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  • 1.
    Aulin, Christian
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Salazar-Alvarez, German
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    High strength flexible and transparent nanofibrillated cellulose-nanoclay biohybrid films with tunable oxygen and water vapor permeability2012In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 4, no 20, p. 6622-6628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel, technically and economically benign procedure to combine vermiculite nanoplatelets with nanocellulose fibre dispersions into functional biohybrid films is presented. Nanocellulose fibres of 20 nm diameters and several micrometers in length are mixed with high aspect ratio exfoliated vermiculite nanoplatelets through high-pressure homogenization. The resulting hybrid films obtained after solvent evaporation are stiff (tensile modulus of 17.3 GPa), strong (strength up to 257 MPa), and transparent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the hybrid films consist of stratified nacre-like layers with a homogenous distribution of nanoplatelets within the nanocellulose matrix. The oxygen barrier properties of the biohybrid films outperform commercial packaging materials and pure nanocellulose films showing an oxygen permeability of 0.07 cm3 μm m-2 d-1 kPa -1 at 50% relative humidity. The oxygen permeability of the hybrid films can be tuned by adjusting the composition of the films. Furthermore, the water vapor barrier properties of the biohybrid films were also significantly improved by the addition of nanoclay. The unique combination of excellent oxygen barrier behavior and optical transparency suggests the potential of these biohybrid materials as an alternative in flexible packaging of oxygen sensitive devices such as thin-film transistors or organic light-emitting diode displays, gas storage applications and as barrier coatings/laminations in large volume packaging applications.

  • 2.
    Bergendal, E.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gutfreund, P.
    Institute Laue-Langevin, France.
    Pilkington, G. A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Campbell, R. A.
    Institute Laue-Langevin, France; University of Manchester,UK.
    Müller-Buschbaum, P.
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Holt, S. A.
    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Australia.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tuneable interfacial surfactant aggregates mimic lyotropic phases and facilitate large scale nanopatterning2021In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 371-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown that the air-liquid interface can be made to display the same rich curvature phenomena as common lyotropic liquid crystal systems. Through mixing an insoluble, naturally occurring, branched fatty acid, with an unbranched fatty acid of the same length, systematic variation in the packing constraints at the air-water interface could be obtained. The combination of atomic force microscopy and neutron reflectometry is used to demonstrate that the water surface exhibits significant tuneable topography. By systematic variation of the two fatty acid proportions, ordered arrays of monodisperse spherical caps, cylindrical sections, and a mesh phase are all observed, as well as the expected lamellar structure. The tuneable deformability of the air-water interface permits this hitherto unexplored topological diversity, which is analogous to the phase elaboration displayed by amphiphiles in solution. It offers a wealth of novel possibilities for the tailoring of nanostructure

  • 3.
    Bhattacharya, Kunal
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sacchetti, Cristiano
    Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, USA.
    El-Sayed, Ramy
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Fornara, Andrea
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Kotchey, Gregg P.
    University of Pittsburgh, USA.
    Gaugler, James A.
    University of Pittsburgh, USA.
    Star, Alexander
    University of Pittsburgh, USA.
    Bottini, Massimo
    Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, USA; La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, USA; University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Enzymatic 'stripping' and degradation of PEGylated carbon nanotubes2014In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 6, no 24, p. 14686-14690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) coated or functionalized with PEG chains of different molecular weight were assessed for their propensity to undergo biodegradation under in vitro conditions using recombinant myeloperoxidase (MPO) or ex vivo using freshly isolated primary human neutrophils. Our findings suggest that under natural conditions, a combined process of 'stripping' (i.e., defunctionalization) and biodegradation of PEG-SWCNTs might occur and that PEG-SWCNTs are a promising-and degradable-nanomedicine vector.

  • 4.
    Guccini, Valentina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Yu, Shun
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. Stockholm University, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Agthe, Michael
    Stockholm University, Sweden; University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Gordeyeva, Korneliya S.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Trushkina, Yulia
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Schütz, Christina
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden; University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Salazar-Alvarez, German
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Inducing nematic ordering of cellulose nanofibers using osmotic dehydration2018In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 10, no 48, p. 23157-23163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of nematically-ordered cellulose nanofiber (CNF) suspensions with an order parameter fmax ≈ 0.8 is studied by polarized optical microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological measurements as a function of CNF concentration. The wide range of CNF concentrations, from 0.5 wt% to 4.9 wt%, is obtained using osmotic dehydration. The rheological measurements show a strong entangled network over all the concentration range whereas SAXS measurements indicate that at concentrations >1.05 wt% the CNF suspension crosses an isotropic-anisotropic transition that is accompanied by a dramatic increase of the optical birefringence. The resulting nanostructures are modelled as mass fractal structures that converge into co-existing nematically-ordered regions and network-like regions where the correlation distances decrease with concentration. The use of rapid, upscalable osmotic dehydration is an effective method to increase the concentration of CNF suspensions while partly circumventing the gel/glass formation. The facile formation of highly ordered fibers can result in materials with interesting macroscopic properties.

  • 5.
    Hjalmarsson, Nicklas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallinder, Daniel
    Attana AB, Sweden.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Ghent University, Belgium.
    Atkin, Rob
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Aastrup, Teodor
    Attana AB, Sweden.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Weighing the surface charge of an ionic liquid2015In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 7, no 38, p. 16039-16045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance has been used to measure changes in the composition of the capacitive electrical double layer for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)-trifluorophosphate, an ionic liquid, in contact with a gold electrode surface as a function of potential. The mass difference between the cation and anion means that the technique can effectively "weigh" the surface charge accurately with high temporal resolution. This reveals quantitatively how changing the potential alters the ratio of cations and anions associated with the electrode surface, and thus the charge per unit area, as well as the kinetics associated with these interfacial processes. The measurements reveal that it is diffusion of co-ions into the interfacial region rather than expulsion of counterions that controls the relaxation. The measured potential dependent double layer capacitance experimentally validates recent theoretical predictions for counterion overscreening (low potentials) and crowding (high potentials) at electrode surfaces. This new capacity to quantitatively measure ion composition is critical for ionic liquid applications ranging from batteries, capacitors and electrodeposition through to boundary layer structure in tribology, and more broadly provides new insight into interfacial processes in concentrated electrolyte solutions.

  • 6.
    Jafari Jam, Reza
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Persson, Axel
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Barrigón, Enrique
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Heurlin, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Geijselaers, Irene
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gómez, Victor
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hultin, Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Samuelson, Lars
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Borgström, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden; Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Template-assisted vapour-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires on (001) InP and Si substrates2020In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 888-894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the synthesis of vertical InP nanowire arrays on (001) InP and Si substrates using template-assisted vapour-liquid-solid growth. A thick silicon oxide layer was first deposited on the substrates. The samples were then patterned by electron beam lithography and deep dry etching through the oxide layer down to the substrate surface. Gold seed particles were subsequently deposited in the holes of the pattern by the use of pulse electrodeposition. The subsequent growth of nanowires by the vapour-liquid-solid method was guided towards the [001] direction by the patterned oxide template, and displayed a high growth yield with respect to the array of holes in the template. In order to confirm the versatility and robustness of the process, we have also demonstrated guided growth of InP nanowire p-n junctions and InP/InAs/InP nanowire heterostructures on (001) InP substrates. Our results show a promising route to monolithically integrate III-V nanowire heterostructure devices with commercially viable (001) silicon platforms.

  • 7.
    Liu, Yingxin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Agthe, Michael
    Stockholm University, Sweden; University Of Hamburg, Germany.
    Salajková, Michaela
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Gordeyeva, Korneliya S.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Guccini, Valentina
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Salazar-Alvarez, German
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Schütz, Christina
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Bergström, Lennart Magnus
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Assembly of cellulose nanocrystals in a levitating drop probed by time-resolved small angle X-ray scattering2018In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 10, no 38, p. 18113-18118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assembly of bio-based nano-sized particles into complex architectures and morphologies is an area of fundamental interest and technical importance. We have investigated the assembly of sulfonated cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) dispersed in a shrinking levitating aqueous drop using time-resolved small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Analysis of the scaling of the particle separation distance (d) with particle concentration (c) was used to follow the transition of CNC dispersions from an isotropic state at 1-2 vol% to a compressed nematic state at particle concentrations above 30 vol%. Comparison with SAXS measurements on CNC dispersions at near equilibrium conditions shows that evaporation-induced assembly of CNC in large levitating drops is comparable to bulk systems. Colloidal states with d vs. c scalings intermediate between isotropic dispersions and unidirectional compression of the nematic structure could be related to the biphasic region and gelation of CNC. Nanoscale structural information of CNC assembly up to very high particle concentrations can help to fabricate nanocellulose-based materials by evaporative methods.

  • 8.
    Mukherjee, Sourav P.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Gliga, Anda R.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Lazzaretto, Beatrice
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Brandner, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Fielden, Matthew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Newman, Leon
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Rodrigues, Artur F.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Shao, Wenting
    University of Pittsburgh, USA.
    Fournier, Philip M.
    University of Pittsburgh, USA.
    Toprak, Mohammet S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Star, Alexander
    University of Pittsburgh, USA.
    Kostarelos, Kostas
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Bhattacharya, Kunal
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Fadeel, Bengt
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Graphene oxide is degraded by neutrophils and the degradation products are non-genotoxic2018In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 1180-1188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutrophils were previously shown to digest oxidized carbon nanotubes through a myeloperoxidase (MPO)-dependent mechanism, and graphene oxide (GO) was found to undergo degradation when incubated with purified MPO, but there are no studies to date showing degradation of GO by neutrophils. Here we produced endotoxin-free GO by a modified Hummers' method and asked whether primary human neutrophils stimulated to produce neutrophil extracellular traps or activated to undergo degranulation are capable of digesting GO. Biodegradation was assessed using a range of techniques including Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and mass spectrometry. GO sheets of differing lateral dimensions were effectively degraded by neutrophils. As the degradation products could have toxicological implications, we also evaluated the impact of degraded GO on the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. MPO-degraded GO was found to be non-cytotoxic and did not elicit any DNA damage. Taken together, these studies have shown that neutrophils can digest GO and that the biodegraded GO is non-toxic for human lung cells.

  • 9.
    Persson, Gustav
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Järsvall, Emmy
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kroon, Renee
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Zhang, Yadong
    Georgia Institute of Technology, USA; University of Colorado Boulder, USA.
    Barlow, Sttephen
    Georgia Institute of Technology, USA; University of Colorado Boulder, USA.
    Marder, Seth
    Georgia Institute of Technology, USA; University of Colorado Boulder, USA.
    Müller, Christian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Eva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Visualisation of individual dopants in a conjugated polymer: sub-nanometre 3D spatial distribution and correlation with electrical properties2022In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 14, p. 15404-15413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While molecular doping is ubiquitous in all branches of organic electronics, little is known about the spatial distribution of dopants, especially at molecular length scales. Moreover, a homogeneous distribution is often assumed when simulating transport properties of these materials, even though the distribution is expected to be inhomogeneous. In this study, electron tomography is used to determine the position of individual molybdenum dithiolene complexes and their three-dimensional distribution in a semiconducting polymer at the sub-nanometre scale. A heterogeneous distribution is observed, the characteristics of which depend on the dopant concentration. At 5 mol% of the molybdenum dithiolene complex, the majority of the dopant species are present as isolated molecules or small clusters up to five molecules. At 20 mol% dopant concentration and higher, the dopant species form larger nanoclusters with elongated shapes. Even in case of these larger clusters, each individual dopant species is still in contact with the surrounding polymer. The electrical conductivity first strongly increases with dopant concentration and then slightly decreases for the most highly doped samples, even though no large aggregates can be observed. The decreased conductivity is instead attributed to the increased energetic disorder and lower probability of electron transfer that originates from the increased size and size variation in dopant clusters. This study highlights the importance of detailed information concerning the dopant spatial distribution at the sub-nanometre scale in three dimensions within the organic semiconductor host. The information acquired using electron tomography may facilitate more accurate simulations of charge transport in doped organic semiconductors. 

  • 10.
    Valencia, Luis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Monti, Susanna
    Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, Italy.
    Kumar, Sugam
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Zhu, Chuantao
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Liu, Peng
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Yu, Shun
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Mathew, Aji
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nanocellulose/graphene oxide layered membranes: Elucidating their behaviour during filtration of water and metal ions in real time2019In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 11, no 46, p. 22413-22422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deposition of a thin layer of graphene oxide onto cellulose nanofibril membranes, to form CNF-GO layered-composite membranes, dramatically enhances their wet-mechanical stability, water flux and capacity to adsorb water pollutants (P. Liu, C. Zhu and A. P. Mathew, J. Hazard. Mater., 2019, 371, 484-493). In this work, we studied in real time the behavior of these layered membranes during filtration of water and metal ion solutions by means of in situ SAXS and reactive molecular dynamics (ReaxFF) computational simulations. SAXS confirms that the GO layers limit the swelling and structural deformations of CNFs during filtration of aqueous solutions. Moreover, during filtration of metal ion solutions, the connection of the CNF-GO network becomes highly complex mass-fractal like, with an increment in the correlation length. In addition, after ion adsorption, the SAXS data revealed apparent formation of nanoparticles during the drying stage and particle size increase as a function of time during drying. The molecular dynamics simulations, on the other hand, provide a deep insight into the assembly of both components, as well as elucidating the motion of the metal ions that potentially lead to the formation of metal clusters during adsorption, confirming the synergistic behavior of GO and CNFs for water purification applications.

  • 11.
    Wetterskog, E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Castro, A
    SOLVE Research and Consultancy AB, Sweden.
    Zeng, L
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Heinke, D
    nanoPET Pharma GmbH, Germany.
    Olsson, E
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Nilsson, L
    Lund University, Sweden; SOLVE Research and Consultancy AB, Sweden.
    Gehrke, N
    nanoPET Pharma GmbH, Germany.
    Svedlindh, P
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Size and property bimodality in magnetic nanoparticle dispersions: single domain particles vs. strongly coupled nanoclusters2017In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 4227-4235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of magnetic nanoparticles in the biotechnical sector puts new demands on fast and quantitative characterization techniques for nanoparticle dispersions. In this work, we report the use of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) to study the properties of a commercial magnetic nanoparticle dispersion. We demonstrate the effectiveness of both techniques when subjected to a dispersion with a bimodal size/magnetic property distribution: i.e., a small superparamagnetic fraction, and a larger blocked fraction of strongly coupled colloidal nanoclusters. We show that the oriented attachment of primary nanocrystals into colloidal nanoclusters drastically alters their static, dynamic, and magnetic resonance properties. Finally, we show how the FMR spectra are influenced by dynamical effects; agglomeration of the superparamagnetic fraction leads to reversible line-broadening; rotational alignment of the suspended nanoclusters results in shape-dependent resonance shifts. The AF4 and FMR measurements described herein are fast and simple, and therefore suitable for quality control procedures in commercial production of magnetic nanoparticles.

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