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  • 1.
    Albæk, Julie Kamp
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    McAloone, Tim C.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Circularity evaluation of alternative concepts during early product design and development2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 22, article id 9353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product design and development are essential for a circular transition. Circularity decisions, such as those concerning the type of material, assembly method, and expected lifespan, made during the early design stages will significantly influence a product’s quality, cost, esthetics, sustainability, and circularity performance over the product lifecycle. However, circularity is not often considered in the early stages of product design and development. This paper presents the development of the concept circularity evaluation tool (CCET), which aims to support the evaluation of alternative product concepts in terms of their circularity potential in the early stages of product design and development. The CCET was iteratively developed based on an extensive literature review of the success criteria for tool development, guidelines, and existing tools for circular product design and development and strong collaboration with manufacturing companies. The tool was tested and verified at four manufacturing companies in Nordic countries. The tool has been proven useful for evaluating the circularity of products and supportive in the decision-making process in the early stages of product design and development. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 2.
    Antypa, D.
    et al.
    IRES, Belgium.
    Petrakli, F.
    IRES, Belgium.
    Gkika, A.
    IRES, Belgium.
    Voigt, P.
    Leipzig University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Kahnt, A.
    Leipzig University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Böhm, R.
    Leipzig University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Suchorzewski, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Araújo, A.
    INETI, Portugal; LAETA, Portugal.
    Sousa, S.
    INETI, Portugal; LAETA, Portugal.
    Koumoulos, E. P.
    IRES, Belgium.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Advanced Building Components towards NZEBs2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 23, article id 16218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector accounts for 40% of the total energy consumed in Europe at annual basis, together with the relevant Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. In order to mitigate these impacts, the concept and establishment of the Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) is under continuous and intensive research. In fact, as the energy used for buildings’ operation becomes more efficient, impacts resulting from the buildings’ embodied energy become of more importance. Therefore, the selection of building materials and components is of high significance, as these affect the energy performance and potential environmental impacts of the building envelopes. The objective of this study is to perform a preliminary Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on advanced multifunctional building components, aiming to achieve lower embodied emissions in NZEBs. The advanced components analyzed are composite panels for facade elements of building envelopes, providing thermal efficiency. The design of sustainable building envelope systems is expected to upgrade the overall environmental performance of buildings, including the NZEBs. The findings of this study constitute unambiguous evidence on the need for further research on this topic, as substantial lack of data concerning embodied impacts is presented in literature, adding to the growing discussion on NZEBs at a whole life cycle perspective across Europe. This research has shown that the electricity required from the manufacturing phase of the examined building components is the main contributor to climate change impact and the other environmental categories assessed. Sensitivity analysis that has been performed indicated that the climate change impact is highly depended on the electricity grid energy mix across Europe. Taking into account the current green energy transition by the increase of the renewable energy sources in electricity production, as well as the future upgrade of the manufacturing processes, it is expected that this climate change impact will be mitigated. Finally, the comparison between the CLC thermal insulator and other foam concretes in literature showed that the materials of the building components examined do not present any diversions in terms of environmental impact. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 3.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, Ilona
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Amani, Pegah
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Bech-Larsen, Tino
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action2015In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 6457-6477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert interviews on factors causing consumer-related food waste in households and supply chains. Results show that consumers’ motivation to avoid food waste, their management skills of food provisioning and food handling and their trade-offs between priorities have an extensive influence on their food waste behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions more in-depth. Experiments and interventions in particular can contribute to a shift from analysis to solutions.

  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Peterson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Idström, Alexander
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    de la Motte, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Chemical Recycling of a Textile Blend from Polyester and Viscose, Part II: Mechanism and Reactivity during Alkaline Hydrolysis of Textile Polyester2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 11, article id 6911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical recycling of textiles holds the potential to yield materials of equal quality and value as products from virgin feedstock. Selective depolymerization of textile polyester (PET) from regenerated cellulose/PET blends, by means of alkaline hydrolysis, renders the monomers of PET while cellulose remains in fiber form. Here, we present the mechanism and reactivity of textile PET during alkaline hydrolysis. Part I of this article series focuses on the cellulose part and a possible industrialization of such a process. The kinetics and reaction mechanism for alkaline hydrolysis of polyester packaging materials or virgin bulk polyester are well described in the scientific literature; however, information on depolymerization of PET from textiles is sparse. We find that the reaction rate of hydrolysis is not affected by disintegrating the fabric to increase its surface area. We ascribe this to the yarn structure, where texturing and a low density assures a high accessibility even without disintegration. The reaction, similar to bulk polyester, is shown to be surface specific and proceeds via endwise peeling. Finally, we show that the reaction product terephthalic acid is pure and obtained in high yields. © 2022 by the authors. 

  • 5.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Strid, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna-Karin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Swedish Food Agency, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Systematic evaluation of nutrition indicators for use within food LCA studies2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 21, article id 8992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expressing the environmental impact of foods in relation to the nutritional quality is a promising approach in the search for methods integrating interdisciplinary sustainability perspectives. However, the lack of standardized methods regarding how to include nutrient metrics can lead to unharmonized results difficult to interpret. We evaluated nutrient density indexes by systematically assessing the role of methodological variables with the purpose of identifying the index able to rank foods with the highest coherence with the Swedish dietary guidelines. Among 45 variants of the nutrient density index NRF (Nutrient Rich Food), a Sweden-tailored NRF11.3 index, including 11 desirable nutrients and 3 undesirable nutrients, calculated per portion size or 100 kcal with the application of weighting, ranked foods most coherently with the guidelines. This index is suggested to be suitable as complementary functional unit (FU) in comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) studies across food categories. The results clarify implications of methodological choices when calculating nutrient density of foods and offer guidance to LCA researchers on which nutrition metric to use when integrating nutritional aspects in food LCA. © 2020 by the authors.

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  • 6.
    Björnberg, K. E.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jonas, E.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Marstorp, H.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    The role of biotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Views and perceptions among key actors in the Swedish food supply chain2015In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 7512-7529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have put forward agricultural biotechnology as one possible tool for increasing food production and making agriculture more sustainable. In this paper, it is investigated how key actors in the Swedish food supply chain perceive the concept of agricultural sustainability and the role of biotechnology in creating more sustainable agricultural production systems. Based on policy documents and semi-structured interviews with representatives of five organizations active in producing, processing and retailing food in Sweden, an attempt is made to answer the following three questions: How do key actors in the Swedish food supply chain define and operationalize the concept of agricultural sustainability? Who/what influences these organizations' sustainability policies and their respective positions on agricultural biotechnology? What are the organizations' views and perceptions of biotechnology and its possible role in creating agricultural sustainability? Based on collected data, it is concluded that, although there is a shared view of the core constituents of agricultural sustainability among the organizations, there is less explicit consensus on how the concept should be put into practice or what role biotechnology can play in furthering agricultural sustainability. 

  • 7.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Hunka, Agnieszka
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Whalen, Katherine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Consumer demand for circular products: Identifying customer segments in the circular economy2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 22, article id 12348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding consumer preferences in the circular economy can help producers develop profitable strategies, lowering the risk involved in transitioning to circular business models and circular product design. This study uses a choice experiment to identify customer segments for mobile phones and robot vacuum cleaners at different levels of circularity. The experiment observes how a product’s theoretical Circular Economy Score (ranging from 0 to 100) influences consumer preferences as compared to other product attributes like price, appearance, warranty, battery life, reseller type, or ease of repair. Drawing from 800 UK respondents, the results indicate the presence of three customer segments that are sensitive to a product’s Circular Economy Score, including two that appear willing to purchase recirculated items and one that expresses a preference against them. The results offer initial evidence that a market for recirculated consumer electronics exists and that circularity labeling is a marketable option. The results also present a strong rationale for further research that probes a greater variety of products and contexts. © 2021 by the authors

  • 8.
    Brettmo, Alena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Williamsson, Jon
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Role of ‘Influencers’ as Drivers of a More Sustainable Urban Freight Sector2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 2850-2850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of stakeholders in the development of a sustainable urban freight sector has been highlighted in recent research. Not all stakeholders have a direct link to the supply chain, but they may still play a role in creating sustainable urban freight initiatives. This study explores the initiatives that norm-setting indirect stakeholders in urban freight, referred to as ‘influencers’, establish to support a more sustainable urban freight sector, and how those initiatives may impact the business models of carriers. The study uses data gathered for ongoing research into the roles of indirect stakeholders in the development of sustainable urban freight initiatives. The results indicate that influencers can put pressure on receivers regarding logistical issues and shape the physical environment in which deliveries are conducted. Influencers use three primary strategies to support sustainable urban freight: vehicle-focused measures, consolidation linked to physical infrastructure, and consolidation through behavioural changes. These initiatives impact the relationship between receivers and carriers and may push carriers to adopt more sustainable practices as well as take decisions that impact their business models. The results highlight the often-overlooked power of influencers in relation to the development of actor behaviour in the urban freight supply chain and show the potential for both conflict and change arising from the use of this power.

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  • 9.
    Carlsson, Raul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Nevzorova, Tatiana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Vikingsson, Karolina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Long-Lived Sustainable Products through Digital Innovation2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 21, article id 14364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization is key for an organization to achieve sustainability leadership, to be able to conform with sustainability objectives, support claims, and inform consumers and consecutive stakeholders. However, there is no impartial, credible, and universal market platform where market competition favors data exchange and traceability of products and materials. This paper addresses the question of how to utilize digital tools to meet the challenges at the interface between the producer and the consumer. The methodology of the study is action research, which includes various qualitative and quantitative research methods. The research results in the creation of an information system platform, which shows how to merge digital information with a product to provide credibility to consumers and support their purchasing decision based on the claimed lifetime of the product, the sustainability requirements met, how the consumer will find service and spare parts, as well as the design of a universal digital twin. This research contributes to the transparency and traceability aspects by showing how organizations can work and cooperate to create verifiable information and establish claims that support resource efficiency decisions, as well as demonstrating how a traceability system can facilitate the efficient use of materials and energy resources. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 10.
    Chafi, Maral
    et al.
    Region Västra Götaland, Sweden.
    Hultberg, Annemarie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bozic, Nina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Post-pandemic office work: Perceived challenges and opportunities for a sustainable work environment2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread adoption of remote and hybrid work due to COVID-19 calls for studies that explore the ramifications of these scenarios for office workers from an occupational health and wellbeing perspective. This paper aims to identify the needs and challenges in remote and hybrid work and the potential for a sustainable future work environment. Data collection involved two qualitative studies with a total of 53 participants, who represented employees, staff managers, and service/facility providers at three Swedish public service organisations (primarily healthcare and infrastructure administration). The results describe opportunities and challenges with the adoption of remote and hybrid work from individual, group, and leadership perspectives. The main benefits of remote work were increased flexibility, autonomy, work-life balance and individual performance, while major challenges were social aspects such as lost comradery and isolation. Hybrid work was perceived to provide the best of both worlds of remote and office work, given that employees and managers develop new skills and competencies to adjust to new ways of working. To achieve the expected individual and organisational benefits of hybrid work, employers are expected to provide support and flexibility and re-design the physical and digital workplaces to fit the new and diverse needs of employees. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 11.
    Cáceres, Cristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Törnroth, Suzanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Data-Center Farming: Exploring the Potential of Industrial Symbiosis in a Subarctic Region2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 2774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As our world becomes increasingly digitalized, data centers as operational bases for these technologies lead to a consequent increased release of excess heat into the surrounding environment. This paper studies the challenges and opportunities of industrial symbiosis between data centers’ excess heat and greenhouse farming, specifically utilizing the north of Sweden as a case study region. The region was selected in a bid to tackle the urgent urban issue of self-sufficiency in local food production. A synergetic approach towards engaging stakeholders from different sectors is presented through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to facilitate resilient data-center-enabled food production. The paper delivers on possible future solutions on implementing resource efficiency in subarctic regions. © 2022 by the authors. 

  • 12.
    de Jong, Annelise M.
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    The potential of plastic reuse for manufacturing: A case study into circular business models for an on-line marketplace2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 4, article id 2007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plastic industry is facing increasingly growing social and political demands on plastic recycling and reuse. The resource perspective is essential for plastic production companies. Circular economy is one perspective for how industries could deal with a lack of resources today and in the future. However, there are large challenges in the reuse of plastics waste, predominantly due to concern regarding the quality of the waste material. Our paper focuses on the potential of the exchange of plastic material waste between companies in the production process before it enters into the recycling loop. In this study our aim is to investigate if an on-line marketplace is relevant for the plastic industry for this exchange, the market potential and the potential business model and requirements of the marketplace. Through interviews and benchmarking with five platform providers and two plastic manufacturing companies, we collected information on the business models of international digital platforms and plastic manufacturers concerning the exchange of reusable materials between companies. We also collected data through a survey sent out to plastic manufacturers via two industry organizations in Sweden. This paper will present the results from the study and conclude with a description of draft requirements with particular focus on direct reuse of regrind material, and a potential business model for the on-line marketplace that should be run on a commercial basis. This study shows that there are opportunities for the plastic industry to be at the forefront of a circular initiative that could also be utilized by other industries with adjustments to reflect the specific requirements of each industry. © 2021 by the authors.

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  • 13.
    de la Motte, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Östlund, Åsa
    Tree to Textile, Sweden.
    Sustainable Fashion and Textile Recycling2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 22, article id 14903Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    de Toro, Alfredo
    et al.
    Independent Researcher, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Jonsson, Nils
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Effects of variable weather conditions on baled proportion of varied amounts of harvestable cereal straw, based on simulations2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 16, article id 9449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All harvestable cereal straw cannot be collected every year in regions where wet periods are probable during the baling season, so some Swedish studies have used 'recovery coefficients’ to estimate potential harvestable amounts. Current Swedish recovery coefficients were first formu-lated by researchers in the early 1990s, after discussions with crop advisors, but there are no recent Swedish publications on available baling times and recovery proportions. Therefore, this study evaluated baling operations over a series of years for representative virtual farms and machine systems in four Swedish regions, to determine the available time for baling, baled straw ratio and annual variation in both. The hourly grain moisture content of pre-harvested cereals and swathed straw was estimated using moisture models and real weather data for 22/23 years, and the results were used as input to a model for simulating harvesting and baling operations. Expected available baling time during August and September was estimated to be 39–49%, depending on region, with large annual variation (standard deviation 22%). The average baling coefficient was estimated to be 80– 86%, with 1400 t·year−1 harvestable straw and 15 t·h−1 baling capacity, and the annual variation was also considerable (s.d. 20%). © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 15.
    Dolins, Sigma
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Strömberg, Helena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wong, Yale Z.
    University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    Karlsson, MariAnne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sharing Anxiety Is in the Driver’s Seat: Analyzing User Acceptance of Dynamic Ridepooling and Its Implications for Shared Autonomous Mobility2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 14, article id 7828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As connected, electric, and autonomous vehicle (AV) services are developed for cities, the research is conclusive that the use of these services must be shared to achieve maximum efficiency. Yet, few agencies have prioritised designing an AV system that focuses on dynamic ridepooling, and there remains a gap in the understanding of what makes people willing to share their rides. However, in 2017, the Australian transport authority Transport for New South Wales launched over a dozen trials for on-demand, shared public transport, including AVs. In this paper, we investigate the user willingness-to-share, based on experiences from one of these trials. Four focus groups (19 participants in total) were held in New South Wales with active users of either the trialled on-demand dynamic ridepooling service (Keoride) or commercial ridepooling (UberPool). Through thematic analysis of the focus group conversations, the cost, comfort, convenience, safety, community culture, and trust in authority emerged as factors that influenced the willingness-to-share. When presented with driverless scenarios, the focus group participants had significant concerns about the unknown behaviour of their co-passengers, revealing sharing anxiety as a significant barrier to the adoption of shared AVs. This paper identifies previously disregarded factors that influence the adoption of AVs and dynamic ridepooling and offers insights on how potential users’ sharing anxiety can be mitigated.

  • 16.
    Dolins, Sigma
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Wong, Yale
    University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    Nelson, John
    University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    The ‘sharing trap’: A case study of societal and stakeholder readiness for on-demand and autonomous public transport in New South Wales, Australia2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 17, article id 9574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus groups on shared, autonomous vehicles (SAVs) in New South Wales expressed “sharing anxiety”—an intense concern about the prospect of sharing their mobility journey with strangers, without a driver or authority figure present. This presents a significant barrier to the acceptance of SAVs, particularly autonomous public and on-demand transport (ODT), which is a major focus for Transport for New South Wales (TfNSW). Given this potential barrier, we interviewed (N = 13) operators, academics, and regulators with TfNSW to assess their role and abilities in overcoming sharing anxiety. However, our findings revealed a relative lack of awareness from experts in the mobility industry about the existence of sharing anxiety in users, suggesting additional barriers to adoption. We make suggestions for policy considerations for stakeholders that could mitigate sharing anxiety: promoting dynamic ridepooling products in commercial services, using tax breaks as incentivization; requiring ODT services and operators in jurisdiction to use a standardized, unified interface for users (“single-app”); shared, on-demand transport services likely need longer incubation/pilot periods in order for the sharing behavior to become culturally established. We conclude with a reflection on how COVID-19 has impacted the development of shared mobility and suggest further exploration in policy implementation. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 17.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Energy system models as a means of visualising barriers and drivers of forest-based biofuels: An interview study of developers and potential users2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-derived biofuels have been on the agenda for several decades. Despite extensive research and development efforts, forest biofuel concepts have nevertheless not yet been realized on any significant scale. The discrepancy between the expectations from the research community and the lack of momentum regarding biofuel production raises the question of if and how research results can be used to achieve such goals. Here, we report results from an interview study with the aim of evaluating how energy system models can be used to illustrate barriers and drivers for forest biofuels, with focus on Swedish conditions, using the BeWhere model as case. The study is framed as an example of expertise, and problematizes how energy system models are interpreted among expected users. While the interviews revealed some general scepticism regarding models, and what kinds of questions they can answer, the belief was also expressed that increased complexity might be an advantage in terms of being able to accommodate more barriers against forest biofuels. The study illustrates the complexity of this policy area, where an energy system model can answer some, but never all, 'what if.?' questions. The results reveal a need for reformation in energy system modelling in order to more explicitly make society the subject of the work, and also illustrate that the belief in expertise as a tool for consensus-building in decision-making should be questioned.

  • 18.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Linnea
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Löwgren, Jonas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lemon, Nina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    Eriksson, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    An Interactive Visualization Tool for Collaborative Construction Logistics Planning—Creating a Sustainable Project Vicinity2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 24, article id 17032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intensity of urban development is presently high, creating a construction boom. The number of transports per project is a major consideration in urban goods transport and emissions from a project. Presently, the stakeholders take part in a “blame game” in assigning fault for the emissions from construction transport and the disturbances to society in the vicinity of construction sites. Incorporation of logistics into urban planning requires an increased understanding of the interaction between construction transport flows and urban land use, and the inclusion of different stakeholders. The purpose of the study is to support collaborative planning of construction transport in urban planning, and specifically to explore how a planning tool based on interactive visualization could be designed. An action research process has generated two prototypes of an interactive visualization tool for collaborative planning of construction transport. The prototype facilitates a “shared deliberation space” by identifying alternatives and assessing predicted consequences, which supports a collaborative urban planning process. Based on the research conducted, we claim that the responsibility of construction transport planning should be taken by the municipality, i.e., the urban planning and traffic planning functions. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 19.
    Gunnarsson, S.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Segerkvist, K. A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Göransson, L.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hansson, H.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Systematic mapping of research on farm-level sustainability in egg and chicken meat production2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 3033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainability of future poultry production needs to be improved in order to meet global challenges. The global chicken population has expanded significantly in recent decades, due to increased human demand for eggs and chicken meat. Therefore, it is critically important to mitigate challenges to the sustainability of modern poultry production, such as pollution, the depletion of finite natural resources and animal welfare issues. This study systematically mapped the scientific literature on farm-level sustainability in egg and chicken meat production. The concept of sustainability was considered holistically, covering its economic, environmental and social dimensions, each consisting of a broad range of different aspects that may contradict or reinforce each other. The literature published between January 2000 and March 2020 with a geographical focus on Europe, North America and Australia-New Zealand, were included. The literature search resulted in a total of 428 hits, but after the exclusion of articles that did not match the scope of the study, only 26 papers remained for the systematic mapping. Of these, only three papers covered all three dimensions of sustainability. Aspects of economic sustainability were addressed in 10 papers, aspects of environmental sustainability in 18 papers, and aspects of social sustainability in 23 papers. The findings in this study are an important foundation for the discussion and prioritisation of future actions to increase knowledge of farm-level sustainability in egg and chicken meat production.

  • 20.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Segerkvist, Katarina
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wallgren, Torun
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hansson, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    A systematic mapping of research on sustainability dimensions at farm-level in pig production2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 11, article id 4352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We systematically mapped the scientific literature on the sustainability of pig production at farm-level. Sustainability was considered holistically, covering its economic, environmental, and social dimensions, each consisting of a broad range of different aspects that may contradict or reinforce each other. Literature published between January 2000 and March 2020 with a geographical focus on Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand was included. A standard template with predefined keywords was used to summarise aspects of each sustainability dimension covered in identified papers. We found that papers analysing environmental sustainability were more frequent than papers analysing economic or social sustainability. However, there are many different aspects within each dimension of sustainability, hampering comparisons between studies. In addition, each dimension of sustainability has many sides, making it difficult to compare different studies, and different dimensions and aspects may have complex interrelations. Our systematic literature review revealed that these interrelations are not well understood and that possible trade-offs or synergies between different aspects of sustainability dimensions remain unidentified. This systematic mapping of the current literature on farm-level sustainability in pig production can support a more informed discussion on knowledge gaps and help prioritise future research at farm-level to enhance sustainability in pig production. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 21.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Segerkvist, Katarina
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Wallgren, Torun
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Hjelmstedt, Per
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hansson, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Systematic mapping of research on farm-level sustainability in finfish aquaculture2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 23, article id 9985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainability of future finfish aquaculture needs to be improved to meet global environmental challenges. Global fish aquaculture production has expanded significantly recently, due to the increased demand for fish for human consumption. Therefore, it is important to mitigate challenges to the sustainability of the sector, such as pollution and depletion of natural resources. In this study, we systematically mapped the scientific literature on farm-level sustainability in fish aquaculture. The concept of sustainability was considered holistically, covering its economic, environmental and social dimensions, each consisting of a range of different aspects that may contradict or reinforce each other. Literature published between January 2000 and August 2020 with the geographical focus on Europe, Northern America and Australia–New Zealand was included. The search resulted in a total of 287 hits, but after the exclusion of articles that did not match the scope, only 17 papers remained for the systematic mapping. Of these, five papers covered all three dimensions of sustainability. Economic sustainability was addressed in 10 papers, environmental sustainability in 13 papers and social sustainability in 12 papers. This systematic mapping provides an important foundation for discussions and prioritisations of future actions to increase knowledge on farm-level sustainability in finfish aquaculture.

  • 22. Hagbert, P.
    et al.
    Mangold, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Femenías, P.
    Paradoxes and possibilities for a 'green' housing sector: A swedish case2013In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 2018-2035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As global and local visions for sustainable living environments are increasingly supported by policies and concrete practices in construction, the building and housing sector is seeking to mitigate its environmental impact as well as assume a greater social responsibility. The overarching policy objectives set to concretize what a sustainable housing development entails, however, tend to rely on equivocal terminology, allowing a varied interpretation by key industry practitioners. Though in line with an ecological modernization paradigm in policy, the promotion of a market-driven environmentalism in housing faces multiple challenges as varying interests and perspectives collide. Supported by empirical findings of a semi-structured interview study conducted with housing developers in a new =green' urban district in Göteborg, Sweden, theoretical frameworks surrounding the paradoxical path towards a sustainable housing development are presented. Inconsistencies between outspoken ambitions; social dimensions; and the framing of efficiency in new housing are discussed. Possibilities for the housing sector are given in the recognition of new forms of development, where a systemic perspective is required in the alignment between how industry, policy and the market perceives housing development and what is actually sustainable. 

  • 23.
    Harfeldt-Berg, Lovisa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. Lund University, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Ericsson, Karin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The Importance of Individual Actor Characteristics and Contextual Aspects for Promoting Industrial Symbiosis Networks2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 4927-4927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors that affect and influence industrial symbiosis (IS) collaborations have been researched extensively in the literature, where they are mostly reported at a network level or for IS in general, and lack the individual actor’s perspective. This review article contributes to and expands knowledge of influencing factors and their effect on the individual actor. In a systematic review, guided by the PRISMA 2020 guidelines, this study reviews 53 scientific papers examining planned or existing IS networks. It examines literature from 1 January 2000 to 28 March 2022, and it identifies drivers, barriers, and enablers influencing actors to participate in IS. It explores whether and how the perception and impact of these factors differs depending on the characteristics of individual actors and their specific context. The main findings of this study reveal that an actor’s specific characteristics and the network’s context have a significant impact on decision making and how actors both perceive and are affected by factors influencing collaboration. Furthermore, an additional novel contribution to this field of research is that the study identifies three underlying and recurring considerations that actors appear to find critical, namely, perceived business opportunities/risks, regulatory and political setting, and potential inequalities in the network. The results show that an actor’s take on these critical considerations determines whether the actor is willing to engage in IS.

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  • 24.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fransson, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Prideaux, Sonja
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Wallinder, Inger O.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Improving the life cycle impact assessment of metal ecotoxicity: Importance of chromium speciation, water chemistry, and metal release2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations of metal ecotoxicity in life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) are becoming important tools for evaluating the environmental impact of a product or process. There is, however, improvement needed for LCIA of metal ecotoxicity in order to make this assessment more relevant and robust. In this work, three issues within the LCIA of metal ecotoxicity are investigated, mainly focusing on topics related to stainless steel manufacturing. The first issue is the importance of considering regional water chemistry when constructing the characterization factor (CF). A model freshwater of relevance for stainless steel manufacturing in a region of Sweden was created with chemistry different from available options. The second issue is related to the lack of consideration on changes in speciation of Cr(VI) in freshwater for a given emission, as Cr(VI) to some extent will be reduced to Cr(III). Two new options are suggested based on relationships between the Cr(VI)-total Cr ratio as a way to improve the relevancy of LCIA for Cr(VI) in freshwater. The last issue is how to treat metal release from slags in LCIA. Metal release from slags was shown to vary significantly between different ways of modelling slag emissions (differences in total metal content, slag leaching tests, estimated emissions to groundwater). © 2019 by the authors.

  • 25.
    Hiselius, Lena W
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kronsell, Annica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosqvist, Lena S
    Trivector Traffic, Lund.
    Dymén, Christian
    Trivector Traffic, Lund.
    Stepanova, Olga
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Gender Representation and Leadership in Local Transport Decision-Making Positions2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 14, article id 11280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyse and further capture nuances of gender representation in local political decision-making bodies, focusing on implications for transport policy. Since gender is highly relevant for both attitudes towards transport policy as well as political votes, data on the gender and political colour of executives (members of presidiums) of transport-related committees, councils, and boards is analysed. The study is aimed at the local level, since municipal transport policy decisions include areas with clear differences between masculinity and femininity norms. The mapping of representation reveals, in line with other studies, that women are underrepresented in the most leading position (as chairperson of the City Board 31–37%), and that presidiums of transport-related committees, especially, are highly dominated by men (72–74%) with no clear positive trend in female representation identified over the studied years. The result suggests that transport-related decisions are disproportionally shaped by men as well as masculine norms, with implications for the transition towards transport sustainability. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 26.
    Hult, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Perjo, Liisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. Region Västra Götaland, Sweden; University of Sydney, Australia.
    Shared Mobility in Rural Contexts: Organizational Insights from Five Mobility-as-a-Service Pilots in Sweden2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 18, article id 10134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a growing interest in using Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) as a tool to address rural transport problems, the question of how to organize such a concept remains unanswered. To address this knowledge gap, this article explores organizational elements of rural MaaS pilots. The analysis, which is based on participatory observation and interviews with actors involved in five pilots in rural areas of Sweden, reveals that the motives of the actors involved in rural MaaS both overlap with and diverge from the frequently stated objectives of urban MaaS developments. Both concepts center on complementing and extending public transport, but while urban MaaS is underpinned by the fight against climate change, congestion, and local pollution, the main objective of rural MaaS is to reduce transport poverty. The analysis, moreover, illustrates that despite the geographic differences, actors involved in rural MaaS pilots face similar organizational challenges as have been reported from urban MaaS developments. In both cases, actors struggle with finding their roles, mitigating uncertainties, distributing responsibilities, and negotiating business models. Finally, the analysis finds that rural MaaS puts higher expectations on user involvement than urban MaaS and identifies a risk that rural MaaS developments might contribute to spatial injustice since the studied pilots only supported rural communities with high social capital.

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  • 27.
    Jönsson, Christina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Arturin, Oscar L.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Hanning, Anne-Charlotte
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Landin, Rebecca
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Holmström, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Microplastics shedding from textiles-developing analytical method for measurement of shed material representing release during domestic washing2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 2457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of shedding of micro-sized polymeric particles, so called microplastics, from textiles has been covered by an increasing number of studies over the past years. However, the methods with which the shedding of microplastics from textiles has been measured so far has shown a large variation. Consequently, the results regarding the amount of shed particles also vary, from 120 to 728,289 particles from similar garments in recent studies. This article presents research enabling for identification of whether the shedding of microplastics from different types of fabric was dependent on construction parameters. As none of the methods in the existing literature could be used for evaluating shedding of microplastics from textiles, a method was developed for this purpose. The resulting final method is described in this paper as well as the work with minimizing the error sources and consequently the standard deviation of the results through selection of material samples, equipment and procedure for sample preparation, washing, filtering the washing water and analyzing the shed microplastics. Comparing the environmental load of different garments, or identifying improvement possibilities in garment construction are two examples of how the method can be utilized.

  • 28.
    Lindqvist, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Tufvesson, Linda
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Khalil, Sammar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Prade, Thomas
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bio-based production systems: Why environmental assessment needs to include supporting systems2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 17, article id 4678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a bio-based economy is expected to deliver substantial environmental and economic benefits. However, bio-based production systems still come with significant environmental challenges, and there is a need for assessment methods that are adapted for the specific characteristics of these systems. In this review, we investigated how the environmental aspects of bio-based production systems differ from those of non-renewable systems, what requirements these differences impose when assessing their sustainability, and to what extent mainstream assessment methods fulfil these requirements. One unique characteristic of bio-based production is the need to maintain the regenerative capacity of the system. The necessary conditions for maintaining regenerative capacity are often provided through direct or indirect interactions between the production system and surrounding "supporting" systems. Thus, in the environmental assessment, impact categories affected in both the primary production system and the supporting systems need to be included, and impact models tailored to the specific context of the study should be used. Development in this direction requires efforts to broaden the system boundaries of conventional environmental assessments, to increase the level of spatial and temporal differentiation, and to improve our understanding of how local uniqueness and temporal dynamics affect the performance of the investigated system.

  • 29.
    Liorni, Ilaria
    et al.
    IT’IS Foundation, Switzerland.
    Bottauscio, Oriano
    INRiM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Guilizzoni, Roberta
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Ankarson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Bruna, Jorge
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Fallahi, Arya
    IT’IS Foundation, Switzerland.
    Harmon, Stuart
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Zucca, Mauro
    INRiM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Assessment of exposure to electric vehicle inductive power transfer systems: Experimental measurements and numerical dosimetry2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 11, article id 4573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-power inductive power transfer (IPT) systems for charging light and heavy electric vehicles pose safety concerns if they are installed in uncontrolled environments. Within the framework of the European Project EMPIR-16ENG08 MICEV, a wide experimental and numerical study was conducted to assess the exposure of the general public to IPT stray magnetic fields for two different exposure scenarios: (1) for an IPT model system derived from the SAE J2954 standard operating at 85 kHz for a light electric vehicle coupled with the model of a realistic car-body model; and (2) for an IPT model system with a maximum rated power of 50 kW at 27.8 kHz for a real minibus that was reproduced with some simplifications in two different 3D finite element method (FEM) simulation tools (Opera 3D and CST software). An ad hoc measurement survey was carried out at the minibus charging station to validate the simulations of the real bus station for both aligned and misaligned IPT coils. Based on this preliminary study, a safety factor was chosen to ensure a conservative dosimetric analysis with respect to the model approximations. As highlighted in this study, the vehicle-body serves as an efficient screen to reduce the magnetic field by at least three orders of magnitude close to the coils. By applying FEM, computed spatial distribution to the Sim4Life software, the exposure of three Virtual Population human anatomical phantoms (one adult, one child, and a newborn) was assessed. The three phantoms were placed in different postures and locations for both exposure scenarios. The basic restriction limits, established by the current guidelines, were never exceeded within the vehicles; however, the basic restrictions were exceeded when an adult crouched outside the minibus, i.e., near the coils, or when a newborn was placed in the same location. Borderline values were observed in the light car. In the case of the bus, limits coming from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) guidelines are never exceeded, while basic restrictions coming from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines are exceeded up to 12% for an adult and up to 38% for a newborn. This paper presents novel dosimetric data generated in an IPT system for heavy vehicles and confirms some of the literature data on light vehicles. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 30.
    Makoundou, Christina
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Sangiorgi, Cesare
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Johansson, Kenth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Development of functional rubber-based impact-absorbing pavements for cyclist and pedestrian injury reduction2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 20, article id 11283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclists, pedestrians and elderly people’s specific needs in urban road infrastructures are often neglected. They rarely benefit from safety measures or innovations. Inspired by playgrounds and aiming to reduce vulnerable road users (VRUs) injuries, the development of the rubber-based Impact-Absorbing Pavements (IAP) offers a possibility to rethink the design of urban pavements and address safety on roads, which constitutes a major challenge in terms of attaining more sustain-able, resilient, and safe cities. Therefore, bituminous mixtures with four different crumb rubber con-tents, 0%, 14%, 28%, and 33% (in total weight), were produced by partial aggregates substitution using the dry process. After the assessment of the geometrical and volumetric properties, the mechanical performances were evaluated. Finally, the samples were tested to measure the abrasion and impact attenuation with the well-known Head Injury Criterion (HIC), at different temperatures from −10 to 40 °C, to obtain a wide range of values referring to possible weather conditions. A significant effect of the rubber percentage and layer thickness on impact attenuation was observed. All observations and results confirm the feasibility of the IAP concept and its positive effect on future injury-prevention applications. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 31.
    Malmgren, Linus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ). Lund University, Sweden.
    Application of a Decision Support Tool in Three Renovation Projects2015In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 12521-12538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building owners are encouraged to reduce energy use in order to both contribute to national energy-saving goals and reduce the costs of heating and operation. It is important to choose the most optimal renovation measures available so as to achieve cost-effective energy use while maintaining excellent indoor environments, without sacrificing architectural quality or negatively affecting the environment. Building owners and managers often have neither the time nor the expertise required to properly evaluate the available renovation options before making a final decision. Renovation measures are often calculated to repay investments in a short time, rather than taking into account life-cycle costs (LCC), despite the fact that a thoughtful, comprehensive renovation is often more cost-effective in the long run. This paper presents a systematic approach for evaluating different renovation alternatives based on a number of sustainability criteria. The methodology has been verified using three multi-family apartment buildings in Sweden. The benefit of using the proposed methodology is made clear through a comparison between the different renovation alternatives from a sustainability perspective, and will hopefully serve as encouragement to choose renovation measures which involve marginally increased investments but lead to significant environmental and social benefits in the long-term.

  • 32.
    Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Österbring, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Overland, Conny
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallbaum, Holger
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Building Ownership, Renovation Investments, and Energy Performance - A Study of Multi-Family Dwellings in Gothenburg2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European building stock was renewed at a rapid pace during the period 1950–1975.In many European countries, the building stock from this time needs to be renovated, and thereare opportunities to introduce energy efficiency measures in the renovation process. Informationavailability and increasingly available analysis tools make it possible to assess the impact of policyand regulation. This article describes methods developed for analyzing investments in renovationand energy performance based on building ownership and inhabitant socio-economic informationdeveloped for Swedish authorities, to be used for the Swedish national renovations strategy in2019. This was done by analyzing measured energy usage and renovation investments made duringthe last 30 years, coupled with building specific official information of buildings and resident areacharacteristics, for multi-family dwellings in Gothenburg (N = 6319). The statistical analyses showthat more costly renovations lead to decreasing energy usage for heating, but buildings that havebeen renovated during the last decades have a higher energy usage when accounting for currentheating system, ownership, and resident socio-economic background. It is appropriate to includean affordability aspect in larger renovation projects since economically disadvantaged groups areover-represented in buildings with poorer energy performance.

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  • 33.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden ; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Moberg, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Life cycle sustainability evaluations of bio-based value chains: Reviewing the indicators from a Swedish perspective2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policymakers worldwide are promoting the use of bio-based products as part of sustainable development. Nonetheless, there are concerns that the bio-based economy may undermine the sustainability of the transition, e.g., from the overexploitation of biomass resources and indirect impacts of land use. Adequate assessment methods with a broad systems perspective are thus required in order to ensure a transition to a sustainable, bio-based economy. We review the scientifically published life cycle studies of bio-based products in order to investigate the extent to which they include important sustainability indicators. To define which indicators are important, we refer to established frameworks for sustainability assessment, and include an Open Space workshop with academics and industrial experts. The results suggest that there is a discrepancy between the indicators that we found to be important, and the indicators that are frequently included in the studies. This indicates a need for the development and dissemination of improved methods in order to model several important environmental impacts, such as: water depletion, indirect land use change, and impacts on ecosystem quality and biological diversity. The small number of published social life cycle assessments (SLCAs) and life cycle sustainability assessments (LCSAs) indicate that these are still immature tools; as such, there is a need for improved methods and more case studies.

  • 34.
    Martinidis, George
    et al.
    Cluster of Bioeconomy and Environment of Western Macedonia, Greece.
    Adamseged, Muluken
    Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany; Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, Germany.
    Dyjakon, Arkadiusz
    Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland.
    Fallas, Yannis
    Cluster of Bioeconomy and Environment of Western Macedonia, Greece.
    Foutri, Angeiki
    Cluster of Bioeconomy and Environment of Western Macedonia, Greece.
    Grundmann, Philipp
    Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany; Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, Germany.
    Hamann, Karen
    IFAU Institute for Food Studies & Agro Industrial Development, Denmark.
    Minta, Stanislaw
    Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Science, poland.
    Ntavos, Nikolaos
    Cluster of Bioeconomy and Environment of Western Macedonia, Greece.
    Råberg, Tora
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Russo, Silvia
    Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Italy.
    Viaggi, Davide
    Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Italy.
    How clusters create shared value in rural areas: An examination of six case studies2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 8, article id 4578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate that clusters can support the sustainable development of rural areas through the creation of shared value. This is done via the close examination of six different cases of rural clusters in Greece, Italy, Germany, Poland, Denmark, and Sweden. Qualitative as well as quantitative data were taken from the clusters, which demonstrated that their main business approaches naturally coincided with the creation of economic, social, and environmental benefits for the local communities in which they operated. The case clusters were created in a top-down manner, aimed at boosting regional R&D activities and making the local economy more competitive and more sustainable. However, private initiative took over and al-lowed these clusters to flourish because meeting the regions’ economic, social, and environmental needs successfully coincided with the target of the clusters’ own development and profitability. The results show that clusters, with their potential for shared value creation, can constitute a powerful engine for the revitalisation and development of rural areas, addressing the significant challenges which they are currently facing. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 35.
    Michaelides, Michalis
    et al.
    Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus.
    Herodotou, Herodotos
    Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus.
    Lind, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Watson, Richard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria. University of Georgia, USA.
    Port-2-port communication enhancing short sea shipping performance: The case study of cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 1912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainability of Short Sea Shipping (SSS) is central to a clean, safe, and efficient European Union (EU) transport system. We report on key challenges for advancing reliability, quality, and safety, and removing unnecessary costs and delays at SSS hubs, with a particular focus on Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean. Specifically, we consider the effect of port-2-port (P2P) communication on port efficiency by investigating the factors influencing the various waiting times at the Port of Limassol, both from a qualitative and a quantitative perspective. The qualitative results are based on the views of key stakeholders involved in the port call process. The quantitative analysis relies on data from over 8000 port calls during 2017-2018, which are analyzed with respect to ship type, port of origin, and shipping agent. The calculated Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) include arrival punctuality, berth waiting, and berth utilization. The analysis clearly reveals considerable variation in agent performance regarding the KPIs, suggesting a lack of attention to the social aspect of a port's socio-technical system. We propose measures for improving agent performance based on the principles of Port Collaborative Decision Making (PortCDM), including P2P communication, data sharing and transparency among all involved in a port call process including the agents, and open dissemination of agent-specific KPIs.

  • 36.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ). Lund University, Sweden.
    Boss, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Lindahl, Markus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys.
    A tool to evaluate different renovation alternatives with regard to sustainability2014In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 6, no 7, p. 4227-4245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: In Sweden and in other countries, building owners are encouraged to help reduce energy consumption, both in order to contribute to national energy saving goals and, in terms of their own interests, to reduce the costs of heating and operation of the building. However, it is important to pursue the most optimal strategy available so as to achieve cost-effective energy usage while simultaneously maintaining excellent indoor environments, without sacrificing the architectural quality or negatively affecting the environment. Building managers often do not have the time or expertise required to make a proper evaluation of the available options before making a final decision. Renovation measures are often considered in the light of repaying investments in a short time rather than taking into account life cycle costs, despite the fact that a thoughtful, comprehensive renovation is often more cost-effective in the long run. This article presents a systematic approach for evaluating different renovation alternatives based on sustainability criteria. A methodology has been developed to evaluate different renovation alternatives from environmental, economic, and social perspectives. The benefit of using the proposed methodology is that building managers who face a major renovation work are provided with a clear comparison between the different renovation options, viewed from a sustainability perspective, this may facilitate, in the long run, a culture in which renovation measures which involve marginally increased costs, but are seen to lead to significant environmental and social benefits, will be considered and carried out.

  • 37.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment. Lund University, Sweden.
    von Platten, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Björklund, Kicki
    Göteborgs Stads Bostadsaktiebolag, Sweden.
    Balancing Social and Economic Sustainability in Renovation with an Affordable Option for Tenants?: A Pilot Study from Sweden2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 7, article id 3785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A public housing company has applied a new renovation strategy, comprising no standards raising and thus rent-raising measures, in 20% of its apartments. Prior to renovation, the tenants were given the opportunity to choose renovation options involving different standards and costs after renovation. The purpose of the study is to follow up and give feedback on the renovation strategy. The aim was to evaluate implementation of the strategy in practice using a case study, in terms of the tenants’ opportunity to influence and the housing company’s profitability. To follow up, two methods were used: a survey of the tenants’ perception of choosing renovation options, and a financial assessment of the profitability based on the renovation cost and rent increase for different choice scenarios. The results from the survey show that the tenants appreciate being able to choose between different renovation options as it gives them the opportunity to decide on their housing costs and standard. With more than half of the tenants choosing the maintenance option involving a very low rent increase, the dividend yield will not be high enough to make the renovation profitable, but if only 20% had chosen the maintenance option, the dividend yield would be more feasible in the long run.

  • 38.
    Normann, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sustainable fruit consumption: The influence of color, shape and damage on consumer sensory perception and liking of different apples2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 17, article id 4626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable food production and consumption are currently key issues. About one third of food produced for human consumption is wasted. In developed countries, consumers are responsible for the largest amount of food waste throughout the supply chain. The unwillingness to purchase and consume suboptimal food products is an important cause of food waste, however, the reasons behind this are still insufficiently studied. Our research addresses the question of how combinations of color, shape and damage of apples influence consumer liking and perceived sensory attributes. In a laboratory study based on factorial design of visual appearance (color, shape and damage varied from optimal to suboptimal) a total of 130 consumers evaluated sensory perception of flavor and texture attributes in apple samples. Liking was also evaluated. The results showed a significant difference in liking between an optimal apple and all apple categories with at least two out of three suboptimal properties. Further, it was a clear trend that the optimal apple was perceived as sweeter, crispier, less bitter, and less earthy than all the other apples by the participating consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. A suboptimal appearance, therefore, had a negative effect on both perception and liking..

  • 39.
    Nyström, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Whalen, Katherine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Diener, Derek
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    den Hollander, Marcel
    Marcel den Hollander Circular Design Consulting and Research, Netherlands.
    Boyer, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Managing Circular Business Model Uncertainties with Future Adaptive Design2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing products that can adapt to changes over time is crucial for managing product-related business risks in circular business models. However, there is limited circular economy research on how product adaptivity can contribute to more circular products and business models, especially in the early phases of business development and design. To address this research gap, this conceptual paper builds on the adaptable design concept and incorporates ideas from research on circular business models and circular design literature. It proposes a framework we collectively term “Future Adaptive Design” to help manage product-related business risks in circular business models and investigates related design strategies for product-based companies aiming to adopt circular business models.

  • 40.
    Pericault, Youen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Expansion of sewer, water and district heating networks in cold climate regions: An integrated sustainability assessment2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 3743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an integrated sustainability assessment of technical alternatives for water and heating services provision in suburban areas affected by a cold climate. Each alternative combines a drinking water supply, sewerage (gravity or low-pressure), pipe freeze protection (deep burial or shallow burial with heat tracing) and heating solution (district heating or geothermal heat pumps). An innovative freeze protection option was considered, in which low-temperature district heating (LTDH) is used to heat trace shallow sewer and water pipes. First, the performance of each alternative regarding seven sustainability criteria was evaluated on a projected residential area in Sweden using a systems analysis approach. A multi-criteria method was then applied to propose a sustainability ranking of the alternatives based on a set of weights obtained from local stakeholders. The alternative with a deep buried gravity sewer and geothermal heat pumps was found to have the highest sustainability score in the case study. In the sensitivity analysis, the integrated trench solution with a gravity sewer, innovative heat tracing and LTDH was found to potentially top the sustainability ranking if geothermal energy was used as the district heating source, or if the weight of the cost criterion increased from 24% to 64%. The study highlights the need for integrated decision-making between different utility providers as an integrated solution can represent sustainability gains.

  • 41.
    Persson, Erik
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Knaggård, Åsa
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Public perceptions concerning responsibility for climate change adaptation2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 22, article id 12552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For successful climate change adaptation, the distribution of responsibility within society is an important question. While the literature highlights the need for involving both public and private actors, little is still known of how citizens perceive their own and others’ responsibility, let alone the moral groundings for such perceptions. In this paper, we report the results of a survey regarding people’s attitudes towards different ways of distributing responsibility for climate change adaptation. The survey was distributed to citizens in six Swedish municipalities and completed by 510 respondents. A large number of respondents wanted to assign responsibility for making decisions about and implementing adaptation measures to local governments, but also to property owners, whereas the national government was raised as responsible for setting decision boundaries and for financial support. The most preferred principles for a fair distribution of responsibility among the respondents were desert, ability, efficiency and need, while the principle of equal shares found less support. All principles received some support, indicating that it is necessary to consider several principles when distributing responsibility for climate change adaptation. Compared to earlier studies, this study shows more nuanced perceptions on who should be responsible and on what moral grounds. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 42.
    Peterson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Wallinder, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Idström, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bialik, Marta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    de la Motte, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Chemical Recycling of a Textile Blend from Polyester and Viscose, Part I: Process Description, Characterization, and Utilization of the Recycled Cellulose2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 12, article id 7272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material recycling requires solutions that are technically, as well as economically and ecologically, viable. In this work, the technical feasibility to separate textile blends of viscose and polyester using alkaline hydrolysis is demonstrated. Polyester is depolymerized into the monomer terephthalic acid at high yields, while viscose is recovered in a polymeric form. After the alkaline treatment, the intrinsic viscosity of cellulose is decreased by up to 35%, which means it may not be suitable for conventional fiber-to-fiber recycling; however, it might be attractive in other technologies, such as emerging fiber processes, or as raw material for sugar platforms. Further, we present an upscaled industrial process layout, which is used to pinpoint the areas of the proposed process that require further optimization. The NaOH economy is identified as the key to an economically viable process, and several recommendations are given to decrease the consumption of NaOH. To further enhance the ecological end economic feasibility of the process, an increased hydrolysis rate and integration with a pulp mill are suggested. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 43.
    Philis, Gaspard
    et al.
    NUTU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gansel, Lars
    NUTU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Jansen, Mona
    Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Norway.
    Gracey, Erik
    BioMar Group, Norway.
    Stene, Anne
    NUTU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Comparing life cycle assessment (LCA) of salmonid aquaculture production systems: Status and perspectives2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector worldwide, mostly driven by a steadily increasing protein demand. In response to growing ecological concerns, life cycle assessment (LCA) emerged as a key environmental tool to measure the impacts of various production systems, including aquaculture. In this review, we focused on farmed salmonids to perform an in-depth analysis, investigating methodologies and comparing results of LCA studies of this finfish family in relation to species and production technologies. Identifying the environmental strengths and weaknesses of salmonid production technologies is central to ensure that industrial actors and policymakers make informed choices to take the production of this important marine livestock to a more sustainable path. Three critical aspects of salmonid LCAs were studied based on 24 articles and reports: (1) Methodological application, (2) construction of inventories, and (3) comparison of production technologies across studies. Our first assessment provides an overview and compares important methodological choices. The second analysis maps the main foreground and background data sources, as well as the state of process inclusion and exclusion. In the third section, a first attempt to compare life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) data across production technologies was conducted using a single factor statistical protocol. Overall, findings suggested a lack of methodological completeness and reporting in the literature and demonstrated that inventories suffered from incomplete description and partial disclosure. Our attempt to compare LCA results across studies was challenging due to confounding factors and poor data availability, but useful as a first step in highlighting the importance of production technology for salmonids. In groups where the data was robust enough for statistical comparison, both differences and mean equalities were identified, allowing ranking of technology clusters based on their average scores. We statistically demonstrated that sea-based systems outperform land-based technology in terms of energy demand and that sea-based systems have a generally higher FCR than land-based ones. Cross-study analytics also strongly suggest that open systems generate on average more eutrophying emissions than closed designs. We further discuss how to overcome bottlenecks currently hampering such LCA meta-analysis. Arguments are made in favor of further developing cross-study LCA analysis, particularly by increasing the number of salmonid LCA available (to improve sample sizes) and by reforming in-depth LCA practices to enable full reproducibility and greater access to inventory data. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 44.
    Raza, Z.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Woxenius, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Finnsgård, Christian
    SSPA, Sweden.
    Slow steaming as part of SECA compliance strategies among RoRo and RoPax shipping companies2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many geographically peripheral member states of the EU are critically dependent on short sea Roll-on/Roll-off (RoRo) and mixed freight-passenger (RoPax) shipping services for intra-European trade. The implementation of the Sulfur Emission Control Area (SECA) regulation was expected to raise the operating cost for RoRo and RoPax shipping, and slow steaming was proposed as an immediate solution to save the increased cost. Previous research has investigated the issue of slow steaming and SECA using a quantitative approach. However, the reaction of the RoRo and RoPax shipping firms toward slow steaming as a mitigating factor in the face of expected additional SECA compliance costs using qualitative methodology has not been explored yet. In addition, the knowledge regarding the impact of slow steaming on the competitiveness of short sea RoRo and RoPax with respect to service quality is limited. This article has addressed these issues through the analysis of multiple cases focusing on RoRo and RoPax firms operating in the North and Baltic Seas. Overall, our findings suggest that the 0.1% SECA regulation of 2015 requiring the use of higher-priced MGO has not caused slow steaming in the RoRo and RoPax segments to a large extent. The increased bunker prices are partially transferred to the customers via increased Bunker Adjustment Factor and partly borne by the shipowners. We have found that out of 11 case firms in our study only one RoRo and one RoPax firm have reduced vessel speeds to compensate for the additional SECA compliance costs. We conclude that for RoPax and RoRo segment bunker prices, rigorous competition and, most important, different service quality requirements have significantly restricted the potential implementation of slow steaming. 

  • 45.
    Raza, Zeeshan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Woxenius, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Finnsgård, Christian
    SSPA SWEDEN AB, Sweden.
    Slow steaming as part of SECA compliance strategies among RoRo and RoPax shipping companies2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 1435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many geographically peripheral member states of the EU are critically dependent on short sea Roll-on/Roll-off (RoRo) and mixed freight–passenger (RoPax) shipping services for intra-European trade. The implementation of the Sulfur Emission Control Area (SECA) regulation was expected to raise the operating cost for RoRo and RoPax shipping, and slow steaming was proposed as an immediate solution to save the increased cost. Previous research has investigated the issue of slow steaming and SECA using a quantitative approach. However, the reaction of the RoRo and RoPax shipping firms toward slow steaming as a mitigating factor in the face of expected additional SECA compliance costs using qualitative methodology has not been explored yet. In addition, the knowledge regarding the impact of slow steaming on the competitiveness of short sea RoRo and RoPax with respect to service quality is limited. This article has addressed these issues through the analysis of multiple cases focusing on RoRo and RoPax firms operating in the North and Baltic Seas. Overall, our findings suggest that the 0.1% SECA regulation of 2015 requiring the use of higher-priced MGO has not caused slow steaming in the RoRo and RoPax segments to a large extent. The increased bunker prices are partially transferred to the customers via increased Bunker Adjustment Factor and partly borne by the shipowners. We have found that out of 11 case firms in our study only one RoRo and one RoPax firm have reduced vessel speeds to compensate for the additional SECA compliance costs. We conclude that for RoPax and RoRo segment bunker prices, rigorous competition and, most important, different service quality requirements have significantly restricted the potential implementation of slow steaming.

  • 46. Rexfelt, O.
    et al.
    Selvefors, Anneli
    Forming Futures, Sweden.
    The use2use design toolkit—Tools for user-centred circular design2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 10, article id 5397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research highlights that the important role users play in the transition to a circular economy is often overlooked. While the current narrative emphasises how to design products fit for circular (re-)production flows, or how to design circular business models, it often fails to address how such solutions can be designed to be attractive to people. As long as products and services are designed in a way that makes people prefer linear options over circular ones, the transition will not gain momentum. To further the understanding of how a user perspective can be valuable for circular design, this paper introduces the Use2Use Design Toolkit and presents initial experiences from using its five tools in design work. The tools were developed between 2016 and 2019 and subsequently applied in 30 workshops with professionals and students. Insights from the workshops suggest that the participants generally found the tools fun, instructive and inspirational. The tools enabled them to discuss circular processes from a user’s point of view and to identify challenges and design opportunities. The toolkit was considered especially relevant and meaningful by product and service designers who needed support to explore circular solutions from a user perspective. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 47.
    Rioual, Stephane
    et al.
    University Brest, France.
    Lescop, Benoit
    University Brest, France.
    Pellé, Julien
    University Brest, France.
    Radicchi, Gerusa
    ARC-Nucléart, France.
    Chaumat, Gilles
    ARC-Nucléart, France.
    Bruni, Marie
    ARC-Nucléart, France.
    Becker, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Monitoring of the environmental corrosivity in museums by rfid sensors: Application to pollution emitted by archeological woods2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 11, article id 6158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The control of air quality in museums or storages is of fundamental interest for the conservation of historic artifacts. The present work reports an example of application of RFID sensors developed in the European project SensMat and dedicated to this issue. The sensors are based on the variation of property of an RFID tag coupled with a sensitive silver thin film exposed to the environment. As it will be described in the paper, such low-cost sensors are interrogated by a commercial reader and provide the environmental corrosivity index and thus the presence of pollutants. The selected case study concerns the monitoring of pollution by H2S in a building dedicated to conservation and restoration of archeological and historical woods. The ability of sensors to map spatially the corrosivity within buildings is highlighted. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 48.
    Rogerson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Santén, Vendela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Sallnäs, Uni
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    The influence of power and trust on the initiation and duration of modal shift solutions2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 7, article id 3757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modal shift to more energy-efficient alternatives, such as from road to rail or sea, is one path to reduce negative environmental effects. Transport providers and shippers have crucial roles in modal choice decisions, and a better understanding of the influence of interorganisational factors on modal shift is needed. The purpose is to increase the understanding of opportunities for modal shifts by exploring the influence of power and trust at the interface between transport providers and shippers. Aspects of power (coercive, reward, legitimate, expert and referent) and trust (con-tractual, competence and goodwill) influencing modal shifts were identified from interviews with shippers and transport providers in Sweden. During the initiation phase of modal shift, power ap-pears more important, while trust is shown essential for the duration. By proactively suggesting modal shift, transport providers can use expert power to create rewards and referent power, through recognition of their expertise. Building trust, particularly goodwill trust, such as time in-vested in understanding the other party, transparency about challenges and jointly seeking solu-tions, is key to establish long-term modal shifts. This paper contributes to modal shift literature with insights on power balances and trust between transport providers and shippers. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 49.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Posner, Stefan
    Stefan Posner AB, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Olsson, Elisabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Linden, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Hanning, Anne-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A Function-Based Approach for Life Cycle Management of Chemicals in the Textile Industry2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 1273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer products such as clothes and footwear sometimes contain chemical substances with properties that pose a risk to human health and the environment. These substances, restricted by law or company policy, are in focus for chemicals management processes by textile retailers. However, complex and non-transparent supply chains, and limited chemical knowledge, makes chemicals management challenging. Therefore, a function-based approach for life cycle management (LCM) of chemicals was developed, based on results of previous projects and evaluated using a two-step Delphi process. The resulting approach aims to help retailers identify and substitute hazardous substances in products, and consists of three parts: (i) a function-based chemicals management concept model for different levels of chemical information within the supply chain, (ii) tools for non-chemists which explain chemical information, and (iii) a continuous provision of knowledge to stakeholders (e.g., retailers) in a network. This approach is successfully implemented by over 100 retailers in the Nordic countries, providing the textile industry with practical and robust tools to manage and substitute hazardous chemicals in products and production processes. We conclude that the developed approach provides an explicit link, communication, and knowledge sharing between actors in the supply chain, which has proven important in chemicals LCM.

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  • 50.
    Segerkvist, Katarina
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hansson, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    A systematic mapping of current literature on sustainability at farm-level in beef and lamb meat production2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 5, article id 2488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beef and lamb meat production is associated with important cultural, economic and environmental impacts in most countries worldwide. However, it is also related with sustainability challenges. To enable cattle and sheep farming to develop in line with sustainability, existing knowledge need to be implemented and identified knowledge gaps filled. The purpose of this article was to systematically map the scientific literature on environmental, economic and social sustainability at farm-level beef and lamb meat production to identify knowledge gaps and to point to important future actions and areas of research. Papers published January 2000–August 2020 with a geographical origin in Europe, Northern America, and Australia-New Zealand were included. The systematic literature search resulted in a total of 1355 hits; however, after removing papers which were considered out of the scope of the study, and duplicate papers, only 22 and 11 papers related to beef and sheep farming, respectively were retained for further analysis. Of these, only 11 in total included all three sustainability dimensions. Several papers only mentioned one or two of the sustainability dimensions or put them in relation to that/those main dimension covered, thus limiting the extent to which possible synergies or tradeoffs between different sustainability aspects actually can be studied. This indicates a need for a more comprehensive approach when studying farm-level sustainability. Future research would benefit from a more holistic approach and include all dimensions of sustainability within the same study. Further, focus should also be on how to measure and assess sustainability aspects in a standardized way. © 2021 by the authors.

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