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  • 1. Ahlgren, S.
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, S.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, P.-A.
    Ammonium nitrate fertiliser production based on biomass: Environmental effects from a life cycle perspective2008In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 99, no 17, p. 8034-8041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ammonium nitrate and calcium ammonium nitrate are the most commonly used straight nitrogen fertilisers in Europe, accounting for 43% of the total nitrogen used for fertilisers. They are both produced in a similar way; carbonate can be added as a last step to produce calcium ammonium nitrate. The environmental impact, fossil energy input and land use from using gasified biomass (cereal straw and short rotation willow (Salix) coppice) as feedstock in ammonium nitrate production were studied in a cradle-to-gate evaluation using life cycle assessment methodology. The global warming potential in the biomass systems was only 22-30% of the impact from conventional production using natural gas. The eutrophication potential was higher for the biomass systems due to nutrient leaching during cultivation, while the acidification was about the same in all systems. The primary fossil energy use was calculated to be 1.45 and 1.37 MJ/kg nitrogen for Salix and straw, respectively, compared to 35.14 MJ for natural gas. The biomass production was assumed to be self-supporting with nutrients by returning part of the ammonium nitrate produced together with the ash from the gasification. For the production of nitrogen from Salix, it was calculated that 3914 kg of nitrogen can be produced every year from 1 ha, after that 1.6% of the produced nitrogen has been returned to the Salix production. From wheat straw, 1615 kg of nitrogen can be produced annually from 1 ha, after that 0.6% of the nitrogen has been returned. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Alriksson, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Cavka, Adnan
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Improving the fermentability of enzymatic hydrolysates of lignocellulose through chemical in-situ detoxification with reducing agents2011In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 1254-1263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhibitory lignocellulose hydrolysates were treated with the reducing agents dithionite and sulfite to achieve improved fermentability. Addition of these reducing agents (in the concentration range 5.0-17.5mM) to enzymatic hydrolysates of spruce wood or sugarcane bagasse improved processes based on both SHF (simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation) and SSF (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation). The approach was exemplified in ethanolic fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and by using hydrolysates with sugar concentrations >100g/L (for SHF) and with 10% dry-matter content (for SSF). In the SHF experiments, treatments with dithionite raised the ethanol productivities of the spruce hydrolysate from 0.2 to 2.5g×L -1×h -1 and of the bagasse hydrolysate from 0.9 to 3.9g×L -1×h -1, values even higher than those of fermentations with reference sugar solutions without inhibitors. Benefits of the approach include that the addition of the reducing agent can be made in-situ directly in the fermentation vessel, that the treatment can be performed at a temperature and pH suitable for fermentation, and that the treatment results in dramatically improved fermentability without degradation of fermentable sugars. The many benefits and the simplicity of the approach offer a new way to achieve more efficient manufacture of fermentation products from lignocellulose hydrolysates. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 3.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Techno-economic assessment of catalytic gasification of biomass powders for methanol production2017In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 237, p. 167-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90–130 €/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels. It is concluded that catalytic gasification of forest residues can be an attractive option as it provides operational advantages at production costs comparable to non-catalytic gasification. The addition of lignin would require lignin costs below 25 €/MWh to be economically beneficial.

  • 4. Eriksson, D.
    et al.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Stenberg, M.
    Öhrman, Olov .G.W
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Lestander, T.A.
    Bergsten, U.
    Ohman, M.
    Characterization of Scots pine stump-root biomass as feed-stock for gasification2012In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 104, p. 729-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective was to explore the potential for gasifying Scots pine stump-root biomass (SRB). Washed thin roots, coarse roots, stump heartwood and stump sapwood were characterized (solid wood, milling and powder characteristics) before and during industrial processing. Non-slagging gasification of the SRB fuels and a reference stem wood was successful, and the gasification parameters (synthesis gas and bottom ash characteristics) were similar. However, the heartwood fuel had high levels of extractives (≈19%) compared to the other fuels (2-8%) and thereby ≈16% higher energy contents but caused disturbances during milling, storage, feeding and gasification. SRB fuels could be sorted automatically according to their extractives and moisture contents using near-infrared spectroscopy, and their amounts and quality in forests can be predicted using routinely collected stand data, biomass functions and drill core analyses. Thus, SRB gasification has great potential and the proposed characterizations exploit it. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 5.
    Fredenslund, Anders M
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hinge, Jørgen
    Teknologisk Institut AgroTech, Denmark.
    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rasmussen, Søren G.
    Teknologisk Institut AgroTech, Denmark.
    Scheutz, Charlotte
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    On-site and ground-based remote sensing measurements of methane emissions from four biogas plants: A comparison study2018In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 270, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for quantifying methane (CH4) emissions from biogas plants are needed, in order to ensure that emissions are within acceptable levels and to identify options for emission mitigation. Two emission measuring approaches were used at four biogas plants: an on-site approach, whereby emission sources were identified and subsequently quantified one at a time, and a ground-based remote sensing approach, which was applied to measure total CH4 emissions. The emissions were between 5.5 and 13.5 kg CH4 h−1 from the four plants, measured using ground-based remote sensing. Even though the measurements were performed on the same days at each facility, the sum of on-site emission rates varied between the remote sensing measurements (up to ∼100%). Several factors may have caused this difference: emission sources not measured using an on-site approach and short-time emission variation. On-site measurements showed that the majority of the emissions often occurred from just a few sources.

  • 6. Ibarra, D.
    et al.
    Köpcke, V.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jääskeläinen, A.-S.
    Ek, M.
    Combination of alkaline and enzymatic treatments as a process for upgrading sisal paper-grade pulp to dissolving-grade pulp2010In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, no 19, p. 7416-7423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sequence of treatments consisting of an initial xylanase treatment followed by cold alkaline extraction and a final endoglucanase treatment was investigated as a process for upgrading non-wood paper-grade pulps to dissolving-grade pulps for viscose production. Fivecommercial dried bleached non-wood soda/AQ paper pulps, from flax, hemp, sisal, abaca, and jute, were studied for this purpose. Commercial dried bleached eucalyptus dissolving pulp was used as reference sample. Sisal pulp showed the highest improvement in Fock’s reactivity, reaching levels nearly as high or even higher than that of eucalyptus dissolving pulp (65%), and a low hemicellulose content (3-4%) when was subjected to this sequence of treatments. The viscosity, however, decreased considerably. A uniform and narrow molecular weight distribution was observed by size exclusion chromatography. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Raman microspectroscopy revealed that the cellulose structure consisted of cellulose I.

  • 7. Kimming, M.
    et al.
    Sundberg, C.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, S.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, P.-A.
    Life cycle assessment of energy self-sufficiency systems based on agricultural residues for organic arable farms2011In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 1425-1432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The agricultural industry today consumes large amounts of fossil fuels. This study used consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) to analyse two potential energy self-sufficient systems for organic arable farms, based on agricultural residues. The analysis focused on energy balance, resource use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A scenario based on straw was found to require straw harvest from 25% of the farm area; 45% of the total energy produced from the straw was required for energy carrier production and GHG emissions were reduced by 9% compared with a fossil fuel-based reference scenario. In a scenario based on anaerobic digestion of ley, the corresponding figures were 13%, 24% and 35%. The final result was sensitive to assumptions regarding, e.g., soil carbon content and handling of by-products. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 8. Lundgren, J.,
    et al.
    Pettersson, E.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Combustion of horse manure for heat production2009In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 100, no 12, p. 3121-3126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objectives of this paper have been to evaluate the use of horse manure and wood-shavings as a fuel for heat production and to provide sets of data on the chemical composition, ash characteristics and ash forming elements of the fuel. Another objective has been to investigate the possibility to use the ash as fertiliser by analysing the heavy metal and nutrient contents. The results showed that the fuel is well suited for combustion for heat production causing low emissions of products of incomplete combustion. The emissions of NOx were however high due to the high content of fuel bound nitrogen. Emissions of CO and NOx were typically in the range of 30-150 mg/Nm3 and 280-350 mg/Nm3 at 10 vol% O2, respectively. The analysis of the ash showed on sufficiently low concentration of heavy metals to allow recycling. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Mihiretu, Gezahegn T.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Brodin, Malin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Chimphango, Annie F.
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    ֘yaas, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Hoff, Bård H
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    Görgens, Johann F.
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Single-step microwave-assisted hot water extraction of hemicelluloses from selected lignocellulosic materials: A biorefinery approach2017In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 241, p. 669-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The viability of single-step microwave-induced pressurized hot water conditions for co-production of xylan-based biopolymers and bioethanol from aspenwood sawdust and sugarcane trash was investigated. Extraction of hemicelluloses was conducted using microwave-assisted pressurized hot water system. The effects of temperature and time on extraction yield and enzymatic digestibility of resulting solids were determined. Temperatures between 170–200 °C for aspenwood and 165–195 °C for sugarcane trash; retention times between 8–22 min for both feedstocks, were selected for optimization purpose. Maximum xylan extraction yields of 66 and 50%, and highest cellulose digestibilities of 78 and 74%, were attained for aspenwood and sugarcane trash respectively. Monomeric xylose yields for both feedstocks were below 7%, showing that the xylan extracts were predominantly in non-monomeric form. Thus, single-step microwave-assisted hot water method is viable biorefinery approach to extract xylan from lignocelluloses while rendering the solid residues sufficiently digestible for ethanol production.

  • 10.
    Mäkelä, Mikko
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden ; Aalto University, Finland.
    Forsberg, Julia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Söderberg, Christer
    Iggesund Paperboard AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Sylvia H
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Dahl, Olli
    Aalto University, Sweden.
    Process water properties from hydrothermal carbonization of chemical sludge from a pulp and board mill.2018In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, article id S0960-8524(18)30704-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) can be used to break down sludge structure and generate carbonaceous hydrochar suitable for solid fuel or value-added material applications. The separation of char and the reaction medium however generates a filtrate, which needs to treated before potential discharge. Thus, this work determined filtrate properties based on HTC temperature and sludge moisture content and estimated the discharge emissions and the potential increase in analyte loads to an industrial wastewater treatment plant based on derived regression models. Direct discharge of HTC filtrate would significantly increase effluent emissions at the mill, indicating the filtrate treatment is crucial for the future implementation of HTC at pulp and paper mills. Recycling the HTC filtrate to the wastewater plant would lead to only a nominal increase in effluent flow, but would increase the suspended solids, BOD, COD and total nitrogen loads by 0.1-0.8%, 3.8-5.3%, 2.7-3.1% and 42-67%, respectively, depending on HTC temperature.

  • 11.
    Nordberg, Åke
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Jarvis, A.
    Stenberg, B.
    Mathisen, Berit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Svensson, B.H.
    Anaerobic digestion of alfalfa silage with recirculation of process liquid2007In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 98, no 1, p. 104-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process liquid recirculation initially stimulated one-phase anaerobic digestion of alfalfa silage in two semi-continuously fed and stirred tank reactors. Thus, with increased pH, alkalinity and stability it was possible to increase the organic loading rate to 3 g VS L -1 d -1, as compared to 2.25 g VS L -1 d -1 in a control reactor without recirculation. However, the recirculation of liquid eventually caused an accumulation of organic and inorganic substances, leading to an inhibition of hydrolysis and methanogenesis. This inhibition of microbial activity was prevented in one of the processes by replacing 50% of the recirculated process liquid with water during the second half of the operation period. A multiple linear regression model of principal components using seven input variables explained the variance in output variables nearly as well as the original model using all 23 measured input variables. The results show that it is necessary to adjust the degree of liquid recirculation to reach an optimal process. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Olsson, J.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Feng, Xin Mei
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Gentili, F.G.
    Shabiimam, M.A.
    Nehrenheim, E.
    Thorin, E.
    Co-digestion of cultivated microalgae and sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment2014In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 171, no 1, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study two wet microalgae cultures and one dried microalgae culture were co-digested in different proportions with sewage sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The aim was to evaluate if the co-digestion could lead to an increased efficiency of methane production compared to digestion of sewage sludge alone. The results showed that co-digestion with both wet and dried microalgae, in certain proportions, increased the biochemical methane potential (BMP) compared with digestion of sewage sludge alone in mesophilic conditions. The BMP was significantly higher than the calculated BMP in many of the mixtures. This synergetic effect was statistically significant in a mixture containing 63% (w/w VS based) undigested sewage sludge and 37% (w/w VS based) wet algae slurry, which produced 23% more methane than observed with undigested sewage sludge alone. The trend was that thermophilic co-digestion of microalgae and undigested sewage sludge did not give the same synergy.

  • 13. Pawar, Sudhanshu
    Evaluation of assimilatory sulphur metabolism in Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus2014In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Penttilä, P.A.
    et al.
    Varnai, A.
    Pere, J.
    Tammelin, T.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Siika-aho, M.
    Viikari, L.
    Serimaa, R.
    Xylan as limiting factor in enzymatic hydrolysis of nanocellulose2013In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Risberg, K.
    et al.
    Sun, L.
    Levén, Lotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Horn, S.J.
    Schnurer, A.
    Biogas production from wheat straw and manure: Impact of pretreatment and process operating parameters2013In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 149, p. 232-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-treated or steam-exploded straw in co-digestion with cattle manure was evaluated as a substrate for biogas production compared with manure as the sole substrate. All digestions were performed in laboratory-scale CSTR reactors (5L) operating with an organic loading late of approximately 2.8g VS/L/day, independent of substrate mixture. The hydraulic retention was 25days and an operating temperature of 37, 44 or 52°C. The co-digestion with steam exploded straw and manure was evaluated with two different mixtures, with different proportion. The results showed stable performance but low methane yields (0.13-0.21NLCH4/kg VS) for both manure alone and in co-digestion with the straw. Straw appeared to give similar yield as manure and steam-explosion treatment of the straw did not increase gas yields. Furthermore, there were only slight differences at the different operating temperatures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 16.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Methods for determining the presence of slurry on the crop and in the upper soil layer after application to grassland2003In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 81-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slurry injection in grassland may lead to lower ammonia losses and enhance silage quality compared to surface spreading. In order to evaluate the performance of different slurry injectors, there is a need for methods which measure the degree of crop contamination and the position of the slurry in the soil after spreading. The aim of this study was to identify and test possible methods. The amount of cattle slurry present on the grass stubble after spreading was determined by measuring the electrical conductivity of water used for rinsing grass samples. The slurry placement in the soil profile was measured in cross-sections made through the slurry trails. Methods used were analyses of images taken by different cameras, resistance measurements and by measuring the dimensions of the slurry trails. The method for determining the presence of slurry on the crop was practically applicable and is considered to be reliable. The placement of slurry could not be sufficiently resolved from image taken by the different cameras or by measuring resistance. Instead, visual assessment and measurements of width and depth of the slurry trails gave a good description of the slurry placement in the soil profile. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 17. Westerholm, M.
    et al.
    Hansson, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Schnurer, A.
    Improved biogas production from whole stillage by co-digestion with cattle manure2012In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 114, p. 314-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole stillage, as sole substrate or co-digested with cattle manure, was evaluated as substrate for biogas production in five mesophilic laboratory-scale biogas reactors, operating semi-continuously for 640days. The process performance was monitored by chemical parameters and by quantitative analysis of the methanogenic and acetogenic population. With whole stillage as sole substrate the process showed clear signs of instability after 120days of operation. However, co-digestion with manure clearly improved biogas productivity and process stability and indicated increased methane yield compared with theoretical values. The methane yield at an organic loading rate (OLR) at 2.8gVS/(L×day) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 45days with a substrate mixture 85% whole stillage and 15% manure (based on volatile solids [VS]) was 0.31N L CH 4/gVS. Surprisingly, the abundance of the methanogenic and acetogenic populations remained relatively stable throughout the whole operation and was not influenced by process performance. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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