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  • 1.
    Bellqvist, David
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Ångström, Sten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Magnusson, Marcel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Nordhag, Love
    Stena Recycling International AB, Sweden.
    Falk, Ola
    Stena Aluminium AB, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    SSAB Europe, Sweden.
    Closing the loop - Processing of waste by-product from aluminum recycling into useful product for the steel industry2015In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, ISSN 1974-9791, E-ISSN 2283-9216, Vol. 45, p. 661-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During melting of aluminum scrap a slag residue is formed. The slag residue, called black dross, has no industrial use and has to be landfilled. The work presented herein aims at developing a novel treatment process for the slag, converting it into a useful product for the steel industry and thereby replacing commercially available products made from virgin material. The concept consists of flash melting black dross and lime to form a synthetic slag former for treatment of high quality steel. Results from the modelling work indicate that the overall energy savings for an extended use of the developed product at the SSAB Europe Luleå site amounts to 31 GWh/y corresponding to 8 kt CO2/y, in addition to the process removing the need for landfill of around 20 kt of black dross per year with subsequent risk of leakage of toxic compounds.

  • 2.
    Karlsson, Ingvar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Electrostatic discharges from non-conductive materials2013In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, ISSN 1974-9791, E-ISSN 2283-9216, Vol. 31, p. 937-942Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Lundkvist, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Brämming, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Riesbeck, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Wedholm, Anita
    SSAB Merox, Sweden.
    New methods for waste minimization in an integrated steel site2015In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, ISSN 1974-9791, E-ISSN 2283-9216, Vol. 45, p. 739-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of materials is of major interest in steel making for environmental reasons as well as economical. All process units produce by-products which are either recycled sold or put on landfill. The products have been selected into the categories slags, dusts and sludges. This work evaluates new methods for recycling of by-products in an integrated steel site. The study estimates how much material can be recycled and in which order that would be the most beneficial with respect to costs, energy and deposits. Main focus has been on by-products produced in significant quantities and those difficult to use because of their physical or chemical nature. The work show conflicting results and a pareto front was constructed comparing deposits with increased energy use and costs in the system. Chosen case studies have been tested in industrial scale and results from test periods have been used to compare modelling with process parameters. The results show that improved resource efficiency can be achieved by keeping the energy consumption constant or even receiving small energy credits. Major cost savings can be found if internal recirculation can replace raw material such as iron ore, coke and lime stone. Before the new methods will be implemented careful considerations will be made according to test results and predictions through modelling.

  • 4.
    Orre, Joel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Bellqvist, David
    SSAB EMEA, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Leif
    SSAB EMEA, Sweden.
    Alström, Linus
    LuleKraft AB, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Stefan
    LuleKraft AB, Sweden.
    Optimised integrated steel plant operation dependent on seasonal combined heat and power plant energy demand2018In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, ISSN 1974-9791, E-ISSN 2283-9216, Vol. 70, p. 1117-1122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The steel industry is energy intensive with large corresponding contributions of fossil CO2 emissions, which accounts to around 7 % of the global emissions. This presents great challenges, and continuous work is therefore done to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions. This work evaluates ways of decreasing the total energy demand and CO2 emissions in a system containing integrated steel plant connected to a combined heat and power plant (CHP), through optimised production operation with respect to seasonal-dependent energy demands. The studied system, which includes SSAB EMEA Lulea (integrated steel plant) and LuleKraft (CHP), is located in the municipality of Lulea in northern Sweden. The CHP produces the base demand of district heat (DH) for the community, with process gases from the integrated steel plant as its main fuel. Oil is used as an extra energy source when the amounts of process gases are insufficient to meet the DH demand, which happens mainly in the cold winter periods. Therefore, this study aims to find production guidelines to minimise the additional energy consumption of oil through matching cold winter periods with high production of process gases. Optimisation of the system is performed with a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model based on process data for a normal year. The year is divided into periods based on varying DH demand, to give the model possibility to choose how the integrated steel plant is best operated in each period. The main variables in the integrated steel plant for the study are coke production and usage of recirculated materials, which are bound by yearly demand and availability. Optimisation of this setting is then evaluated in comparison to an optimisation where the integrated steel plant is operated in a constant manner the whole year. Results show that an optimised use of recirculated materials and coke production decreases yearly oil consumption with up to 8 GWh and increases yearly electricity production with up to 8 GWh.

  • 5.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pressurized entrained flow gasification of pulverized biomass - Experiences from pilot scale operation2016In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, ISSN 1974-9791, E-ISSN 2283-9216, Vol. 50, p. 325-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the goals in the national energy strategy of Sweden is that the vehicle fleet should be independent of fossil fuels by 2030. To reach that goal and to domestically secure for supply of alternative fuels, one of the suggested routes is methanol production from forest residues via pressurized and oxygen blown entrained flow gasification. In this context, ongoing industrial research in a 1 MWth gasification pilot plant is carried out at SP Energy Technology Center (SP ETC) in Pitea, Sweden. The plant is operated with pulverized or liquid fuels at process pressures up to 10 bar and this work summarizes the experiences from over 600 hours of operation with forest based biomass fuels. This paper covers results from thorough process characterization as well as results from extractive samplings of both permanent gases and particulate matter (soot) from inside the hot gasifier. Furthermore, the challenges with pressurized entrained flow gasification of pulverized biomass are discussed. During the characterization work, four of the most important process parameters (i.e. oxygen stoichiometric ratio (λ), fuel load, process pressure and fuel particle size distribution) were varied with the purpose of studying the effect on the process performance and the resulting syngas quality. The experimental results showed that the maximum cold gas efficiency (CGE) based on all combustible species in the syngas was 75% (at λ=0.30), whereas the corresponding value based only on CO and H2 (with respect to further MeOH synthesis from the syngas) was 70% (at λ=0.35). As expected, the pilot experiments showed that both the soot yield and soot particle size was reduced by increasing λ. One of the additional conclusions from this work was that; minimizing heat losses from the gasifier is of utmost importance to optimize the process performance regarding energy efficiency (i.e. CGE). Therefore, a well-insulated refractory lined gasifier is the primary alternative in regards to reactor design to maximize the CGE. Future development of the PEBG process should focus on identifying suitable hot-phase refractory, that exhibit long life-time and can sustain the alkali-rich biomass ash under gasification conditions. In addition to this, the remaining issue around how to improve the slag flow from the reactor, by additives or fuel mixing, should be investigated.

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