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  • 1. Ascard, J.
    et al.
    Fogelberg, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Mechanical in-row weed control in transplanted and direct-sown bulb onions2008In: Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, ISSN 0144-8765, E-ISSN 2165-0616, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 235-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different strategies for mechanical in-row weed control were evaluated in direct-sown and transplanted bulb onions (Allium cepa) in terms of in-row weeds, labour requirements for hand weeding and marketable yield. Transplanted onions generally performed much better than direct sown onions. The best strategies in transplanted onions decreased the hand weeding time by 70% and increased marketable yield by 96% compared with the best strategies in direct-sown onions. In transplanted onions, one weed harrowing and three in-row cultivations with torsion weeders reduced in-row weed numbers by 85%, reduced hand weeding time by 73%, and caused no yield reduction compared with the normal strategy of one weed harrowing and ordinary inter-row cultivation. In direct-sown onions, pre-emergence flame weeding and repeated torsion weeding reduced hand weeding time by 40% and caused no yield reduction compared with flame weeding and inter-row cultivation. The effectiveness of in-row cultivation was very dependent on the timing of treatments. Using transplanted onions and in-row weed control is a way to ensure high yields and reduce labour requirements for hand weeding compared with direct-sown onions and interrow cultivation. © 2008 A B Academic Publishers.

  • 2. Bath, B.
    et al.
    Malgeryd, J.
    Stintzing, A.R.
    Akerhielm, H.
    Surface mulching with red clover in white cabbage production.: Nitrogen uptake, ammonia losses and the residual fertility effect in ryegrass2006In: Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, ISSN 0144-8765, E-ISSN 2165-0616, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 287-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green manure crops are an important nitrogen source in organic production of vegetables. In field trials near Uppsala, Sweden, the release of nitrogen to the soil and crop from red clover mulch (Trifolium pratense L., cv. Vivi), and losses of ammonia to the atmosphere were investigated in a study with white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. capitata L. var. alba DC.). The effect of time of post-harvest incorporation of white cabbage crop residues on the uptake of nitrogen in ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum cv. Barspectra) was investigated in the following year. Nitrogen release during the growing season from red clover mulching corresponded to 26% of the nitrogen applied (243 kg ha-1). Nitrogen utilization efficiency was between 25 and 28% based on total uptake in the above ground parts of the white cabbage plants. The combined N losses via ammonia emissions during the sampling periods were 6-14 kg ha-1, which corresponded to an average loss of 1.4-2.8 kg ha-1 day-1 or 2.7-5.6% of the total amount of nitrogen supplied by red clover mulching. Due to uncertainty as regards the general process of ammonia emissions from green manure mulches, estimation of emissions in the periods before, between and after the sampling periods was not attempted. Uptake of nitrogen in ryegrass was higher after autumn incorporation of crop residues than after spring incorporation, with an apparent nitrogen recovery of 27% for the former and 11% for the latter. The results of this study indicate that a cropping system with surface mulching is no less nitrogen-efficient than most other systems based on organic fertilizers. © 2006 A B Academic Publishers.

  • 3. Bath, B.
    et al.
    Malgeryd, J.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Stintzing, A.R.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Akerhielm, H.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Surface mulching with red clover in white cabbage production.: Nitrogen uptake, ammonia losses and the residual fertility effect in ryegrass2006In: Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, ISSN 0144-8765, E-ISSN 2165-0616, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 287-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green manure crops are an important nitrogen source in organic production of vegetables. In field trials near Uppsala, Sweden, the release of nitrogen to the soil and crop from red clover mulch (Trifolium pratense L., cv. Vivi), and losses of ammonia to the atmosphere were investigated in a study with white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. capitata L. var. alba DC.). The effect of time of post-harvest incorporation of white cabbage crop residues on the uptake of nitrogen in ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum cv. Barspectra) was investigated in the following year. Nitrogen release during the growing season from red clover mulching corresponded to 26% of the nitrogen applied (243 kg ha-1). Nitrogen utilization efficiency was between 25 and 28% based on total uptake in the above ground parts of the white cabbage plants. The combined N losses via ammonia emissions during the sampling periods were 6-14 kg ha-1, which corresponded to an average loss of 1.4-2.8 kg ha-1 day-1 or 2.7-5.6% of the total amount of nitrogen supplied by red clover mulching. Due to uncertainty as regards the general process of ammonia emissions from green manure mulches, estimation of emissions in the periods before, between and after the sampling periods was not attempted. Uptake of nitrogen in ryegrass was higher after autumn incorporation of crop residues than after spring incorporation, with an apparent nitrogen recovery of 27% for the former and 11% for the latter. The results of this study indicate that a cropping system with surface mulching is no less nitrogen-efficient than most other systems based on organic fertilizers. © 2006 A B Academic Publishers.

  • 4.
    Bergstrand, Kjell
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Löfkvist, Klara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Asp, Håkan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Dynamics of nitrogen availability in pot grown crops with organic fertilization2018In: Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, ISSN 0144-8765, E-ISSN 2165-0616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pot grown herbs are often cultivated as certified organic products, and there is an increasing demand for organically certified ornamental plants. Supplying the required nutrients using organic fertilizers is a challenge with respect to matching the mineralization and thus the availability of dissolved nutrients in the growing medium with plant demand. In experiments, sweet basil and Pelargonium × hortorum were cultivated using two different organic fertilizer strategies and controlled-release mineral nutrients as control treatment. The two organic strategies were, i) blood meal + Baralith® Enslow (a plant-based organic fertilizer), and ii) poultry manure. The availability of dissolved nitrogen was monitored during the crop cycle by under-pressure lysimeter sampling. Plant development parameters were measured along with chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll concentration of leaves. For both organic treatments, nitrate-N availability was low at the beginning of the experiment, whereas ammonium-N was high. During the experiment, ammonium availability decreased at the same time as nitrate availability increased after a few weeks and then declined again by the end of the experiment. The blood meal + Enslow treatment caused poor germination and slow growth in basil. Plant height and fresh weight was also affected by this treatment for basil but not for Pelargonium. Chlorophyll concentration was affected by treatment, with also visually detectable paler leaves in the treatment with poultry manure. There were no differences in chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) between treatments, indicating that plants were not stressed in any of the treatments.

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