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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Jonny
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Lime render, shrinkage cracks and craftsmanship in building restoration2019In: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 37, p. 73-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present project concerns early shrinkage cracks in renders. This problem relates to the type of lime and rendering methods used in Sweden during the 19th and early 20th century as well as in current restoration practice. Results from different render restoration projects have indicated that a high frequency of shrinkage cracks could be related to the slaking procedure and the reworking of the slaked lime putty. The aim of the project was to investigate whether there is a connection between different handling procedures for wet-slaked lime putty and early shrinkage cracks in render. An investigation involving practical application and a laboratory test programme was initiated to examine the problem of early shrinkage cracks in renders based on wet-slaked sub-hydraulic lime. This type of lime was commonly used in Sweden in the 19th century. The laboratory work in the project included 3 different mix proportions based on reworked and non-reworked lime putty. The renders were applied after 1, 8, 15, 32 and 68 days storage of the lime putty. This gave 30 mortar mixes applied as rendered test surfaces. The flow number of the fresh mortars was determined and the workability, mixability and open time were assessed. The frequency of shrinkage cracks in the rendered surfaces was measured. The results showed that the frequency of shrinkage cracks was related to the methods applied in the slaking process and the storage time. Reworking and storage of the lime putty increased the frequency of shrinkage cracks. The properties of the fresh mortar were also influenced.

  • 2. Garcia, Oihana
    et al.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Definition of the procedure to determine the suitability and durability of an anti-graffiti product for application on cultural heritage porous materials2012In: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 77–82-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Giorgi, R
    et al.
    Chelazzi, D
    Fratini, E
    Langer, S
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Niklasson, A
    Rådemar, M
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Nanoparticles of calcium hydroxide for wood deacidification: Decreasing the emissions of organic acid vapors in church organ environments2009In: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 206-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acetic and formic acid vapors emitted from woodwork in historical organs are very important corrosive agents for lead pipes. These acids are slowly released from the wood both during playing and when the pipes are silent. To inhibit this emission process, the wood surface can be modified, by creating a protective layer with alkaline features. However, a coating of wood is not recommended since this could modify the appearance and create a layer not perfectly compatible with the substrate. For this reason, we propose to use some innovative nanotechnology that has been successfully applied for the deacidification of wood samples coming from the Vasa shipwreck. Application of calcium (or magnesium) hydroxide nanoparticles, with sizes ranging from 30-150 nm, allowed a homogeneous distribution of particles through the surface layer of wood simply by soaking (or spraying) it in a alcoholic (or mixed with less polar solvents) dispersion of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles do not modify the wood appearance and distribute randomly within the first layers of wood. The small size of particles accounts for the high reactivity with CO2 from the air, to give the alkaline reserve of carbonates that provide high efficacy in the neutralization of gaseous acids. The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the treated wood was determined by using an emission test cell, Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC). The results show that the emissions of acetic acid vapor from nanoparticles treated wood was very low (< 70 μg/m2 h) during the first 13 month. In contrast, untreated wood emitted high concentrations of acetic acid vapor (200-400 μg/m2 h).

  • 4.
    Kouril, Milan
    et al.
    Institute of Chemical Technology, Czech Republic.
    Prosek, Tomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Scheffel, Bert
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Degres, Yves
    NKE, France.
    Corrosion monitoring in archives by the electrical resistance technique2014In: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 99-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is essential that corrosion monitoring of indoor atmospheres should be highly sensitive, especially, when corrosion rates corresponding to the lowest standard corrosivity categories are supposed to be identified within one or a few days. The electrical resistance technique in combination with high-sensitivity electrical resistance sensors enabled detection of a corrosion loss on an atomic scale. Case studies have demonstrated the sensors' ability to timely inform the users about changes in the atmosphere quality. In confrontation with quartz crystal microbalance technique, resistometric sensors provided better explainable data.

  • 5.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Historical wood - structure and properties2012In: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 13, no 3 Suppl, p. S5-S9Article in journal (Refereed)
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