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  • 1.
    Argyropoulos, Dimitris
    et al.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Crestini, Claudia
    Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Italy.
    Dahlstrand, Christian
    Ren FuelK2B AB, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gioia, Claudio
    Universityof Trento, Italy.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pierrou, Clara
    RenFuel Materials AB, Sweden.
    Samec, Joseph
    RenFuel Materials AB, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden; Chulalongkorn University, Thailand; Ren FuelK2B AB, Sweden.
    Subbotina, Elena
    Yale University, USA.
    Wallmo, Henrik
    Valmet AB, Sweden.
    Wimby, Martin
    Valmet AB, Sweden.
    Kraft Lignin: A Valuable, Sustainable Resource, Opportunities and Challenges.2023In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, article id e202300492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft lignin, a by-product from the production of pulp, is currently incinerated in the recovery boiler during the chemical recovery cycle, generating valuable bioenergy and recycling inorganic chemicals to the pulping process operation. Removing lignin from the black liquor or its gasification lowers the recovery boiler load enabling increased pulp production. During the past ten years, lignin separation technologies have emerged and the interest of the research community to valorize this underutilized resource has been invigorated. The aim of this review is to give (1) a dedicated overview of the kraft process with a focus on the lignin, (2) an overview of applications that are being developed, and (3) a techno-economic and life cycle asseeements of value chains from black liquor to different products. Overall, it is anticipated that this effort will inspire further work for developing and using kraft lignin as a commodity raw material for new applications undeniably promoting pivotal global sustainability concerns.

  • 2.
    Balakshin, Mikhail Yu
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Capanema, Ewellyn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Sulaeva, Irina
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria; Wood K plus, Austria.
    Schlee, Philipp
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Huang, Zeen
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Feng, Martin
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Borghei, Maryam
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Rojas, Orlando J
    Aalto University, Finland; University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Potthast, Antje
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Rosenau, Thomas
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    New Opportunities in the Valorization of Technical Lignins.2021In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 1016-1036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sugar-based biorefineries have faced significant economic challenges. Biorefinery lignins are often classified as low-value products (fuel or low-cost chemical feedstock) mainly due to low lignin purities in the crude material. However, recent research has shown that biorefinery lignins have a great chance of being successfully used as high-value products, which in turn should result in an economy renaissance of the whole biorefinery idea. This critical review summarizes recent developments from our groups, along with the state-of-the-art in the valorization of technical lignins, with the focus on biorefinery lignins. A beneficial synergistic effect of lignin and cellulose mixtures used in different applications (wood adhesives, carbon fiber and nanofibers, thermoplastics) has been demonstrated. This phenomenon causes crude biorefinery lignins, which contain a significant amount of residual crystalline cellulose, to perform superior to high-purity lignins in certain applications. Where previously specific applications required high-purity and/or functionalized lignins with narrow molecular weight distributions, simple green processes for upgrading crude biorefinery lignin are suggested here as an alternative. These approaches can be easily combined with lignin micro-/nanoparticles (LMNP) production. The processes should also be cost-efficient compared to traditional lignin modifications. Biorefinery processes allow much greater flexibility in optimizing the lignin characteristics desirable for specific applications than traditional pulping processes. Such lignin engineering, at the same time, requires an efficient strategy capable of handling large datasets to find correlations between process variables, lignin structures and properties and finally their performance in different applications.

  • 3.
    Benselfelt, T.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Kummer, N.
    Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland; ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Nordenström, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Nyström, G.
    Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland; ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Wågberg, L.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The Colloidal Properties of Nanocellulose2023In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 16, no 8, p. e202201955-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocelluloses are anisotropic nanoparticles of semicrystalline assemblies of glucan polymers. They have great potential as renewable building blocks in the materials platform of a more sustainable society. As a result, the research on nanocellulose has grown exponentially over the last decades. To fully utilize the properties of nanocelluloses, a fundamental understanding of their colloidal behavior is necessary. As elongated particles with dimensions in a critical nanosize range, their colloidal properties are complex, with several behaviors not covered by classical theories. In this comprehensive Review, we describe the most prominent colloidal behaviors of nanocellulose by combining experimental data and theoretical descriptions. We discuss the preparation and characterization of nanocellulose dispersions, how they form networks at low concentrations, how classical theories cannot describe their behavior, and how they interact with other colloids. We then show examples of how scientists can use this fundamental knowledge to control the assembly of nanocellulose into new materials with exceptional properties. We hope aspiring and established researchers will use this Review as a guide. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 4.
    Jönsson, Christina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Wei, Ren
    University of Greifswald, Germany.
    Biundo, Antonino
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; REWOW srl, Italy.
    Landberg, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Schwarz Bour, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Pezzotti, Fabio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Toca, Andreea
    Swedish Stockings, Sweden; Hyper Island, Sweden.
    Jacques, Les
    LYCRA Company, UK.
    Bornscheuer, Uwe
    University of Greifswald, Germany.
    Syrén, Per-Olof
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Biocatalysis in the Recycling Landscape for Synthetic Polymers and Plastics towards Circular Textiles2021In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 14, no 19, p. 4028-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although recovery of fibers from used textiles with retained material quality is desired, separation of individual components from polymer blends used in today's complex textile materials is currently not available at viable scale. Biotechnology could provide a solution to this pressing problem by enabling selective depolymerization of recyclable fibers of natural and synthetic origin, to isolate constituents or even recover monomers. We compiled experimental data for biocatalytic polymer degradation with a focus on synthetic polymers with hydrolysable links and calculated conversion rates to explore this path The analysis emphasizes that we urgently need major research efforts: beyond cellulose-based fibers, biotechnological-assisted depolymerization of plastics so far only works for polyethylene terephthalate, with degradation of a few other relevant synthetic polymer chains being reported. In contrast, by analyzing market data and emerging trends for synthetic fibers in the textile industry, in combination with numbers from used garment collection and sorting plants, it was shown that the use of difficult-to-recycle blended materials is rapidly growing. If the lack of recycling technology and production trend for fiber blends remains, a volume of more than 3400 Mt of waste will have been accumulated by 2030. This work highlights the urgent need to transform the textile industry from a biocatalytic perspective.

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