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  • 1.
    Deshpande, Raghu
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019). Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Giummarella, Nicola
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Sundvall, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Grundberg, Hans
    Domsjö Fabriker, Sweden.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The reactivity of lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) during manufacture of dissolving sulfite pulp from softwood2018In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 115, p. 315-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of covalent bonds between lignin and polysaccharides was investigated in dissolving pulps made with one-stage and two-stage acidic sulfite pulping for 100% pine heartwood raw material. The covalent bonds between lignin and pulp polysaccharides occurred mainly to xylan and glucomannan and were of the phenyl glycosides and γ–esters types. The α-ethers that are common in wood were missing in the studied pulp samples. Based on these findings and known lignin reactions during sulfite pulping, a mechanism explaining the absence of the α-ethers is discussed. It is suggested that the lignin carbohydrate bonds may play a vital role in lignin recalcitrance. 

  • 2.
    Hajlane, Abdelghani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco.
    Kaddami, Hamid
    Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco.
    Joffe, Roberts
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Chemical modification of regenerated cellulose fibres by cellulose nano-crystals: Towards hierarchical structure for structural composites reinforcement2017In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 100, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple and innovative new route, with less negative impact on the environment, for depositing and hope-grafting cellulose nano-crystals onto the surface of regenerated cellulose fibres (Cordenka 700 Super 3), using γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane as coupling agent, is presented. Hierarchical cellulosic structure involving micro-scale fibres and nano-scale cellulose crystal network was created as verified by the scanning electron microscopy. The fibres were initially oxidised by optimized concentration of cerium ammonium nitrate to generate radicals on the cellulose backbone in order to polymerize the coupling agent at the surface. Infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the chemical polymerisation of MPS onto regenerated cellulose fibres without enabling to show the chemical bonding between silane and nano-crystals. However, tensile test which was performed to study the impact of different treatments on mechanical properties of regenerated cellulose fibres, revealed that the modification by silane decreased the stiffness and strength of fibres (22% and 10% decrease, respectively) while the strain at failure was increased. These changes were attributed to the treatment conditions which may have induced the disorder and the misalignment of the structure of cellulose fibres (e.g. axial orientation of molecular chains and crystalline phase of the fibre has been reduced). This assumption is supported by the results from successive loading-unloading test of the fibre bundle. However, after depositing cellulose nano-crystals onto the fibre’s surface, the stiffness was recovered (20% increase in comparison to MPS treated fibres) while the strength and strain at failure remained at the same order of magnitude as for fibres treated only by the coupling agent.

  • 3.
    Joffre, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bardage, Stig
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Per
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Characterization of interfacial stress transfer ability in acetylation-treated wood fibre composites using X-ray microtomography2017In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 95, p. 43-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of the fibre/matrix interface contribute to stiffness, strength and fracture behaviour of fibre-reinforced composites. In cellulosic composites, the limited affinity between the hydrophilic fibres and the hydrophobic thermoplastic matrix remains a challenge, and the reinforcing capability of the fibres is hence not fully utilized. A direct characterisation of the stress transfer ability through pull-out tests on single fibres is extremely cumbersome due to the small dimension of the wood fibres. Here a novel approach is proposed: the length distribution of the fibres sticking out of the matrix at the fracture surface is approximated using X-ray microtomography and is used as an estimate of the adhesion between the fibres and the matrix. When a crack grows in the material, the fibres will either break or be pulled-out of the matrix depending on their adhesion to the matrix: good adhesion between the fibres and the matrix should result in more fibre breakage and less pull-out of the fibres than poor adhesion. The effect of acetylation on the adhesion between the wood fibres and the PLA matrix was evaluated at different moisture contents using the proposed method. By using an acetylation treatment of the fibres it was possible to improve the strength of the composite samples soaked in the water by more than 30%.

  • 4.
    Li, Jiebing
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Miao
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    She, Diao
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Ministry of Water Resources, China.
    Zhao, Yadong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Structural functionalization of industrial softwood kraft lignin for simple dip-coating of urea as highly efficient nitrogen fertilizer2017In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 109, p. 255-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urea coating was conducted using polylactic acid (PLA) blended with industrial softwood kraft lignin after applying a dip-coating technique. The lignin was pre-functionalized via esterification that increased coat layer hydrophobicity or via amination that created an organically bound nitrogen structure. The PLA film reference had many pores, while the film from the PLA-lignin derivative complex was highly homogeneous and had no pores. The coat thickness was generally adjustable by repeating the coating process reaching up to 81% weight against the urea core. After coating, urea release in water was largely delayed, 20–30 and 6–10 times as long as that of uncoated urea or PLA-coated urea respectively. The coated urea will be a highly effective nitrogen fertilizer due to the controlled release after coating, the slow release from the organically bound nitrogen structure, and the expectedly extra stability against urease hydrolysis and microorganism nitrification after using the lignin structure.

  • 5.
    Meriçer, Çağlar
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Minelli, Matteo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    De Angelis, Maria G.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Giacinti Baschetti, Marco
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Stancampiano, Augusto
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Laurita, Romolo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Gherardi, Matteo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Colombo, Vittorio
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Trifol, Jon
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Szabo, Peter
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, Innventia.
    Atmospheric plasma assisted PLA/microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) multilayer biocomposite for sustainable barrier application2015In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 93, p. 235-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fully bio-based and biodegradable materials, such as polylactic acid (PLA) and microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), are considered in order to produce a completely renewable packaging solution for oxygen barrier applications, even at medium-high relative humidity (R.H.). Thin layers of MFC were coated on different PLA substrates by activating film surface with an atmospheric plasma treatment, leading to the fabrication of robust and transparent multilayer composite films, which were then characterized by different experimental techniques. UV transmission measurements confirmed the transparency of multilayer films (60% of UV transmission rate), while SEM micrographs showed the presence of a continuous, dense and defect free layer of MFC on PLA surface. Concerning the mechanical behavior of the samples, tensile tests revealed that the multilayer films significantly improved the stress at break value of neat PLA. Moreover, the oxygen barrier properties of the multilayer films were improved more than one order of magnitude compared to neat PLA film at 35 °C and 0% R.H. and the permeability values were maintained up to 60% R.H. The obtained materials therefore showed interesting properties for their possible use in barrier packaging applications as fully biodegradable solution, coupling two primarily incompatible matrices in a multilayer film with no need of any solvent or chemical.

  • 6.
    Molnes, Silje N.
    et al.
    UoS University of Stavanger, Norway; NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Torrijos, Ivan P.
    UoS University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Strand, Skule
    UoS University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Paso, Kristofer G.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Sandstone injectivity and salt stability of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) dispersions: Premises for use of CNC in enhanced oil recovery2016In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 93, p. 152-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reservoir production is frequently supported by using flooding fluids, often seawater. The efficiency is affected by various factors, such as the wettability of the reservoir rock and the mobility ratio between reservoir oil and injected fluid phase. These factors again influence sweep efficiency, which is the fraction of the total reservoir oil volume in contact with injected fluid during oil recovery. Addition of nanoparticles can affect the sweep efficiency on a macroscopic level by increasing the volume of petroleum in contact with the flooding fluid. Presented here are core-flooding studies performed using cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) of different concentrations in low-saline water. The studies were performed to investigate the injectivity of CNC into a high-permeable sandstone core, and to observe the effects addition of electrolytes had on the rheological properties of a low concentration dispersion of CNC. Zeta- potential and shear viscosity of dilute dispersions containing CNC was investigated under increasing electrolyte concentration. The flooding experiments show that the CNC has good injectivity in sandstone for all concentrations used, and the viscosity measurements performed on the effluent prove that the particles are able to travel through the core. Being sufficiently small for injection into sandstone and showing good colloidal stability at low salinities, CNC particles have the premises necessary to function properly as a flooding additive for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in sandstone reservoirs.

  • 7.
    Newson, William R.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Prieto-Linde, Maria Louisa
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kuktaite, Ramune
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Effect of extraction routes on protein content, solubility and molecular weight distribution of Crambe abyssinica protein concentrates and thermally processed films thereof2017In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 97, p. 591-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand if and how extraction conditions influence properties of molded protein films, Crambe abyssinica protein concentrates were produced from deoiled seed meal under various extraction conditions. Properties of the resulting hot compression molded films were evaluated through the molecular weight distribution, protein polymerization behavior and tensile tests. Precipitated protein concentrates demonstrated higher protein content and a pronounced shift to higher molecular weight distributions and reduced solubility on heating, indicating increased protein polymerization compared to those from lyophilized supernatants. Thermally processed films from isoelectrically precipitated protein concentrates show a high resistance to extraction with a combination of reducing agent and denaturant, indicating the presence of non-disulfide covalent cross linking. Also, tensile strength was higher in concentrates from precipitated proteins compared to those from supernatants. The protein concentrates resulting in thermally processed films with a high protein content, the highest levels of protein-protein interaction and high tensile strength were based on alkaline extraction and isoelectric precipitation. Therefore, a combination of alkali extraction and isoelectric precipitation is recommended to produce protein concentrates for molded film production.

  • 8.
    Nordqvist, Petra
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Niklas, Nordgren
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Khabbaz, Farideh
    AkzoNobel, Sweden.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Plant proteins as wood adhesives: Bonding performance at the macro- and nanoscale2013In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 44, p. 246-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soy protein isolate and wheat gluten were studied to evaluate their wood bonding performance. A multiscale approach was employed, combining tensile shear strength measurements, optical microscopy, and adhesion measurements at the nanoscale using atomic force microscopy. Tensile shear strength measurements were performed on beech wood substrates bonded with either dispersions of soy protein isolate or wheat gluten to investigate bond strength and water resistance. The results reveal a significant difference in bond strength between the plant proteins. Soy protein isolate is superior to wheat gluten, especially regarding water resistance, both under acidic and alkaline conditions. Cross sections of the wood substrates were examined by optical microscopy to study protein penetration and bond line thickness. The results indicate that a proper bond can be obtained using lower amount of soy protein isolate than wheat gluten. Atomic force microscopy in colloidal probe mode was used to investigate nanoscale adhesion between cellulose and solvent cast protein films. The results show that adhesion between the plant proteins and the wood component is important for the bonding performance. Further, it is shown that the results from atomic force microscopy and tensile shear strength measurements display the same trend demonstrating that the bonding properties translates well spanning regimes from the macro- to the nanoscale. The presented multiscale approach is shown to have great potential and may be used in the future to predict properties at different length scales in the design and formulation of new bioadhesives. 

  • 9.
    Rasheed, Faiza
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kuktaite, Ramune
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Plivelic, Tomás S.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Mild gluten separation - A non-destructive approach to fine tune structure and mechanical behavior of wheat gluten films2015In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 73, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increasing production of wheat gluten (WG) for industrial use, minor attention has been given to the impact of the separation procedure on the gluten quality. The purpose of the present study was to probe the effect of the separation treatments (harsh vs mild) on gluten structure, morphology, and performance in bio-based films. The harshly separated industrial WG showed aggregated and pre-cross linked structure in the starting material most likely due to shear forces during gluten separation from flour and heat effect during the drying procedures. Further, when the harshly separated WG was processed into films the pre-crosslinked starting material restricted new crosslinks formation and structural rearrangements at nano-scale. The mechanical integrity of the film was also affected resulting in films with low Young's modulus and strength. WG (from cultivars Diskette, Puntari, and Sleipner) recovered from mild separation showed relatively "native" non-destructed crosslinking pattern and not previously observed structural morphology at nano-scale. When processed into films the mildly separated WG showed well polymerized intimately crosslinked proteins both with disulfide and other covalent crosslinks. The nano-scale morphology showed lamellar and hexagonal arrangements, not reported so far in any study. The structural rearrangements among films from mildly separated WG resulted in materials with improved mechanical integrity as compared to films from harshly separated WG. The present study showed that the quality of WG is significantly affected by the separation procedure which also affects protein polymerization, nano-scale morphology, and tensile properties of films.

  • 10.
    Ruwoldt, Jost
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Opedal, Mihaela Tanase
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Green materials from added-lignin thermoformed pulps2022In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 185, article id 115102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, added-lignin thermoformed pulps (ALTP) were explored as a new alternative for green materials. Technical lignin was added to mechanical pulp and subsequently thermoformed, yielding a biobased material with lignin contents above natural levels. This material was tested for its mechanical properties, water-uptake, and density. In addition, FTIR and TGA-DSC were used to characterize the lignin samples, i.e., Soda, Kraft, and hydrolysis lignin, as well as lignosulfonates. The material properties were significantly changed at 20 – 40 wt% added-lignin per dry fiber. Lignin addition increased density and reduced water-uptake and wettability. The effect on mechanical properties could vary, however, pure lignin had a more beneficial effect than hydrolysis lignin containing residual cellulose. Higher stiffness was observed for the pure lignin samples at constant or decreasing tensile strength. In conclusion, ALTP is a promising material for developing new pulp products and plastics-replacements, where the ratio and type of added-lignin may be used to fine-tune the desired characteristics. © 2022 The Authors

  • 11.
    Svärd, Antonia
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Modified and thermoplastic rapeseed straw xylan: A renewable additive in PCL biocomposites2018In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 119, p. 73-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xylan extracted from rapeseed straw was chemically modified to gain hydrophobic and thermoplastic properties via macroinitiator formation followed by a free radical grafting-from polymerization with octadecyl acrylate. Biocomposites were then prepared by incorporation of 5 or 20% (w/w) rapeseed straw xylan into a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix by melt extrusion. The grafted xylan was homogeneously distributed within the biocomposite and reinforced the PCL matrix while at the same time preserving the ability to elongate to tensile strains >500%. Analogous biocomposites made from unmodified xylan in a PCL matrix resulted in heterogeneous mixtures and brittle tensile properties.

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  • 12.
    Tehrani, Zari
    et al.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Rogstad Nordli, Henriette
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Pukstad, Brita
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; Trondheim University Hospital, Norway.
    Gethin, David T.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Translucent and ductile nanocellulose-PEG bionanocomposites-A novel substrate with potential to be functionalized by printing for wound dressing applications2016In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 93, p. 193-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is potential that nanocellulose structures can act as a substrate for biomedical applications in which printing can expand its use as a functionalized biomaterial. Nanocellulose has a variety of advantages, which make the material suitable for use in biomedical devices that include wound dressings. The material does not promote bacterial growth, allows for production of translucent films and provides a moist wound-healing environment. However it is intrinsically brittle so research is needed to develop its flexibility and strength through the addition of plasticisers. In this work, we explore the effect of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG 400) as a plasticizer on nanocellulose film formation and performance. The nanocellulose used was prepared with TEMPO mediated oxidation. We also demonstrated different methods such as laser profilometry and atomic force microscopy to observe the topography and morphology of the films. FTIR, UV-vis spectroscopy was used to look at the characteristics of the nanocellulose films. In addition, the mechanical strength of the films with and without plasticizers was assessed. This led to the formulation of films that included PEG400 at 10-40% by weight. These demonstrated properties that are suitable for wound dressings. Additionally, the PEG modification yielded films that showed a surface morphology adequate for surface modification by printing. Importantly, a cytotoxicity test was performed using Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Human Epidermal Keratinocytes. The results showed no effect on the metabolic activity when fibroblasts were incubated in the presence of films containing 10 and 25% PEG. A reduction was measured in the presence of PEG at 40%. However, no significant cell death was detected in any of the cell-types. Hence, the nanocellulose-PEG films are not considered to be cytotoxic against human skin cells at the concentrations applied in this study.

  • 13.
    Trifol, Jon
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Aalto University, Finland.
    Moriana Torro, Rosana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Barrier packaging solutions from residual biomass: Synergetic properties of CNF and LCNF in films2022In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 177, article id 114493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, for the first time, it is studied the synergetic properties of two different grades of nanocelluloses with different chemical compositions (cellulose nanofibrils-CNF with less than 1% of lignin and lignocellulose nanofibrils-LCNF with 16% of lignin). CNF and LCNF were mixed in different ratios to obtain bi-component films. Their performance in terms of transparency, bioactivity, thermo-mechanical and gas barrier properties was evaluated and compared with the performance of the neat CNF films. The presence of LCNF in the formulations conferred antioxidant and UV blocking properties to the films, as well as improved mechanical and barrier properties. Specifically, the incorporation of 25% LCNF to the CNF films increased the mechanical properties (94% increase in tensile stress and a 414% increase in strain at break) and decreased the water vapor transmission rate by 16% and the oxygen transmission rate by 53%. This performance improvement was attributed to the coexistence of nanocelluloses with different chemical composition and morphology. LCNF contributed to increment the interfacial adhesion between cellulose nanofibrils due to the presence of lignin and promote the creation of more tortuous paths for gas molecules. These synergetic properties shown by the CNF/LCNF bi-component films demonstrate high potential to be used as gas barrier packaging solutions. © 2022 The Authors

  • 14.
    Türe, Hasan
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael Stefan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wheat-gluten/montmorillonite clay multilayer-coated paperboards with high barrier properties2013In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 51, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the oxygen-barrier properties of paperboards with a wheat gluten (WG)/montmorillonite clay (MMT) multilayer coating, in which MMT was sandwiched between two layers of WG. Urea was added to the WG to facilitate the coating procedure and the clay was applied as an aqueous dispersion. With a coating thickness of ~20μm, oxygen transmission rates were 8-10cm3/(m2dayatm) at 50% RH, which meant that the oxygen barrier was ca. 25 times better than that given by a single-layer WG-coated paperboard (uncoated paperboard showed infinite values). The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) was 28-39g/(m2day) using a 50-0% RH gradient, which was 6- to 8-fold lower than the value for uncoated paperboard. Tensile tests revealed small, if any, mechanical effects when the paperboard was coated. A protein solubility analysis indicated that urea-containing WG films were slightly more intermolecularly cross-linked than urea-free WG films. X-ray diffraction revealed that the MMT layer consisted of unswollen tactoids similar to those observed in the MMT powder. The Cobb60 data showed that both WG and clay increased the water absorbency.

  • 15.
    Valdebenito, Fabiola
    et al.
    Center for Advanced Polymers Research, Chile; La Frontera University, Chile.
    Pereira, Miguel
    University of Concepcion, Chile.
    Ciudad, Gustavo
    La Frontera University, Chile.
    Azocar, Laura
    La Frontera University, Chile.
    Briones, Rodrigo
    Center for Advanced Polymers Research, Chile.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI. La Frontera University, Chile.
    On the nanofibrillation of corn husks and oat hulls fibres2017In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 95, p. 528-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were isolated from agro-industrial waste (corn husks and oat hulls) and market kraft pulp fibres, and a detailed comparative study was performed. Initially, the raw materials were subjected to a conventional pulping process to remove lignin and hemicelluloses. The chemical pre-treatment was based on 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation and the mechanical treatment was carried out with a high-pressure homogenizer. An extensive characterization of the raw material and of the nanofibrillated celluloses was performed, considering structural and chemical aspects. CNF films were produced for their characterization by optical methods, laser profilometry (LP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Considering the same pulping and chemical pre-treatment, the analyses indicated that the oxidized corn husks fibres had higher carboxylate content and thus a larger tendency to nanofibrillate compared to the oat hulls fibres. The obtained content of carboxylic acids was directly proportional to the content of cellulose in the assessed samples, confirming the selectivity of the TEMPO-mediated oxidation. The fibrillated corn husks material had a minor fraction of residual fibres (<4%) and homogeneous nanofibril width distribution (<20 nm), which is a major achievement. The homogeneous CNF morphology was confirmed by AFM analysis. Hence, this study demonstrates that the assessed agro-industrial wastes are sustainable resources for production of CNF, which may have a wide range of value-added applications.

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