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  • 1. Ascard, J.
    et al.
    Fogelberg, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Mechanical in-row weed control in transplanted and direct-sown bulb onions2008In: Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, ISSN 0144-8765, E-ISSN 2165-0616, Vol. 25, no 3, 235-251 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different strategies for mechanical in-row weed control were evaluated in direct-sown and transplanted bulb onions (Allium cepa) in terms of in-row weeds, labour requirements for hand weeding and marketable yield. Transplanted onions generally performed much better than direct sown onions. The best strategies in transplanted onions decreased the hand weeding time by 70% and increased marketable yield by 96% compared with the best strategies in direct-sown onions. In transplanted onions, one weed harrowing and three in-row cultivations with torsion weeders reduced in-row weed numbers by 85%, reduced hand weeding time by 73%, and caused no yield reduction compared with the normal strategy of one weed harrowing and ordinary inter-row cultivation. In direct-sown onions, pre-emergence flame weeding and repeated torsion weeding reduced hand weeding time by 40% and caused no yield reduction compared with flame weeding and inter-row cultivation. The effectiveness of in-row cultivation was very dependent on the timing of treatments. Using transplanted onions and in-row weed control is a way to ensure high yields and reduce labour requirements for hand weeding compared with direct-sown onions and interrow cultivation. © 2008 A B Academic Publishers.

  • 2. Bath, B.
    et al.
    Malgeryd, J.
    Stintzing, A.R.
    Akerhielm, H.
    Surface mulching with red clover in white cabbage production.: Nitrogen uptake, ammonia losses and the residual fertility effect in ryegrass2006In: Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, ISSN 0144-8765, E-ISSN 2165-0616, Vol. 23, no 3, 287-304 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green manure crops are an important nitrogen source in organic production of vegetables. In field trials near Uppsala, Sweden, the release of nitrogen to the soil and crop from red clover mulch (Trifolium pratense L., cv. Vivi), and losses of ammonia to the atmosphere were investigated in a study with white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. capitata L. var. alba DC.). The effect of time of post-harvest incorporation of white cabbage crop residues on the uptake of nitrogen in ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum cv. Barspectra) was investigated in the following year. Nitrogen release during the growing season from red clover mulching corresponded to 26% of the nitrogen applied (243 kg ha-1). Nitrogen utilization efficiency was between 25 and 28% based on total uptake in the above ground parts of the white cabbage plants. The combined N losses via ammonia emissions during the sampling periods were 6-14 kg ha-1, which corresponded to an average loss of 1.4-2.8 kg ha-1 day-1 or 2.7-5.6% of the total amount of nitrogen supplied by red clover mulching. Due to uncertainty as regards the general process of ammonia emissions from green manure mulches, estimation of emissions in the periods before, between and after the sampling periods was not attempted. Uptake of nitrogen in ryegrass was higher after autumn incorporation of crop residues than after spring incorporation, with an apparent nitrogen recovery of 27% for the former and 11% for the latter. The results of this study indicate that a cropping system with surface mulching is no less nitrogen-efficient than most other systems based on organic fertilizers. © 2006 A B Academic Publishers.

  • 3. Bath, B.
    et al.
    Malgeryd, J.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Stintzing, A.R.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Akerhielm, H.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Surface mulching with red clover in white cabbage production.: Nitrogen uptake, ammonia losses and the residual fertility effect in ryegrass2006In: Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, ISSN 0144-8765, E-ISSN 2165-0616, Vol. 23, no 3, 287-304 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green manure crops are an important nitrogen source in organic production of vegetables. In field trials near Uppsala, Sweden, the release of nitrogen to the soil and crop from red clover mulch (Trifolium pratense L., cv. Vivi), and losses of ammonia to the atmosphere were investigated in a study with white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. capitata L. var. alba DC.). The effect of time of post-harvest incorporation of white cabbage crop residues on the uptake of nitrogen in ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum cv. Barspectra) was investigated in the following year. Nitrogen release during the growing season from red clover mulching corresponded to 26% of the nitrogen applied (243 kg ha-1). Nitrogen utilization efficiency was between 25 and 28% based on total uptake in the above ground parts of the white cabbage plants. The combined N losses via ammonia emissions during the sampling periods were 6-14 kg ha-1, which corresponded to an average loss of 1.4-2.8 kg ha-1 day-1 or 2.7-5.6% of the total amount of nitrogen supplied by red clover mulching. Due to uncertainty as regards the general process of ammonia emissions from green manure mulches, estimation of emissions in the periods before, between and after the sampling periods was not attempted. Uptake of nitrogen in ryegrass was higher after autumn incorporation of crop residues than after spring incorporation, with an apparent nitrogen recovery of 27% for the former and 11% for the latter. The results of this study indicate that a cropping system with surface mulching is no less nitrogen-efficient than most other systems based on organic fertilizers. © 2006 A B Academic Publishers.

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