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  • 1. Gustafson, G.M.
    et al.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Jonsson, S.
    Barn balance calculations of Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, N, P, S and Zn in a conventional and organic dairy farm in Sweden2007In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 119, no 1-2, p. 160-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calculations of flows and balances of plant nutrients in agricultural production systems provide some basic information for the assessment of their long-term sustainability. The objectives of this study were to assess the possible impacts of variations in element concentrations between years and of undefined sinks and sources of elements on the accuracy of balance calculations. A 3-year study was conducted on Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, N, P, S, and Zn fluxes in the barns (subsystem) of a Swedish farm with separate conventional and organic milk production. Our main focus in this subproject was on barn balance calculations, the barn housing only cows. Barn balance for an element was defined as amount of that element in [feeds, heifers, bedding, water] - [milk, manure, urine, calves, culled cows]. The focus was on: (1) variations in element concentrations in the main flow carriers [feeds, milk, manure, urine]; (2) information about element dynamics and flows of dairy farming systems obtained from internal flows of elements in the barn balance compared with that obtained from the flows associated with milk production in a farm gate balance; (3) differences in element flows and concentrations between the organic and conventional farming systems on this farm. Our conclusions were: (1) the sampling methods used had low coefficients of variation and thus pooled samples can reduce the costs of element analyses. However, urine must be thoroughly mixed if less water-soluble elements are to be monitored. Magnesium differed significantly in concentrations between years in all feedstuffs; (2) year-to-year fluctuations in harvest can influence a calculation negatively if calculations are based on annual harvest and not on feed supplied. The barn balance calculation showed a source of Cu, Mn and Zn that would not have been obvious in a farm gate balance. The element content of manure and urine calculated as [inputs - milk] would have underestimated the amount of Cu, Mn and Zn in manure and overestimated the amount of K and N. The Cu analysis showed an example of conflicting goals between short-term welfare of the cows and long-term soil fertility. EU legislation regarding land for spreading of manure is not a guarantee against soil contamination by heavy metals; (3) the differences between the organic and conventional system related more to differences in forage: concentrate and home-grown: purchased ratios, which were typical for the average Swedish farm of each type, and less to differences in element concentrations of the feed ingredients. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Willén, Agnes
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Vegerfors Persson, Birgitta
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Greenhouse gas emissions from storage and field application of anaerobically digested and non-digested cattle slurry2015In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 199, p. 358-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from non-digested and digested cattle slurry were measured during storage in a pilot-scale facility and during subsequent field application. In three treatments, non-digested cattle slurry (CS), digested cattle slurry (DCS) and digested cattle slurry covered with a roof (DCS-R), GHG emissions were measured during more than three months of storage in summer and in winter. After each storage season, CS and DCS were applied in the field before sowing, either in late summer or in spring, and compared with an unfertilised control (Control). GHG measurements were conducted using a closed chamber technique on both storage tanks and in the field, and the experiments were organised according to a randomised complete block design with three blocks. In the field, three closed chambers were placed randomly in each small plot. For every experimental unit, 7-9 measurements were made over time. Mean daily CH4 emissions during summer storage were 2.37, 7.79 and 6.78g CH4-Cm-3d-1 slurry for CS, DCS and DCS-R, respectively, and were significantly higher for DCS and DCS-R compared with CS (p<0.001). DCS-R gave significantly (p<0.05) lower CH4 emissions than DCS. The limited number of gas samples analysed during the study period may have resulted in increased uncertainty in the estimates. Mean daily CH4 emissions during winter storage were very low, with no significant differences (p>0.05) between treatments. Non-negligible N2O emissions were only detected from DCS-R in summer (cumulative mean emissions 5.98gN2O-Nm-2), corresponding to an emissions factor for N2O-N (EFN2O) of 0.24%.In the field, cumulative emissions of N2O were very limited for CS and DCS (EFN2O 0.59% and 0.44%, respectively, in autumn and 0.20% and 0.10%, respectively, in spring).A combination of summer storage and autumn spreading of DCS had the largest impact on global warming potential (GWP100) in terms of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) (28.7kg CO2em-3 slurry), with the impact from storage dominating. Presence of a roof reduced CH4 emissions, but also stimulated formation of N2O during summer and therefore had no net effect on GWP100. With winter storage and spring spreading, CS gave the lowest impact (2.51kg CO2em-3 slurry).

  • 3.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Akerhielm, H.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Lindgren, Kristina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Outdoor pig fattening at two Swedish organic farms-Spatial and temporal load of nutrients and potential environmental impact2007In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 121, no 4, p. 407-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, outdoor organic pig production is gaining interest. However, the excretory behaviour of pigs may create plant nutrient hotspots in outdoor areas, increasing the environmental impact. This study examined fluxes and balances of N, P, K, Cu and Zn at pen level, and determined the effects of the excretory behaviour of fattening pigs on nutrient load, manure distribution and N, P, K, Cu and Zn concentration in soil within pens at two farms with different outdoor systems (mobile and stationary). A pen in the mobile system had about 72 pigs ha-1 and in the stationary system about 91 pigs ha-1. The average pen balance in the mobile system was 270 kg N, 60 kg P, 110 kg K, 0.4 kg Cu and 1.3 kg Zn ha-1 and in the stationary system 205 kg N, 57 kg P, 99 kg K, 0.4 kg Cu and 1.5 kg Zn ha-1. The smaller net accumulation of nutrients in the stationary system was due to about 30% of excrement nutrients being excreted indoors. A substantial proportion of nutrients (43-95%) from one pig group was found to be concentrated in an area of arable land representing 4-24% of the total pen area. In the mobile system the major part of the defecating was deposited on the hut, feeding and drinking sub-areas. The manure mapping also revealed pig behaviour of avoiding defecation in certain zones. In the stationary system, the concentration of exchangeable P and K in soil (0-30 cm depth) in areas preferred for excretion was more than four-fold higher and the concentration of mineral-N (0-90 cm depth) was about eight-fold higher than in other areas of the pen by the end of the fattening period. Preferred areas for excretion within the pen were affected both by the present pig groups and by previous pig groups 4 years back in time. In the mobile system, the concentration of mineral-N in soil was about three-fold higher in preferred excretion areas compared with other areas. Neither of the two outdoor systems succeeded in avoiding excessive point loads of N within the pen. The flexibility of the mobile outdoor system has to be further improved so that no harmful point loads of nutrients can occur. In the stationary system, a nutrient management technique for collecting the manure on the preferred excretion areas on arable land needs to be developed. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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