magnus E.P.
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brelid, Pia Larsson
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Long II, C. J.
    Eastman Chemical Company, USA.
    Dickerson, James P.
    Eastman Chemical Company, USA.
    Wettability of acetylated Southern yellow pine2013Ingår i: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 197-203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to achieve a better understanding of the wettability, i.e. liquids wetting and sorption characteristics (or penetrability), of acetylated Southern yellow pine (SYP) including probable differences in such characteristics between early- or latewood. Matched samples of acetylated and untreated SYP boards were prepared. The wettability of the samples were measured by the Wilhelmy technique using standard probe liquids as well as two different sample coatings, a cationic knot sealer and an acrylic based dye. The results showed that latewood regions of the acetylated wood had a noticeably lower uptake of the non-polar low surface tension liquid octane as well as the polar high surface tension liquid water compared with latewood of the untreated controls. Contact angle analysis based on the Lewis acid-base concept indicated that the acetylated wood is predominantly Lewis basic. A preferential wetting of the knot sealer was observed on the acetylated wood.

  • 7.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Larsson Brelid, Pia
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Long, Carl
    Dickerson, James
    Wettability of acetylated Southern yellow pine2013Ingår i: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 197-203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Zelinka, Samuel L.
    et al.
    US Forest Service, USA.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Thybring, Emil Engelund
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jakes, Joseph E.
    US Forest Service, USA.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    The role of chemical transport in the brown-rot decay resistance of modified wood2016Ingår i: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 66-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical modification of wood increases decay resistance but the exact mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently, Ringman and coauthors examined established theories addressing why modified wood has increased decay resistance and concluded that the most probable cause of inhibition and/or delay of initiation of brown-rot decay is lowering the equilibrium moisture content. In another recent study, Jakes and coauthors examined moisture-induced wood damage mechanisms, including decay and fastener corrosion, and observed that these mechanisms require chemical transport through wood cell walls. They proposed that chemical transport within wood cell walls is controlled by a moisture-induced glass transition in interconnected networks of hemicelluloses and amorphous cellulose. This paper shows how these models jointly suggest mechanisms by which wood modifications can inhibit brown-rot. Alternative mechanisms are also discussed. These models can be used to understand and further improve the performance of wood modification systems. © 2016 IWSc, The Wood Technology Society of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.

  • 9.
    Östman, Birgit A.-L.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Tsantaridis, L. D.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Durability of the reaction to fire performance of fire-retardant-treated wood products in exterior applications – a 10-year report2017Ingår i: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 94-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire retardants may considerably improve the reaction to fire properties of wood products, but the long term durabi­lity needs to be addressed. Several long term studies of fire retardant treated (FRT) wood products over time are presented. They are performed according to a European system based on earlier Nordic and North American systems and include accelerated aging according to different procedures and natural weathering up to 10 years. Main conclusions are:

    • products studied and used commercially

    • The reaction to fire properties of FRT wood may be maintained after accelerated and natural aging if the The hygroscopic properties are unchanged compared to untreated wood for most FRT wood retention levels are high enough, but several products lose most of their improved reaction to fire properties during weathering

    • Paint systems contribute considerably to weather protection and are usually needed to maintain the reaction to fire performance at exterior applications

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