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  • 1.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Postia placenta decay of acetic anhydride modified wood – effect of leaching2014In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 162-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that acetylation of wood by the use of acetic anhydride is able to impart a significant degree of decay resistance. The aim of this work was to study how a standardized leaching procedure with water (EN 84) affected the degradation of acetic anhydride modified samples by the brown rot fungi Postia placenta compared to no leaching prior to incubation. Three different levels (low, medium, and high) of acetic anhydride modified Southern yellow pine (SYP; Pinus spp.) were tested. The samples were harvested after 4 and 28 weeks. Wecompared changes in mass loss, wood moisture content, fungal DNA, and gene expression from five genes. If leaching changes the acetylated samples and makes them more susceptible for fungal deterioration, the expected effect would be higher levels of these parameters. Generally, leaching resulted in few differences between leached and nonleached samples at low levels of acetylation, while no changes were found for the highest acetylation level. No differences were found in gene expressions after 28 weeks. The possible protection of acetylated wood against oxidative fungal degradation is suggested to be interpreted in combination with the lowered wood moisture content.

  • 2. Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Dahlquist, Simon
    SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Detection of saw mismatch in double-arbor saw machines using laser triangulation2013In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 219-225Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. De Vetter, Liesbeth
    et al.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Treu, Andreas
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Van Acker, Joris
    Combined evaluation of durability and ecotoxicity: A case study on furfurylated wood2009In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modified wood is commercially available and merchandized as a new, environmentally friendly and durable wood species. However, there are no standards focusing on the evaluation of modified wood. Combining resistance against fungal decay and good ecotoxicological properties may be a start. In this study softwood and hardwood species were furfurylated using different treatment processes and treating solutions. The durability was determined by exposing the treated wood to a range of Basidiomycetes and the ecotoxicity was studied on two aquatic organisms. It was the purpose to come to a strategy and how to unite efficacy and ecotoxicity, since this is important in product development. The results show that the selection of fungus used for mass loss determination and the choice of ecotoxicity method is decisive, confirming that a combination of methods is valuable. A tiered approach to find the optimal treatment seems the best option. First, adequate protection against wood-rotting fungi should be attained, followed by ecotoxicity evaluation of the wood leachates. If necessary, the optimization process should be repeated until both durability and ecotoxicity are within satisfactory limits. This process could be extended with other evaluation criteria, e.g. dimensional stability of the modified wood or a risk analysis of its leachate.

  • 4. Ekevad, Mats
    et al.
    Lundgren, Nils
    Flodin, Jens
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Drying shrinkage of sawn timber of Norway spruce (Picea abies): Industrial measurements and finite element simulations2011In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial measurements of green and dry cross-section dimensions were performed for 189 Norway spruce (Picea abies) centre-yield boards with dry dimensions 51 × 149 mm. Two, three or four boards were sawn from each log, depending on log size. Different approaches were used for simulations of cross-section shrinkage during drying. An analytical model, an elastic, an elastic– mechanosorptive and an elastic– plastic finite element simulation model were tested. Thickness and width shrinkage and deformation were simulated. Shrinkage results were compared with each other and with the experimental results. All simulation models gave roughly the same degree of agreement with experimental results except for the centre board from the three-board sawing pattern. For the other boards, the analytical model was not generally better or worse than the results from the finite element models. Shrinkage deformations in finite element models that included mechanosorption or plasticity were nearly the same as for the elastic finite element model except for the centre board of the three-board sawing pattern. The mechanosorptive model was the best model for the shrinkage of the centre board of this sawing pattern except for mid-thickness shrinkage. Comparison between the different finite element simulation models of stresses in the centre board revealed large differences.

  • 5.
    Englund, Finn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Bryne, Lars Elof
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Wålinder, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Some aspects on the determination of surface chemical composition and wettability of modified wood2009In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 80-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Englund, Finn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Bryne, Lars Elof
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Wålinder, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Spectroscopic studies of surface chemical composition and wettability of modified wood2009In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 80–85-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Fechter, J-O.
    et al.
    Englund, Finn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Emission of glycol ethers from medium-density fibreboard surfaces coated by a waterborne lacquer under different drying conditions2008In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 3, no 1-2, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Fechter, J-O.
    et al.
    Englund, Finn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Lundin, A
    Association between temperature, relative humidity and concentration of volatile organic compounds from wooden furniture in a model room2006In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 69-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Broman, O
    Persson, Fredrik
    Förädling och processer (TRf).
    Axelsson, Ann
    Ah Shenga, Pedro
    Rotational position of curved saw logs and warp of the sawn timber2014In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Hameury, Stéphane
    et al.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    SP - Sveriges provnings- och forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Magnetic resonance imaging of moisture distribution in Pinus sylvestris L. exposed to daily indoor relative humidity fluctuations2006In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 116-126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Time-variant reliability of timber beams according to Eurocodes considering long-term deflections2019In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve a consistent level of failure probability, structural design codes are optimized using probabilistic methods. This optimization process traditionally focuses on the ultimate limit states (ULS). However, in the design of timber structures the performance of the structural members is often governed by the serviceability limit state (SLS) associated with different load levels than applied in the ULS. The probability of serviceability failure is strongly dependent on the loading sequence and the time-dependent response of timber; therefore, a time-variant probabilistic model is recommended to estimate them properly. This study aims to investigate the time-dependent reliability for long-term deflections of timber office and residential floor beams according to the specifications of the Eurocodes. A simple creep model is used to calculate the deflections and Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to determine the reliability index. It was found that the creep factor and the suggested deflection limits given in Eurocode 5 might not be appropriate to achieve the expected target reliabilities. To obtain a more consistent reliability, more suitable values for the mentioned parameters were suggested. However, the primary aim was to present a framework to determine appropriate deflection limits for structural codes.

  • 12. Inoue, Masafumi
    et al.
    Kawai, Shuichi
    Wålinder, Magnus
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Rowell, Roger
    Dimensional stabilization of compressed laminated veneer lumber by hot pressing in an airtight frame2008In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 3, no 3-4, p. 119-125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Inoue, Masafumi
    et al.
    Morooka, Toshiro
    Norimoto, Misato
    Englund, Finn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Mechanism of partial fixation of compressed wood based on a matrix non-softening method2008In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 3, no 3-4, p. 126-130Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Skog, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Comparing predictability of board strength between computed tomography, discrete X-ray, and 3D scanning of Norway spruce logs2016In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 116-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strength graded boards of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) are important products for many Scandinavian sawmills. If the bending strength of the produced boards can be predicted before sawing the logs, the raw material can be used more efficiently. In previous studies it is shown that the bending strength can be predicted to some extent using discrete X-ray scanning of logs. In this study, we have evaluated if it is possible to predict bending strength of Norway spruce boards with higher accuracy using computed tomography (CT) scanning of logs compared to a combination of discrete X-ray and 3D scanning. The method was to construct multivariate models of bending strength for three different board dimensions. Our results showed that CT scanning of logs produces better models of bending strength compared to a combination of discrete X-ray and 3D scanning. The main reason for this difference was the benefit of knowing the position of where the boards were cut from the logs and therefore detailed knot information could be used in the prediction models. Due to the small number of observations in this study, care should be taken when comparing the resulting prediction models to results from other studies.

  • 15.
    Markström, Emilia
    et al.
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Kitek Kuzman, Manja
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Bystedt, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden; Czech University of Life Sciences, Czech Republic.
    Use of wood products in multi-storey residential buildings: views of Swedish actors and suggested measures for an increased use2019In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have shown that wooden buildings in general have a lower climate impact than buildings built of conventional materials such as concrete and steel. In Sweden, however, only about 10% of the multi-dwelling buildings are built with timber frames. The goal of this empirical study is to provide a broad picture of the views of Swedish actors regarding the use of wood products in multi-storey residential buildings and suggest measures for an increased use. A questionnaire concerning the use of wood products in construction was sent out to Swedish developers, main contractors, and architects and 100 answers were received. The study shows that the views of the groups of actors differ in some respects and factors that may either facilitate or be obstacles to an increased use of wood products were identified and discussed.

  • 16.
    Olofsson, Linus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Skog, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Multivariate product adapted grading of Scots pine sawn timber for an industrial customer, part 1: Method development2019In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rule-based automatic grading (RBAG) of sawn timber is a common type of sorting system used in sawmills, which is intricate to customise for specific customers. This study further develops an automatic grading method to grade sawn timber according to a customer’s resulting product quality. A sawmill’s automatic sorting system used cameras to scan the 308 planks included in the study. Each plank was split at a planing mill into three boards, each planed, milled, and manually graded as desirable or not. The plank grade was correlated by multivariate partial least squares regression to aggregated variables, created from the sorting system’s measurements at the sawmill. Grading models were trained and tested independently using 5-fold cross-validation to evaluate the grading accuracy of the holistic-subjective automatic grading (HSAG), and compared with a re-substitution test. Results showed that using the HSAG method at the sawmill graded on average 74% of planks correctly, while 83% of desirable planks were correctly identified. Results implied that a sawmill sorting station could grade planks according to a customer’s product quality grade with similar accuracy to HSAG conforming with manual grading of standardised sorting classes, even when the customer is processing the planks further.

  • 17.
    Olofsson, Linus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Skog, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Multivariate product adapted grading of Scots Pine sawn timber for an industrial customer, part 2: Robustness to disturbances2019In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Holistic-subjective automatic grading (HSAG) of sawn timber by an industrial customer’s product outcome is possible through the use of multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), shown by part one of this two-part study. This second part of the study aimed at testing the robustness to disturbances of such an HSAG system when grading Scots Pine sawn timber partially covered in dust. The set of 308 clean planks from part one of this study, and a set of 310 dusty planks, that by being stored inside a sawmill accumulated a layer of dust, were used. Cameras scanned each plank in a sawmill’s automatic sorting system that detected selected feature variables. The planks were then split and processed at a planing mill, and the product grade was correlated to the measured feature variables by partial least squares regression. Prediction models were tested using 5-fold cross-validation in four tests and compared to the reference result of part one of this study. The tests showed that the product adapted HSAG could grade dusty planks with similar or lower grading accuracy compared to grading clean planks. In tests grading dusty planks, the disturbing effect of the dust was difficult to capture through training.

  • 18.
    Ormondroyd, Graham Alan
    et al.
    Bangor University, UK; University of Bath, UK.
    Källbom, Susanna K.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Curling, Simon F.
    Bangor University, UK.
    Stefanowski, B.K.
    Bangor University, UK.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wålinder, Magnus E.P.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jones, Dennis
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Water sorption, surface structure and surface energy characteristics of wood composite fibres refined at different pressures2017In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During fibre processing, wood fibres are subjected to a range of physical and chemical conditions sufficient to slightly alter their chemical composition and hence their ultimate performance when used in the manufacture of wood fibre-based composites. In order to better understand the effects of refiner conditions on material performance, wood fibres were subjected to processing at different refiner pressures (4, 6, 8 and 10 bar) and subsequently dried in a flash drier. The fibres were analysed for changes in surface area, surface energy, surface structure and water vapour sorption characteristics. The methods applied were nitrogen adsorption utilising the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller theory, inverse gas chromatography, scanning electron microscopy and dynamic vapour sorption. It was found that increasing refiner pressure resulted in fibres of lower surface area, accompanied by increasing dispersive surface energies up to operating refiner pressures of 8 bar. It was found with fibres refined at different pressures that as the refiner pressure increased the equilibrium moisture content of the fibre decreased at the set relative humidities. However, it was also noted that the hysteresis was not significantly different between each of the refiner pressures. The results suggest that different refiner pressures can be used to tune the surface characteristics which may be beneficial to product development and the improvement of the environmental profile of the wood fibre composites. 

  • 19.
    Pupure, LIva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Joffe, Roberts
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Miettinen, Arttu
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland; Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.
    Mechanical properties of natural fiber composites produced using dynamic sheet former2018In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composites formed from wood fibers and man-made cellulosic fibers in PLA (polylactic acid) matrix, manufactured using sheet forming technique and hot pressing, are studied. The composites have very low density (due to high porosity) and rather good elastic modulus and tensile strength. As expected, these properties for the four types of wood fiber composites studied here improve with increasing weight fraction of fibers, even if porosity is also increasing. On the contrary, for man-made cellulosic fiber composites with circular fiber cross-section, the increasing fiber weight fraction (accompanied by increasing void content) has detrimental effect on stiffness and strength. The differences in behavior are discussed attributing them to fiber/ fiber interaction in wood fiber composites which does not happen in man-made fiber composites, and by rather weak fiber/matrix interface for man-made fibers leading to macro-crack formation in large porosity regions.

  • 20. Rowell, Roger
    et al.
    Ibach, R.E.
    McSweeny, James
    Nilsson, Thomas
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Understanding decay resistance, dimensional stability and strength changes in heat-treated and acetylated wood2009In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 14-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Salin, Jarl-Gunnar
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Modelling water absorption in wood2008In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 102-108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Salin, Jarl-Gunnar
    et al.
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Wamming, Thomas
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Drying of timber in progressive kilns. Simulation, energy consumption and drying cost considerations2008In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 1&2, p. 12 to 20-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Salin, Jarl-Gunnar
    et al.
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Wamming, Thomas
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Drying of timber in progressive kilns: Simulation, quality, energy consumption and drying cost considerations2008In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 3, no 1-2, p. 12-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Progressive (semi-continuous) kilns for softwood drying are very common in Finland and Sweden and are used in some other countries too. A simulation program has been developed that covers all three types of this kiln. The program calculates the climate in the length direction of the kiln and moisture content, moisture profile, wood temperature, slicing test gap and stress development. Energy consumption and drying costs may also be determined. The temperature level is the most important parameter regarding kiln efficiency. Two-zone progressive kilns are found to be more efficient than single-zone kilns. Progressive kilns have lower energy consumption and drying costs than batch kilns. Experimental full-scale tests show that the timber quality from a progressive kiln is comparable to, or in some cases even better than, timber dried in batch kilns

  • 24.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Degradation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) heartwood and sapwood during 5.5 years’ above-ground exposure2008In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 3, no 3&4, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Mostolygin, Kirill
    Hagman, Olle
    Effect of lamellas annual-ring orientation on cracking of glulam beams investigated with computer tomography and image processing2013In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 166-174Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Segerholm, B.K.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Walkenström, P.
    IFP Research.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Wålinder, M.E.P.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Larsson Brelid, P.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Micromorphology, moisture sorption and mechanical properties of a biocomposite based on acetylated wood particles and cellulose ester2007In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 2, p. 106-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major issues in a long-term perspective for the use of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) in outdoor applications is the moisture sensitivity of the wood component and the consequent dimensional instability and susceptibility to biological degradation of the composite. In this work, the effects of using an acetylated wood component and a cellulose ester as matrix on the micromorphology, mechanical performance and moisture uptake of injection-moulded WPCs have been studied. Composites based on unmodified and acetylated wood particles, specially designed with a length-to-width ratio of about 5-7, combined with both cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and polypropylene (PP) matrices were studied. The size and shape of the wood particles were studied before and after the processing using light microscopy, and the micromorphology of the composites was studied using a newly developed surface preparation technique based on ultraviolet laser irradiation combined with low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM). The water vapour sorption in the composites and the effect of accelerated weathering were measured using thin samples which were allowed to reach equilibrium moisture content (EMC). The length-to-diameter ratio was only slightly decreased for the acetylated particles after compounding and injection moulding, although both the unmodified and the acetylated particles were smaller in size after the processing steps. The tensile strength was about 40% higher for the composite based on acetylated wood than for the composite with unmodified wood using either CAP or PP as matrix, whereas the notched impact strength of the composite based on acetylated wood was about 20% lower than those of the corresponding unmodified composites. The sorption experiments showed that the EMC was 50% lower in the composites with an acetylated wood component than in the composites with an unmodified wood component. The choice of matrix material strongly affected the moisture absorptivity of the WPC. The composites with CAP as matrix gained moisture more rapidly than the composites with PP as matrix. It was also found that accelerated ageing in a Weather-Ometer® significantly increased the moisture sensitivity of the PP-based composites.

  • 27.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    Nyström, Birgitha
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Larsson Brelid, Pia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Micromorphology, moisture sorption and mechanical properties of a biocomposite based on acetylated wood particles and cellulose ester2007In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 106-117Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Skog, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Oja, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Sapwood moisture-content measurements in Pinus sylvestris sawlogs combining X-ray and three-dimensional scanning2010In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    et al.
    SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Gustafsson, P.J.
    Shear fracture characterization of green-glued polyurethane wood adhesive bonds at various moisture and gluing conditions2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Elustondo, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Basic density determination for Swedish softwoods and its influence on average moisture content of wood packages estimated by measuring their mass2016In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 248-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a set-up with a device measuring the mass of wood packages is examined as an aid to estimate the average moisture content (MC) of wood packages. As the basic density needs to be presumed in the set-up, an estimator of the basic density as a function of log diameter is determined for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). In total, 1920 specimens were collected at two different sawmills and analysed for this purpose. Specimens collected at the butt-end of pine had the greatest variation in basic density and it is recommended that they should be omitted when sawmills create their own functions for basic density estimation. Furthermore, the variation in basic density was shown to have the greatest impact on the estimated MC. A maximum error estimator of the MC became 14% at a MC of 70% and 9% at a MC of 10%. It was therefore concluded that the described method should not be used to estimate the MC of packages after drying but can serve as a valuable indicator of average green MC of a drying batch.

  • 31.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hägg, Linus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Förädling och processer (TRf).
    Elustondo, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of fan speed on airflow distribution in a batch kiln2015In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 197-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports experimental data of airflow distribution as a function of fan speed in an industrial batch kiln. Measurements were conducted with 20 hot-film anemometers distributed throughout the load at two occasions. The main result was that airflow distribution did not change significantly as the fan speed was reduced, and no positions where the air movement stopped were found. It was also found that relatively more air ran in the bolster spaces in comparison to the adjacent packages as the air ran through the load.

  • 32.
    Westin, Mats
    et al.
    SP - Sveriges provnings- och forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Rapp, A.O.
    Nilsson, T
    Field Test of Resistance of Modified Wood to Marine Borers2006In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 34-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Westin, Mats
    et al.
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Rossi, Frédéric
    Hervé, Jean-Jérémie
    Compreg-type products by furfurylation during hot-pressing2009In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    SP - Sveriges provnings- och forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Editorial: The new journal Wood Material Science and Engineering2006In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 2-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Omidvar, Asghar
    Seltman, Joachim
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Micromorphological studies of modified wood using a surface preparation technique based on ultraviolet laser ablation2009In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 46-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate an ultraviolet (UV) laser ablation technique as a tool for sample preparation in microscopy studies of modified wood. Improved techniques for studying the microstructure of modified wood are crucial for a deeper understanding of many of their physical, mechanical and durability properties. The surface preparation technique is described in this paper. An illustration of micrographs of the micromorphology and polymer distribution in some examples of modified wood is also presented. It is clearly demonstrated that in contrast to conventional surface preparation techniques used for light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, i.e. razor blade and microtome cutting techniques, UV laser ablation does not introduce any mechanically induced microcracks and redistribution of polymers or other mobile substances in the prepared surface. Results also show that, in particular, this technique seems to be suitable for studying polymer distribution in resin-impregnated wood, as well as detection of microcracks in modified wood cell walls.

  • 36.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Omidvar, Asghar
    Seltman, Joachim
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Micromorphology Studies of Modified Wood Using a Surface Preparation Technique Based on UV-Laser Ablation2009In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 46-51Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 36 of 36
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