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  • 1.
    Aguirre, Miren
    et al.
    University of the Basque Country, Spain.
    Johansson Salazar-Sandoval, Eric
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Johansson, Mats K.G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Paulis, Maria
    University of the Basque Country, Spain.
    Leiza, José Ramón
    University of the Basque Country, Spain.
    Hybrid acrylic/CeO2 nanocomposites using hydrophilic, spherical and high aspect ratio CeO2 nanoparticles2014In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 2, no 47, p. 20280-20287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dispersion of CeO2 nanoparticles and nanorods stabilized with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and a 4,4′-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) (V-501) initiator has been used to initiate the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers, yielding stable hybrid CeO2 nanoparticle-nanorod/polyacrylate latexes for the first time. Films cast from these hybrid latexes are transparent due to the very homogenous distribution of the polymer compatibilized CeO2. Furthermore, it has been proven that the UV-Vis absorption capacity of the hybrid latexes is enhanced with the incorporation of the nanorods.

  • 2. Andersson, Nina
    et al.
    Corkery, Robert W
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Alberius, Peter CA
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    One-pot synthesis of well ordered mesoporous magnetic carriers2007In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 17, no 26, p. 2700-2705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The facile preparation of a mesoporous magnetic carrier technology is demonstrated. The micron-sized spherical mesostructured particles are prepared using a newly-developed, one-step, combined emulsion and solvent evaporation (ESE) method. The surfactant-templated silica matrix display a well-ordered internal pore architecture. Very limited pore blocking, and only to a limited degree disordered- or worm-like structures are observed, induced by the iron oxide nanoparticles added to provide the superparamagnetic properties.The iron oxide content was precisely controlled, and the magnetic properties were well preserved during the process. Finally we demonstrate the applicability of the magnetically separable mesoporous material as an adsorbent for specific dissolved materials from dilute aqueous solutions.

  • 3.
    Bamgbopa, M. O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden; Dubai Electricity and Water Authority, United Arab Emirates.
    Belaineh, D.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Mengistie, D. A.
    Linköping University, Sweden; California Polytechnic State University, USA.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Engquist, I.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, K.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Modelling of heterogeneous ion transport in conducting polymer supercapacitors2021In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 2184-2194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing electrification of many energy systems has created a large demand for low-cost and scalable electrical energy storage solutions. Conducting polymer supercapacitors have received significant attention for this purpose due to the abundance of their constituent materials. Although there exists a large body of experimental work on conducting polymer supercapacitors, a detailed understanding of the mixed electronic-ionic transport processes within these devices and the included materials, is still lacking. Modelling, in combination with experimental data, is a powerful tool to facilitate a detailed understanding of the transport processes within the materials and devices. However, to date, there has been a shortage of physical models which account for the non-ideal capacitances typically found in conducting polymer-based supercapacitors. Here, we report a novel model which reproduces experimental data and provides insights into the cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge-discharge curves, self-discharge characteristics, and impedance spectroscopy results of supercapacitors based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and cellulose nanofibrils. We find that the non-ideal capacitive characteristics of the supercapacitors can be reproduced by the incorporation of heterogeneous ion transport features within the electrodes, comprising low ion diffusivity regions. The difference in charging rates of the high and low ion diffusivity regions accounts for the experimentally observed trends in cyclic voltammograms and self-discharge characteristics. The developed model demonstrates how complex transport processes, which govern the specifications of organic energy devices, can be analysed beyond the scope of conventional equivalent circuit models. It also provides an insight into how various transport and polarization processes are manifested in real measurement data and thus defines the limiting processes of conducting polymer energy storage devices.

  • 4.
    Bamgbopa, Musbaudeen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Understanding the characteristics of conducting polymer-redox biopolymer supercapacitors2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 7, no 41, p. 23973-23980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of renewable energy production has sparked a huge demand for cheap and large-scale electrical storage solutions. Organic supercapacitors and batteries are envisioned as one, among several, candidates for this task due to the great abundance of their constituent materials. In particular, the class of supercapacitors based on conjugated polymer-redox biopolymer composites are of great interest, since they combine the benefit of high electrical conductivity of the conducting polymers with the low cost and high specific capacitance of redox biopolymers. The optimization of such complex systems is a grand challenge and until now there have been a lack of models available to ease that task. Here, we present a novel model that combines the charge transport and impedance properties of conducting polymers with the electrochemical characteristics of redox polymers. The model reproduces a wide range of experimental data and elucidates the coupling of several critical processes within these supercapacitors, such as the double-layer capacitance, redox kinetics and dissolution/release of the redox polymer to the electrolyte. Further, the model also predicts the dependencies of the power and energy densities on the electrode composition. The developed model shows how organic supercapacitors can be analyzed beyond archetypical equivalent circuit models and thus constitutes a promising tool for further advancements and optimization within the field of research of green energy storage technology.

  • 5.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Spampinato, Nicoletta
    University Bordeaux, France.
    Kuang, Chaoyang
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Kang, Evan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Pavlopoulou, Eleni
    University Bordeaux, France.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Unraveling vertical inhomogeneity in vapour phase polymerized PEDOT:Tos films2020In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 8, no 36, p. 18726-18734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) forms a promising alternative to conventional inorganic conductors, where deposition of thin filmsviavapour phase polymerization (VPP) has gained particular interest owing to high electrical conductivity within the plane of the film. The conductivity perpendicular to the film is typically much lower, which may be related not only to preferential alignment of PEDOT crystallites but also to vertical stratification across the film. In this study, we reveal non-linear vertical microstructural variations across VPP PEDOT:Tos thin films, as well as significant differences in doping level between the top and bottom surfaces. The results are consistent with a VPP mechanism based on diffusion-limited transport of polymerization precursors. Conducting polymer films with vertical inhomogeneity may find applications in gradient-index optics, functionally graded thermoelectrics, and optoelectronic devices requiring gradient doping. 

  • 6.
    Edberg, Jesper
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Inganas, Olle
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden; Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Boosting the capacity of all-organic paper supercapacitors using wood derivatives2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 145-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed and flexible organic electronics is a steadily expanding field of research and applications. One of the most attractive features of this technology is the possibility of large area and high throughput production to form low-cost electronics on different flexible substrates. With an increasing demand for sustainable energy production, low-cost and large volume technologies to store high-quality energy become equally important. These devices should be environmentally friendly with respect to their entire life cycle. Supercapacitors and batteries based on paper hold great promise for such applications due to the low cost and abundance of cellulose and other forest-derived components. We report a thick-film paper-supercapacitor system based on cellulose nanofibrils, the mixed ion-electron conducting polymer PEDOT: PSS and sulfonated lignin. We demonstrate that the introduction of sulfonated lignin into the cellulose-conducting polymer system increases the specific capacitance from 110 to 230 F g(-1) and the areal capacitance from 160 mF cm(-2) to 1 F cm(-2). By introducing lignosulfonate also into the electrolyte solution, equilibrium, with respect to the concentration of the redox molecule, was established between the electrode and the electrolyte, thus allowing us to perform beyond 700 charge/discharge cycles with no observed decrease in performance.

  • 7.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH Royal institute of technology, sweden.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Ingverud, Tobias
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Larsson, Per A.
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    On the mechanism behind freezing-induced chemical crosslinking in ice-templated cellulose nanofibril aerogels2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 40, p. 19371-19380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The underlying mechanism related to freezing-induced crosslinking of aldehyde-containing cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) has been investigated, and the critical parameters behind this process have been identified. The aldehydes introduced by periodate oxidation allows for formation of hemiacetal bonds between the CNFs provided the fibrils are in sufficiently close contact before the water is removed. This is achieved during the freezing process where the cellulose components are initially separated, and the growth of ice crystals forces the CNFs to come into contact in the thin lamellae between the ice crystals. The crosslinked 3-D structure of the CNFs can subsequently be dried under ambient conditions after solvent exchange and still maintain a remarkably low density of 35 kg m-3, i.e. a porosity greater than 98%. A lower critical amount of aldehydes, 0.6 mmol g-1, was found necessary in order to generate a crosslinked 3-D CNF structure of sufficient strength not to collapse during the ambient drying. The chemical stability of the 3-D structure can be further enhanced by converting the hemiacetals to acetals by treatment with an alcohol under acidic conditions.

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  • 8.
    Gao, J.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yang, W.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    El-Zohry, A. M.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Prajapati, G. K.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fang, Y.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dai, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hao, Y.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leandri, V.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Per H
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Furó, I.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Boschloo, G.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lund, T.
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Kloo, L.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Light-induced electrolyte improvement in cobalt tris(bipyridine)-mediated dye-sensitized solar cells2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 7, no 33, p. 19495-19505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-ion-free tris(2,2′-bipyridine) Co(ii/iii)-mediated electrolytes have previously been proposed for long-term stable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Such redox systems also offer an impressive DSSC performance improvement under light soaking exposure, manifested by an increase in photocurrent and fill factor without the expense of decreasing photovoltage. Kinetic studies show that charge transfer and ion diffusion at the electrode/electrolyte interface are improved due to the light exposure. Control experiments reveal that the light effect is unambiguously associated with electrolyte components, [Co(bpy)3]3+ and the Lewis-base additive tert-butylpyridine (TBP). Electrochemical and spectroscopic investigation of the [Co(bpy)3]3+/TBP mixtures points out that the presence of TBP, which retards the electrolyte diffusion, however causes an irreversible redox reaction of [Co(bpy)3]3+ upon light exposure that improves the overall conductivity. This discovery not only provides a new strategy to mitigate the typical Jsc-Voc trade-off in Co(ii/iii)-mediated DSSCs but also highlights the importance of investigating the photochemistry of a photoelectrochemical system. 

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  • 9.
    Isacsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Jain, Karishma
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Chauve, Valerie
    Ahlstrom-Munksjö Research Center, France.
    Hajian, Alireza
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Boiron, Lucie
    Ahlstrom-Munksjö Research Center, France.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Production of energy-storage paper electrodes using a pilot-scale paper machine2022In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 10, no 40, p. 21579-21589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global efforts in electrifying our society drive the demand for low-cost and sustainable energy storage solutions. In the present work, a novel material concept was investigated to enable fabrication of several 10 meter-long rolls of supercapacitor paper electrodes on a pilot-scale paper machine. The material concept was based on cationized, cellulose-rich wood-derived fibres, conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, and activated carbon filler particles. Cationic fibres saturated with anionic PEDOT:PSS provide a conducting scaffold hosting the activated carbon, which functions as the active charge-storage material. The response from further additives was systematically investigated for several critical paper properties. Cellulose nanofibrils were found to improve mechanical properties, while carbon black enhanced both the conductivity and the storage capacity of the activated carbon, reaching a specific capacitance of 67 F g−1. This pilot trial shows that “classical” papermaking methods are fit for the purpose and provides valuable insights on how to further advance bio-based energy storage solutions for large-scale applications.

  • 10.
    Jiao, Fei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Naderi, Ali
    BillerudKorsnäs, Sweden.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Schlueter, Joshua
    University of Kentucky, USA.
    Shahi, Maryam
    University of Kentucky, USA.
    Sundström, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Brill, Joseph
    BillerudKorsnäs, Sweden.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ionic thermoelectric paper2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 5, p. 16883-16888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic thermoelectric materials, for example, polyelectrolytes such as polystyrene sulfonate sodium (PSSNa),constitute a new class of materials which are attracting interest because of their large Seebeck coefficientand the possibility that they could be used in ionic thermoelectric SCs (ITESCs) and field effect transistors.However, pure polyelectrolyte membranes are not robust or flexible. In this paper, the preparation of ionicthermoelectric paper using a simple, scalable and cost-effective method is described. After a compositewas fabricated with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), the resulting NFC–PSSNa paper is flexible andmechanically robust, which is desirable if it is to be used in roll-to-roll processes. The robust NFC–PSSNa thermoelectric paper combines high ionic conductivity (9 mS cm1), high ionic Seebeckcoefficient (8.4 mV K1) and low thermal conductivity (0.75 W m1 K1) at 100% relative humidity,resulting in overall figure-of-merit of 0.025 at room temperature which is slightly better than that for thePSSNa alone. Fabricating a composite with cellulose enables flexibility and robustness and this is anadvance which will enable future scaling up the manufacturing of ITESCs, but also enables its use fornew applications for conformable thermoelectric devices and flexible electronics.

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  • 11.
    Kim, Nara
    et al.
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Lienemann, Samuel
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Khan, Ziyauddin
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Rahmanudin, Aiman
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Fareed
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. Linköping university, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    An intrinsically stretchable symmetric organic battery based on plant-derived redox molecules2023In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 11, no 46, p. 25703-25714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intrinsically stretchable energy storage devices are essential for the powering of imperceptible wearable electronics. Organic batteries based on plant-derived redox-active molecules can offer critical advantages from a safety, sustainability, and economic perspective, but such batteries are not yet available in soft and stretchable form factors. Here we report an intrinsically stretchable organic battery made of elastomeric composite electrodes formulated with alizarin, a natural dye derived from the plant Rubia tinctorum, whose two quinone motifs enable its uses in both positive and negative electrodes. The quaternary biocomposite electrodes possess excellent electron-ion conduction/coupling and superior stretchability (>300%) owing to self-organized hierarchical morphology. In a full-cell configuration, its energy density of 3.8 mW h cm−3 was preserved at 100% strain, and assembled modules on stretchy textiles and rubber gloves can power integrated LEDs during various deformations. This work paves the way for low-cost, eco-friendly, and deformable batteries for next generation wearable electronics. 

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  • 12.
    Mianehrow, Hanieh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Giada, Lo Re
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carosio, Federico
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Fina, Alberto
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Chen, Pan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Beijing Institute of Technology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Strong reinforcement effects in 2D cellulose nanofibril–graphene oxide (CNF–GO) nanocomposites due to GO-induced CNF ordering2020In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 8, no 34, p. 17608-17620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocomposites from native cellulose with low 2D nanoplatelet content are of interest as sustainable materials combining functional and structural performance. Cellulose nanofibril–graphene oxide (CNF–GO) nanocomposite films are prepared by a physical mixing–drying method, with a focus on low GO content, the use of very large GO platelets (2–45 μm) and nanostructural characterization using synchrotron X-ray source for WAXS and SAXS. These nanocomposites can be used as transparent coatings, strong films or membranes, as gas barriers or in laminated form. CNF nanofibrils with random in-plane orientation, form a continuous non-porous matrix with GO platelets oriented in-plane. GO reinforcement mechanisms in CNF are investigated, and relationships between nanostructure and suspension rheology, mechanical properties, optical transmittance and oxygen barrier properties are investigated as a function of GO content. A much higher modulus reinforcement efficiency is observed than in previous polymer–GO studies. The absolute values for modulus and ultimate strength are as high as 17 GPa and 250 MPa at a GO content as small as 0.07 vol%. The remarkable reinforcement efficiency is due to improved organization of the CNF matrix; and this GO-induced mechanism is of general interest for nanostructural tailoring of CNF-2D nanoplatelet composites.

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  • 13.
    Mille, Christian B
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Corkery, Robert W
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    A structural and thermal conductivity study of highly porous, hierarchical polyhedral nanofoam shells made by condensing silica in microemulsion films on the surface of emulsified oil drops2013In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 1, no 5, p. 1849-1859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-weight solid foams are utilized in applications such as packaging and insulation mainly due to their intrinsically high porosity, low relative density and associated mechanical and transport properties. Here hollow core spherical shells are prepared with walls made of a polyhedral silica nanofoam with open cells. A microemulsion film at the oil-water interface of oil droplets is used as a soft structural template for the condensation of soluble silica species. The microemulsion sets the length scale of the monodisperse silica nanofoam cells, and the emulsion droplets set the micron-scale dimensions of the polydisperse spherical shells. Porosity is achieved by removing the templates and oils, leaving pure low-density silica. This results in a hierarchically structured, highly porous shell foam material that packs into beds with a measured porosity of approximately 97.3%, well into the range of silica aerogels. Using a combination of electron microscopy, small-angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction and nitrogen physisorption, an accurate structural model for the nanofoam shells is constructed. The material is shown to be comprised of open-cell foams that are structurally analogous to dry polyhedral soap froths having minimal surface partitions, and Plateau boundaries. The primary polyhedral nanofoam cells are 30 nm in diameter connected by 7 nm cylindrical windows. These nanofoams form spherical monolithic shells with volume average mean diameter of 41 microns and shell thickness of 0.7 microns. Simple models for the thermal conductivity of these nanofoam shell materials are constructed that include accounting for the nanoscale effects on gaseous and solid thermal conductivity. These are compared to the measured value of 0.041 W m-1 K-1. These materials represent new structures in the family of self-assembled, highly porous silica materials and are potentially useful in packaging and insulation and other applications due to their light weight and/or intrinsically low thermal conductivity and associated mechanical and transport properties.

  • 14.
    Mille, Christian B.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Corkery, Robert W.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A structural and thermal conductivity study of highly porous, hierarchical polyhedral nanofoam shells made by condensing silica in microemulsion films on the surface of emulsified oil drops2013In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 1, no 5, p. 1849-1859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-weight solid foams are utilized in applications such as packaging and insulation mainly due to their intrinsically high porosity, low relative density and associated mechanical and transport properties. Here hollow core spherical shells are prepared with walls made of a polyhedral silica nanofoam with open cells. A microemulsion film at the oil-water interface of oil droplets is used as a soft structural template for the condensation of soluble silica species. The microemulsion sets the length scale of the monodisperse silica nanofoam cells, and the emulsion droplets set the micron-scale dimensions of the polydisperse spherical shells. Porosity is achieved by removing the templates and oils, leaving pure low-density silica. This results in a hierarchically structured, highly porous shell foam material that packs into beds with a measured porosity of approximately 97.3%, well into the range of silica aerogels. Using a combination of electron microscopy, small-angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction and nitrogen physisorption, an accurate structural model for the nanofoam shells is constructed. The material is shown to be comprised of open-cell foams that are structurally analogous to dry polyhedral soap froths having minimal surface partitions, and Plateau boundaries. The primary polyhedral nanofoam cells are 30 nm in diameter connected by 7 nm cylindrical windows. These nanofoams form spherical monolithic shells with volume average mean diameter of 41 microns and shell thickness of 0.7 microns. Simple models for the thermal conductivity of these nanofoam shell materials are constructed that include accounting for the nanoscale effects on gaseous and solid thermal conductivity. These are compared to the measured value of 0.041 W m-1 K-1. These materials represent new structures in the family of self-assembled, highly porous silica materials and are potentially useful in packaging and insulation and other applications due to their light weight and/or intrinsically low thermal conductivity and associated mechanical and transport properties.

  • 15.
    Mongkhontreerat, Surinthra
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Öberg, Kim
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Erixon, Lina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Löwenhielm, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Hult, Anders B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Malcom, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    UV initiated thiol-ene chemistry: A facile and modular synthetic methodology for the construction of functional 3D networks with tunable properties2013In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 1, no 44, p. 13732-13737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A facile methodology for the fabrication of functional crosslinked three dimensional (3D) networks has herein been explored via the benign and UV initiated thiol-ene coupling (TEC) chemistry. The careful selection of monomers or polymers and their feed ratio resulted in straightforward design of organic, inorganic and hydrogel networks with readily available alkenes or thiol functional groups. All crosslinked networks were fabricated within 1 second of UV exposure at wavelengths of 320-390 nm and generally exhibited excellent gel fractions around 90%. By introducing off-stoichiometric thiol and ene (OSTE) monomer feed ratios the window of mechanical properties could be manipulated. For the organic triazine system, the Young's modulus was altered from 780 MPa at an equimolar monomer ratio to soft 106 kPa for 2.5 equiv. with excess of thiol compared to enes. Postfunctionalizations with hydrophilic polyethylene glycols or acrylic acid and hydrophobic heneicosafluorododecyl acrylate were explored for the manipulation of functional networks. In this case, the rigid networks with excess of thiols were used as model substrates of which the initial contact angle (CA) of 60°was decreased to 43°by the introduction of acrylic acid and increased to 140°by successful attachment of fluorinated molecules. Finally, amalgamating micropatterning strategy with simple postfunctionalizations of hydrophobic groups resulted in superhydrophobic rigid surfaces with a CA of 173°.

  • 16.
    Ruiz-Caldas, Maria-Ximena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Apostolopoulou-Kalkavoura, Varvara
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hellström, Anna-Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Hildenbrand, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Jaworski, Aleksander
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Samec, Joseph
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Lahtinen, Panu
    VTT, Finland.
    Tammelin, Tekla
    VTT, Finland.
    Mathew, Aji
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Citrated cellulose nanocrystals from post-consumer cotton textiles2023In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 11, no 13, p. 6854-6868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a new method for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from post-consumer cotton textiles through surface functionalization followed by mechanical treatment. Cotton-based textiles were esterified using an 85 wt% solution of citric acid at 100 °C, then further fibrillated in a microfluidizer. The final product, citrated cellulose nanocrystals (CitCNCs), was a dispersion of needle-like nanoparticles with high crystallinity. Up to 78 wt% of the cotton fabric was converted to CitCNCs that exhibited higher yields and a higher surface group content than CNCs extracted through H2SO4 hydrolysis, although CitCNCs showed a broader size distribution and decreased thermal stability. Experimental data supported by DFT calculations showed that the carboxyl groups on the CitCNC surface are bonded to cellulose by mono or diester linkages. An early-stage life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to evaluate the environmental impact of using discarded textiles as a source of cellulose and analyze the environmental performance of the production of CitCNCs. Our work showed a significant reduction in the environmental burden of CNC extraction using post-consumer cotton instead of wood pulp, making clothing a good feedstock. The environmental impact of CitCNC production was mainly dominated by citric acid. As a proof of concept, around 58 wt% of the citric acid was recovered through evaporation and subsequent crystallization, which could reduce climate impact by 40%. With this work, we introduce a catalyst-free route to valorize textiles with the extraction of CitCNCs and how conducting LCA in laboratory-scale processes might guide future development and optimization. 

  • 17.
    Schlee, Philipp
    et al.
    Imperial College London, UK; Aalto University, Finland.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    O'Keefe, Christopher A.
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Mostazo-Lopez, Maria Jose
    Universidad de Alicante, Spain.
    Cazorla-Amorós, Diego
    Universidad de Alicante, Spain.
    Herou, Servann J.A.
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Tomani, Per E.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Grey, Clare P.
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Titirici, Magdalena M.
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Hardwood: versus softwood Kraft lignin-precursor-product relationships in the manufacture of porous carbon nanofibers for supercapacitors2020In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 8, no 44, p. 23543-23554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of stabilization is essential in the production of carbon fibers from lignins. During stabilization, the initially thermoplastic lignin polymer is converted to a thermoset polymer allowing for high-temperature treatment without a change in shape. In this work, hardwood (HKL) and softwood (SKL) Kraft lignins were stabilized in air at temperatures between 190 and 340 °C before carbonization at 800 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. Due to the differences in side-chain linkages, functional groups and molar mass, the lignins exhibit different structural changes upon stabilization and hence develop different porosities upon carbonization. Both lignins undergo major crosslinking reactions in the side chains at low temperatures and degradation reactions at high temperatures during stabilization. Crosslinking gives rise to narrow pore size distributions with mainly (sub-) nanometer pores, whereas degradation reactions lead to a more open pore structure with additional mesoporosity (>2 nm). When both types of reactions take place simultaneously, highly accessible (sub-) nanoporosity can be effectively created, which boosts the performance of supercapacitors operating in 6 M KOH(aq). This effect terminates when the crosslinking reactions cease and mainly degradation reactions take place, which occurs in HKL at 340 °C. SKL shows both a lower degree of crosslinking and degradation and hence develops less specific surface area. The optimum performance in an aqueous alkaline supercapacitor is achieved with HKL stabilized at 310 °C. It shows a specific gravimetric capacitance of 164 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and 119 F g-1 at 250 A g-1 with a capacitance retention of more than 90% after 10 000 cycles.

  • 18.
    Tran, V. C.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping.
    Mastantuoni, G. G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Belaineh Yilma, Dagmawi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. Linköping University, Linköping.
    Aminzadeh, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglund, L. A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berggren, M.
    Linköping University, Linköping.
    Zhou, Q.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Engquist, I.
    Linköping University, Linköping.
    Utilizing native lignin as redox-active material in conductive wood for electronic and energy storage applications2022In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 10, no 29, p. 15677-15688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructured wood veneer with added electroactive functionality combines structural and functional properties into eco-friendly, low-cost nanocomposites for electronics and energy technologies. Here, we report novel conducting polymer-impregnated wood veneer electrodes where the native lignin is preserved, but functionalized for redox activity and used as an active component. The resulting electrodes display a well-preserved structure, redox activity, and high conductivity. Wood samples were sodium sulfite-treated under neutral conditions at 165 °C, followed by the tailored distribution of PEDOT:PSS, not previously used for this purpose. The mild sulfite process introduces sulfonic acid groups inside the nanostructured cell wall, facilitating electrostatic interaction on a molecular level between the residual lignin and PEDOT. The electrodes exhibit a conductivity of up to 203 S m−1 and a specific pseudo-capacitance of up to 38 mF cm−2, with a capacitive contribution from PEDOT:PSS and a faradaic component originating from lignin. We also demonstrate an asymmetric wood pseudo-capacitor reaching a specific capacitance of 22.9 mF cm−2 at 1.2 mA cm−2 current density. This new wood composite design and preparation scheme will support the development of wood-based materials for use in electronics and energy storage.

  • 19.
    Willgert, Markus
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Malmström, Eva E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats K.G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cellulose nanofibril reinforced composite electrolytes for lithium ion battery applications2014In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 2, no 33, p. 13556-13564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of a series of four composite electrolytes for lithium ion battery applications. The two-phase electrolytes are composed of a soft, ionic conductive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) matrix having stiff nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) paper as reinforcement to provide mechanical integrity. The reinforcing CNF is modified in order to create covalent bonds between the phases which is particularly beneficial when swelling the composite with a liquid electrolyte to enhance the ionic conductivity. After swelling the composite polymer electrolyte, forming a gelled structure, values of ionic conductivity at 5 × 10-5 S cm-1 and an elastic modulus around 400 MPa at 25 °C are obtained. 

  • 20.
    Zhao, Yichen
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Torsten
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fornara, Andrea
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Toprak, Muhammet Sadaka
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Muhammed, Mamoun A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Relaxation is the key to longer life: Suppressed degradation of P3HT films on conductive substrates2014In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 2, no 33, p. 13270-13276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we show the dependence of the degree of degradation of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) films on the conductivity of the supporting substrate. P3HT is widely used for organic solar cells and electronic devices because it allows simple, low cost fabrication and has potential for the fabrication of flexible devices. However, P3HT is known to have a relatively low photostability, and investigating the photodegradation mechanism is an active research field. We find that P3HT films on conductive substrates show significantly retarded degradation and retain their chemical and morphological features when compared to similar films on glass substrates. This 'substrate effect' in retarding the degradation of P3HT films is evident even upon prolonged exposure to air for up to five months. 

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