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  • 1.
    Arfaoui, Ghada
    et al.
    Orange, France.
    Bisson, Pascal
    Thales, France.
    Blom, Rolf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Borgaonkar, Ravishankar
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Englund, Håkan
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Felix, Edith
    Thales, France.
    Klaedtke, Felix
    NEC Labs Europe, Germany.
    Nakarmi, Prajwol K.
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Naslund, Mats
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    O'Hanlon, Piers
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Papay, Juri
    IT Innovation Centre, UK.
    Suomalainen, Jani
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Surridge, Mike
    IT Innovation Centre, UK.
    Wary, Jean-Philippe
    Orange, France.
    Zahariev, Alexander
    Nixu Corporation, Finland.
    A Security Architecture for 5G Networks2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, no 17, p. 22466-22479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    5G networks will provide opportunities for the creation of new services, for new business models, and for new players to enter the mobile market. The networks will support efficient and cost-effective launch of a multitude of services, tailored for different vertical markets having varying service and security requirements, and involving a large number of actors. Key technology concepts are network slicing and network softwarisation, including network function virtualisation and software-defined networking. The presented security architecture builds upon concepts from the 3G and 4G security architectures but extends and enhances them to cover the new 5G environment. It comprises a toolbox for security relevant modelling of the systems, a set of security design principles, and a set of security functions and mechanisms to implement the security controls needed to achieve stated security objectives. In a smart city use case setting, we illustrate its utility; we examine the high-level security aspects stemming from the deployment of large numbers of IoT devices and network softwarisation.

  • 2.
    Khodaee, Alireza
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Melander, Arne
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Haglund, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    The Effects of Blank Geometry on Gear Rolling for Large Gear Modules: Experiments and Finite Element Simulations2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 33344-33352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gear rolling is a forming process to produce gear wheels by plastic deformation. The advantage of the process is to eliminate the chip formation during production and also to improve the product properties since the non-metallic inclusions will be oriented along the cog surface and not perpendicular to it. The method has been developed in the past years for gear production for automobile application with modules up to 3 mm. The successful application of gear rolling in those cases raises the question regarding the feasibility of using cold rolling to manufacture gears with larger modules which can be used for heavy vehicles. In this paper, a gear wheel with normal module of 4 mm has been studied in order to investigate if such large modules can be manufactured by gear rolling. One of the issues in rolling of gears is the design of the blank geometry in order to obtain the right gear geometry after the rolling process. Blank shape modifications are necessary to control and to reduce the undesired shape deviations caused by the large plastic deformations in rolling. The blank modifications also help the process designer to control the forming force and torque. In this paper, the process has been modeled by finite element simulation and the influence of different blanks has been simulated. The validity of the FE model has been checked through several experiments. Both the numerical and experimental results revealed favorable blank modifications to apply for further developments of the gear rolling process.

  • 3.
    Li, Jun
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shen, Xiaoman
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pham Van, Dung
    Ericsson, Sweden.
    Ou, Jiannan
    South China Normal University, China.
    Wosinska, Lena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Chen, Jiajia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Service Migration in Fog Computing Enabled Cellular Networks to Support Real-Time Vehicular Communications2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 13704-13714, article id 8620320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driven by the increasing number of connected vehicles and related services, powerful communication and computation capabilities are needed for vehicular communications, especially for real-time and safety-related applications. A cellular network consists of radio access technologies, including the current long-term evolution (LTE), the LTE advanced, and the forthcoming 5th generation mobile communication systems. It covers large areas and has the ability to provide high data rate and low latency communication services to mobile users. It is considered the most promising access technology to support real-time vehicular communications. Meanwhile, fog is an emerging architecture for computing, storage, and networking, in which fog nodes can be deployed at base stations to deliver cloud services close to vehicular users. In fog computing-enabled cellular networks, mobility is one of the most critical challenges for vehicular communications to maintain the service continuity and to satisfy the stringent service requirements, especially when the computing and storage resources are limited at the fog nodes. Service migration, relocating services from one fog server to another in a dynamic manner, has been proposed as an effective solution to the mobility problem. To support service migration, both computation and communication techniques need to be considered. Given the importance of protocol design to support the mobility of the vehicles and maintain high network performance, in this paper, we investigate the service migration in the fog computing-enabled cellular networks. We propose a quality-of-service aware scheme based on the existing handover procedures to support the real-time vehicular services. A case study based on a realistic vehicle mobility pattern for Luxembourg scenario is carried out, where the proposed scheme, as well as the benchmarks, are compared by analyzing latency and reliability as well as migration cost.

  • 4.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Nikolaidis, Pavlos
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    DIdic, Alma
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Sandström, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Delay Mitigation in Offloaded Cloud Controllers in Industrial IoT2017In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 5, p. 4418-4430, article id 7879156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the interplay of cloud computing, fog computing, and Internet of Things (IoT) in control applications targeting the automation industry. In this context, a prototype is developed to explore the use of IoT devices that communicate with a cloud-based controller, i.e., the controller is offloaded to cloud or fog. Several experiments are performed to investigate the consequences of having a cloud server between the end device and the controller. The experiments are performed while considering arbitrary jitter and delays, i.e., they can be smaller than, equal to, or greater than the sampling period. This paper also applies mitigation mechanisms to deal with the delays and jitter that are caused by the networks when the controller is offloaded to the fog or cloud.

  • 5.
    Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lindstrom, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Robustness testing of embedded software systems: An industrial interview study2016In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 4, p. 1859-1871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded software is at the core of current and future telecommunication, automotive, multimedia, and industrial automation systems. The success of practically any industrial application depends on the embedded software system's dependability, and one method to verify the dependability of a system is testing its robustness. The motivation behind this paper is to provide a knowledge base of the state of the practice in robustness testing of embedded software systems and to compare this to the state of the art. We have gathered the information on the state of the practice in robustness testing from seven different industrial domains (telecommunication, automotive, multimedia, critical infrastructure, aerospace, consumer products, and banking) by conducting 13 semi-structured interviews. We investigate the different aspects of robustness testing, such as the general view of robustness, relation to requirements engineering and design, test execution, failures, and tools. We highlight knowledge from the state of the practice of robustness testing of embedded software systems. We found different robustness testing practices that have not been previously described. This paper shows that the state of the practice, when it comes to robustness testing, differs between organizations and is quite different from the state of the art described in the scientific literature. For example, methods commonly described in the literature (e.g., the fuzzy approach) are not used in the organizations we studied. Instead, the interviewees described several ad hoc approaches that take specific scenarios into account (e.g., power failure or overload). Other differences we found concern the classification of robustness failures, the hypothesized root causes of robustness failures, and the types of tools used for robustness testing. This paper is a first step in capturing the state of the practice of robustness testing of embedded software systems. The results can be used by both researchers and practitioners. Researchers can use our findings to understand the gap between the state of the art and the state of the practice and develop their studies to fill this gap. Practitioners can also learn from this knowledge base regarding how they can improve their practice and acquire other practices.

  • 6.
    Siddiqa, Aisha
    et al.
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Shah, Munam Ali
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Khattak, Hasan Ali
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Akhunzada, Adnan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Ali, Ihsan
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Bin Razak, Zaidi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Gani, Abdullah
    Taylor's University, Malaysia.
    Social Internet of Vehicles: Complexity, Adaptivity, Issues and Beyond2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 62089-62106, article id 8478269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social Internet of Things (SIoT) is a specialized form of adaptive networks, where any change in one node can affect other nodes in the network. Millions of devices, including vehicles, buildings, healthcare, industries, and several other types of devices, share and exchange sensitive data among each other. Interconnection of these devices changes the paradigms of the world around us and puts a great effect on the overall society. The number of nodes, types of devices, layout of the overall network, and sensitivity of the data adds more and more complexity in the domain of SIoT. In this paper, our contribution is twofold, first, we provide a brief and comprehensive overview of the social aspects of the IoT by selecting the most recent papers to investigate the complexity, adaptivity, and other social aspects of the IoT and their implications. The main aim of this paper is to analyze the benefits of IoT to the society, social acceptance of IoTs, and social connectivity of different age groups. Second, we forecast the future trends and predict the world in the year 2020. We provide a detailed analysis by using several different data tables to present the future trends of different aspects of SIoT. With this survey, we aim to provide an easy and concise view of different challenges in implementing SIoT and how it will affect the future smart cities and overall impact on the society.

  • 7.
    Steinmetz, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Emardson, Ragne
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Brannstrom, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wymeersch, Henk
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Theoretical Limits on Cooperative Positioning in Mixed Traffic2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 49712-49725, article id 8688455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A promising solution to meet the demands on accurate positioning and real-time situational awareness in future intelligent transportation systems (ITSs) is cooperative positioning, where vehicles share sensor information over the wireless channel. However, the sensing and communication technologies required for this will be gradually introduced into the market, and it is, therefore, important to understand what performance we can expect from cooperative positioning systems as we transition to a more modern vehicle fleet. In this paper, we study what effects a gradual market penetration has on cooperative positioning applications, through a Fisher information analysis. The simulation results indicate that solely introducing a small fraction of automated vehicles with high-end sensors significantly improves the positioning quality but is not enough to meet the stringent demands posed by safety critical ITS applications. Furthermore, we find that retrofitting vehicles with low-cost satellite navigation receivers and communication have marginal impact when the positioning requirements are stringent and that the longitudinal road position can be estimated more accurately than lateral. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 8.
    Steinmetz, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Hult, Robert
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zou, Zhenhua
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Emardson, Ragne
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Brännström, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Falcone, Paolo
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wymeersch, Henk
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Collision-Aware Communication for Intersection Management of Automated Vehicles2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 77359-77371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intersection management of automated vehicles relies on wireless communication, whereby communication resources should be allocated to vehicles while maintaining safety. We present a collision-aware resource allocation (CARA) strategy for coordination of automated and connected vehicles by a centralized intersection manager. The proposed strategy is based on a self-triggered approach and proactively reduces the risk of channel congestion by only assigning communication resources to vehicles that are in critical configurations, i.e., when there is a risk for a future collision. Compared with collision-agnostic communication strategies, typically considered for automated intersection management, the CARA strategy aims to bridge the gap between control, sensing, and communication. It is shown to significantly reduce the required amount of communication (albeit with a slight increase in the control cost), without compromising safety. Furthermore, control cost can be reduced by allowing more frequent communication, which we demonstrate through a trade-off analysis between control performance and communication load. Hence, CARA can operate in communication-limited scenarios, but also be modified for scenarios where the control cost is of primary interest.

  • 9.
    Tahvili, Sahar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Pimentel, Rita
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Ahlberg, Marcus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fornander, Eric
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    SOrTES: A Supportive Tool for Stochastic Scheduling of Manual Integration Test Cases2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 12928-12946, article id 8616828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of software testing is to detect as many hidden bugs as possible in the final software product before release. Generally, a software product is tested by executing a set of test cases, which can be performed manually or automatically. The number of test cases which are required to test a software product depends on several parameters such as the product type, size, and complexity. Executing all test cases with no particular order can lead to waste of time and resources. Test optimization can provide a partial solution for saving time and resources which can lead to the final software product being released earlier. In this regard, test case selection, prioritization, and scheduling can be considered as possible solutions for test optimization. Most of the companies do not provide direct support for ranking test cases on their own servers. In this paper, we introduce, apply, and evaluate sOrTES as our decision support system for manual integration of test scheduling. sOrTES is a Python-based supportive tool which schedules manual integration test cases which are written in a natural language text. The feasibility of sOrTES is studied by an empirical evaluation which has been performed on a railway use-case at Bombardier Transportation, Sweden. The empirical evaluation indicates that around 40 % of testing failure can be avoided by using the proposed execution schedules by sOrTES, which leads to an increase in the requirements coverage of up to 9.6%. 

  • 10.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Eschmann, Sascha
    National Institute of Applied Sciences, France.
    Berezovskaya, Yulia
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flieller, Damien
    National Institute of Applied Sciences, France.
    A Comprehensive Model of Data Center: From CPU to Cooling Tower2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 61254-61266, article id 8489849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aiming at addressing environmental challenges, large data centers, such as Facebook, Google, and Yahoo, are increasing share of green power in their daily energy consumption. Such trends drive research into new directions, e.g., sustainable data centers. The research often relies on expressive models that provide sufficient details, however, practical to re-use and expand. There is a lack of available data center models that capture internal operating states of the facility from the CPU to the cooling tower. It is a challenge to develop a model that allows to describe complete data center of any scale including its connection to the grid. This paper proposes such a model building on the existing work. The challenge was to put the pieces of data center together and model behavior of each element so that interdependencies between components and parameters and operating states are captured correctly and in sufficient details. The proposed model was used in the project 'Data center microgrid integration' and proven to be adequate and important to support such study.

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