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  • 1. Ahlgren, S.
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, S.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, P.-A.
    Tractive power in organic farming based on fuel cell technology: Energy balance and environmental load2009In: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 102, no 1-3, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed a future hypothetical organic farm self-sufficient in renewable tractor fuel. Biomass from the farm was assumed to be transported to a central fuel production plant and the fuel returned to the farm, where it was utilised in fuel cell powered tractors. The land use, energy balance and environmental impact of five different scenarios were studied. In the first two scenarios, straw was used as raw material for production of hydrogen or methanol via thermochemical gasification. In the third and fourth scenarios, short rotation forest (Salix) was used as raw material for the same fuels. In the fifth scenario, ley was used as raw material for hydrogen fuel via biogas production. The straw scenarios had the lowest impact in all studied environmental impact categories since the Salix scenarios had higher soil emissions and the ley scenario had comparatively large emissions from the fuel production. The energy balance was also favourable for straw, 16.3 and 19.5 for hydrogen and methanol respectively, compared to Salix 14.2 and 15.6. For ley to hydrogen the energy balance was only 6.1 due to low efficiency in the fuel production. In the Salix scenarios, 1.6% and 2.0% of the land was set aside for raw material production in the hydrogen and methanol scenarios respectively. In the straw scenarios no land needed to be reserved, but straw was collected on 4.3% and 5.3% of the area for hydrogen and methanol respectively. To produce hydrogen from ley, 4% of the land was harvested. The study showed that the difference in environmental performance lay in choice of raw material rather than choice of fuel. Hydrogen is a gas with low volumetric energy density, which requires an adapted infrastructure and tractors equipped with gas tanks. This leads to the conclusion that methanol probably will be the preferred choice if a fuel cell powered farm would be put into practice in the future. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Flysjö, Anna
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Henriksson, M.
    Cederberg, Christel
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ledgard, S.
    Englund, J.-E.
    The impact of various parameters on the carbon footprint of milk production in New Zealand and Sweden2011In: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 104, no 6, p. 459-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The carbon footprint (CF) of milk production was analysed at the farm gate for two contrasting production systems; an outdoor pasture grazing system in New Zealand (NZ) and a mainly indoor housing system with pronounced use of concentrate feed in Sweden (SE). The method used is based on the conceptual framework of lifecycle assessment (LCA), but only for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. National average data were used to model the dairy system in each country. Collection of inventory data and calculations of emissions were harmonised to the greatest extent possible for the two systems. The calculated CF for 1kg of energy corrected milk (ECM), including related by-products (surplus calves and culled cows), was 1.00kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) for NZ and 1.16kg CO2e for SE. Methane from enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from application of nitrogen (as fertiliser and as excreta dropped directly on the field) were the main contributors to the CF in both countries. The most important parameters to consider when calculating the GHG emissions were dry matter intake (DMI), emission factor (EF) for methane from enteric fermentation, amount of nitrogen applied and EF for direct nitrous oxide emissions from soils. By changing one parameter at a time within 'reasonable' limits (i.e. no extreme values assumed), the impact on the total CF was assessed and showed changes of up to 15%. In addition, the uncertainty in CF estimates due to uncertainty in EF for methane from enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions (from soil and due to ammonia volatilisation) were analysed through Monte Carlo simulation. This resulted in an uncertainty distribution corresponding to 0.60-1.52kg CO2e kg-1 ECM for NZ and 0.83-1.56kg CO2e kg-1 ECM for SE (in the prediction interval 2.5-97.5%). Hence, the variation within the systems based on the main EF is relatively large compared with the difference in CF between the countries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 3. Fredriksson, H.
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, S.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, P.-A.
    Use of on-farm produced biofuels on organic farms: Evaluation of energy balances and environmental loads for three possible fuels2006In: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 184-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to evaluate systems making organic farms self-sufficient in farm-produced bio-based fuels. The energy balance and environmental load for systems based on rape methyl ester (RME), ethanol and biogas were evaluated using a life cycle perspective. Complete LCAs were not performed. Important constraints when implementing the systems in practice were also identified. The RME scenario showed favourable energy balance and produced valuable by-products but was less positive in some other aspects. The use of land was high and thereby also the emissions associated with cultivation. Emissions, with the exception of CO2, during utilisation of the fuel were high compared to those of the other fuels in the study. The technology for production and use of RME is well known and easy to implement at farm scale. The production of ethanol was energy consuming and the by-products were relatively low value. However, the area needed for cultivation of raw material was low compared to the RME scenario. The production and utilisation of ignition improver and denaturants were associated with considerable emissions. Suitable ethanol production technology is available but is more optimal for large scale systems. The biogas scenario had a low relative need for arable land, which also resulted in smaller soil emissions to air and water. Another advantage was the potential to recycle plant nutrients. On the other hand, the potential emissions of methane from storage of digestate, upgrading of biogas and methane losses during utilisation of fuel produced a negative impact, mainly on global warming. Small scale technology for biogas cleaning and storage is not fully developed and extensive tractor modifications are necessary. The global warming effects of all three systems studied were reduced by 58-72% in comparison to a similar farming system based on diesel fuel. However, the fuel costs were higher for all scenarios studied compared to current diesel prices. In particular, the large costs for seasonal storage of gas meant that the biogas scenario described is currently not financially viable. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4. Hansson, P.-A.
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ahlgren, S.
    Bernesson, S.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Pettersson, O.
    Self-sufficiency of motor fuels on organic farms: Evaluation of systems based on fuels produced in industrial-scale plants2007In: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 94, no 3, p. 704-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate systems for making organic farms self-sufficient in bio-based fuels. The energy efficiency and environmental load for systems based on rape methyl ester (RME), ethanol and biogas produced by processing raw material from the farm in industrial-scale plants were evaluated using a life cycle perspective. Eventual constraints when implementing the systems in practice were also identified and the farmer's costs for the systems estimated. The RME scenario showed some good characteristics; the energy efficiency and potential effects on global warming were favourable, the technology well known and no engine modifications were necessary. However, the high price of the organically produced rapeseed made the fuel expensive. The ethanol scenario provided fuel at a comparatively low cost, but the energy efficiency was low and existing engines would have to be modified. The biogas scenario was not as economically advantageous, due to high costs for storage and transport of the biogas and the extensive tractor modifications needed. The calculations further showed that systems based on so-called exchange of fuels, i.e. when the farm produces raw material for one type of biofuel, but instead uses another type of biofuel more suitable for its own tractors, were an economically favourable way of supplying the organic farms with 'self-produced' bio-based fuels. The exchange scenario based on delivery of organic wheat to a large-scale plant and use of RME at the farm was somewhat more expensive than scenarios based on production of biogas raw material at the farm. However, the wheat/RME system has the advantage of being possible to put into practice immediately, since industrial-scale wheat ethanol plants are in operation and RME fuel is available on the market. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Hessle, Anna K.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kumm, Karl Ivar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bertilsson, Jan A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Bo
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Combining environmentally and economically sustainable dairy and beef production in Sweden2017In: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 156, p. 105-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a more sustainable food sector, a supply chain approach is needed. In this study, experts in different areas along supply chains co-operated in an interactive process to define future environmentally sustainable supply chains of milk and beef. The basis was to use existing techniques, to have production performance corresponding to the best quartile of today and to consider other sustainability aspects, such as economics. The work resulted in concrete descriptions of alternative product chains for delivered milk and beef. To also permit concrete descriptions of the latter part of the product chains, two consumer-packed end products were selected for monitoring, namely fresh milk and sirloin steak. The production systems investigated comprised cropping, livestock production, industrial processing and production, logistics, packaging and wastage and distribution, but not retailers or consumers. The study area was a Swedish county and the reference level was its production of milk and beef in 2012. The future product chains were assumed to deliver the same amounts of commodities as in 2012, but with reduced environmental impact. Primary production was required to be at least as profitable as today. Beside description of the current situation, three alternative scenarios were created, focusing on delivery of ecosystem services, plant nutrient circulation and minimising climate impact, respectively. Life cycle assessments were performed for these four scenarios (reference plus three alternative scenarios) for single-product chains and county-wide. Furthermore, production costs in primary production were calculated for the four scenarios. The results revealed great potential to reduce the negative environmental impact of Swedish dairy and beef production at current volumes, irrespective of whether ecosystem services, plant nutrient circulation or climate impact is in focus. The single most important factor for decreased environmental impact for livestock production was increased production efficiency. Measures in agriculture, especially concerning feeds, were critical, but actions in processing and distribution also contributed. All alternative scenarios resulted in lower production costs than at present. It was obvious that as dairy and beef systems are connected, the potential for their environmental improvement must be analysed together. In conclusion, increased efficiency can decrease the negative environmental impact of Swedish cattle production and also reduce costs to the farmer.

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