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  • 1.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rönner, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Adhesion and removal of dormant, heat-activated, and germinated spores of three strains of Bacillus cereus1998In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 51-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the spores of Bacillus cereus are known to be very adhesive, the cleaning processes used to eliminate them are often inefficient. This study investigated how adhesion and removal of spores varied among strains of the species B. cereus. The adhesion and removal of spores during their life cycle were also examined. Spores of three different strains of B. cereus, viz. NVH 61, 1AM 1110 and NCTC 2599, were used. IAM 1110 spores adhered in greater numbers than spores of the other two strains and were the most hydrophobic; four times as many spores of this strain adhered than of the least adhesive spores, NCTC 2599. Spores of both these strains have an exosporium and appendages, but as the relative hydrophobicity varies, there are probably differences in their chemical composition. It was also found that dormant spores were 33-48% more adhesive than germinated spores. There were no obvious differences in adhesion between dormant and heat-activated spores. Up to 80% of the germinated spores could be removed from the surfaces tested. Dormant and heat-activated spores on the other hand were difficult to remove from the surfaces. When siliconized glass surfaces were coated with milk, germinated spores were still the easiest to remove but the difference was not as marked as before. Therefore, this work suggests that cleaning processes should take into consideration factors that boost spore germination in order to improve the cleaning.

  • 2.
    Brive, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Pinori, Emiliano
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Multi-seasonal barnacle (Balanus improvisus) protection achieved by trace amounts of a macrocyclic lactone (ivermectin) included in rosin-based coatings2011In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 941-953Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Brooke, Darby G.
    et al.
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Cervin, Gunnar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Champeau, Olivier
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Harwood, David Tim
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Pavia, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Selwood, Andrew I.
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Tremblay, Louis A.
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand; University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Cahill, Patrick Louis
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Antifouling activity of portimine, select semisynthetic analogues, and other microalga-derived spirocyclic imines2018In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 950-961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of natural products from marine invertebrates, bacteria and fungi have been assessed as leads for nature-inspired antifouling (AF) biocides, but little attention has been paid to microalgal-derived compounds. This study assessed the AF activity of the spirocyclic imine portimine (1), which is produced by the benthic mat-forming dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum. Portimine displayed potent AF activity in a panel of four macrofouling bioassays (EC50 0.06–62.5 ng ml−1), and this activity was distinct from that of the related compounds gymnodimine-A (2), 13-desmethyl spirolide C (3), and pinnatoxin-F (4). The proposed mechanism of action for portimine is induction of apoptosis, based on the observation that portimine inhibited macrofouling organisms at developmental stages known to involve apoptotic processes. Semisynthetic modification of select portions of the portimine molecule was subsequently undertaken. Observed changes in bioactivity of the resulting semisynthetic analogues of portimine were consistent with portimine’s unprecedented 5-membered imine ring structure playing a central role in its AF activity.

  • 4.
    Dahlström, Mia
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Sjögren, Martin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Per R.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindh, Liselott
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Arnebrant, Thomas
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Pinori, Emiliano
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Elwing, Hans
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Affinity states of biocides determine bioavailability and release rates in marine paints2015In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 201-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A challenge for the next generation marine antifouling (AF) paints is to deliver minimum amounts of biocides to the environment. The candidate AF compound medetomidine is here shown to be released at very low concentrations, ie ng ml(-1) day(-1). Moreover, the release rate of medetomidine differs substantially depending on the formulation of the paint, while inhibition of barnacle settlement is independent of release to the ambient water, ie the paint with the lowest release rate was the most effective in impeding barnacle colonisation. This highlights the critical role of chemical interactions between biocide, paint carrier and the solid/aqueous interface for release rate and AF performance. The results are discussed in the light of differential affinity states of the biocide, predicting AF activity in terms of a high surface affinity and preserved bioavailability. This may offer a general framework for the design of low-release paint systems using biocides for protection against biofouling on marine surfaces.

  • 5. Hahn Berg, IC
    et al.
    Elofsson, UM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Joiner, A
    Malmsten, M
    Arnebrant, T
    Salivary protein adsorption onto hydroxyapatite and SDS-mediated elution studied by in situ ellipsometry2001In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 17, p. 173-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole unstimulated saliva from two donors was investigated both with respect to adsorption characteristics and SDS-induced elutability. Salivary protein adsorption onto hydroxyapatite (HA) discs was studied by means of in situ ellipsometry in the concentration range 0.1-20% saliva. The adsorbed amounts on HA were found to be similar to those on silica, but the rates of adsorption were lower. Protein adsorption was virtually unaffected by the presence of Na+, whereas Ca2+ induced nucleation of calcium phosphate at the surface, the deposition rate being influenced by the pellicle age but not by the presence of saliva in bulk solution. The SDS elutability of adsorbed pellicles was determined on HA as well as on silica surfaces. Desorption from both surfaces was found to occur in the same SDS concentration range, although a residual layer was observed on HA. The slight net positive charge and lower charge density of HA as compared to the strongly negatively charged silica, may, at least partly, account for this observation by causing a reduction in the repulsive force between protein-surfactant complexes and the surface. Interindividual differences, observed in the adsorption as well as elution experiments, are thought to relate to the compositional differences observed by SDS-PAGE

  • 6.
    Hahn Berg, IC
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Lindh, L
    Arnebrant, T
    Intraoral lubrication of PRP-1, statherin and mucin as studied by AFM2004In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 20, p. 65-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to elucidate the mechanisms behind salivary lubrication with special emphasis on the lubricity of three pellicle key components (human acidic proline-rich protein 1 (PRP-1), human statherin and bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM)). The lubricating properties of the proteins have been assessed by means of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy, and are discussed in relation to their adsorption behavior. To various extent, the investigated proteins all showed a lubricating effect when adsorbed to silica surfaces. For comparable concentrations, PRP-1 was found to have a more pronounced lubricating effect than BSM, which in turn showed a higher lubricity than statherin. The relative lubricity is in accordance with previously reported relative adsorbed amounts of the three proteins, within the investigated concentration interval. We conclude that PRP-1 has the highest lubricating capacity as a pure fraction among the investigated preparations, and that the lubricating effect of PRP-1 as a pure fraction is notably large as compared to the lubricity of human whole saliva

  • 7. Hahn Berg, IC
    et al.
    Rutland, MW
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Arnebrant, T
    Lubricating properties of the initial salivary pellicle – an AFM study2003In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 19, p. 365-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of saliva in the oral cavity is manifold; an important function is to serve as lubricant between hard (enamel) and soft (mucosal) tissues. Intraoral lubrication is of crucial importance in order to maintain functions such as deglutition, mastication and the faculty of speech. A large number of people suffer from impaired salivary functions, displaying symptoms such as 'dry mouth'. This results in a need for methods to assess the lubricating properties of both native saliva as well as potential artificial saliva formulations. Here we measure normal as well as lateral forces, acting between adsorbed salivary films, for the first time by means of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. We find that the presence of salivary pellicles between hard surfaces reduces the friction coefficient by a factor of 20. This reduction of friction is consistent with the long-range purely repulsive nature of the normal forces acting between the salivary films. The lubricating mechanism is presumably based on a full separation of the sliding surfaces by the salivary films. The friction between salivary films has been investigated at normal loads that well cover the clinical jaw closing forces, and it can be concluded that the lubricating properties are maintained within this load interval. The present study indicates the usefulness of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy, which offers a direct and quantitative measure of the lubrication on a molecular level, in the study of biotribological phenomena. In particular, the results obtained here may have implications for the development of saliva substitutes

  • 8. Husmark, U.
    et al.
    Faille, C.
    Rönner, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Benezech, T.
    Bacillus spores and moulding with TTC agar: A useful method for the assessment of food processing equipment cleanability1999In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 15-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work a powerful and practical method for the assessment of food processing equipment cleanability is described. Surfaces were soiled with Bacillus spores. After cleaning, surfaces were overlaid with agar containing a tetrazolium salt (TTC) which stained the growing colonies red. Stained colonies could be readily detected and counted. The poorer hygienically designed areas were easily observed and contamination levels could be defined. The TTC method was compared to other classical techniques such as contact plates, direct epifluorescence microscopy (DEM) and Shapton and Hindes (SH) agar. Recovery of bacteria using the TTC method was found to be a good complement to DEM and more accurate than contact plates and SH agar. Cleanability tests on closed equipment are also reported showing the utility of the TTC method.

  • 9.
    Kaur, Simarpreet Pal
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Kempson, Ivan M.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Linden, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials. University of South Australia, Australia.
    Larsson, Mikael
    University of South Australia, Australia; University College London, Australia.
    Nydén, Magnus
    University of South Australia, Australia; University College London, Australia.
    Unhindered copper uptake by glutaraldehyde-polyethyleneimine coatings in an artificial seawater model system with adsorbed swollen polysaccharides and competing ligand EDTA2017In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 184-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shortly after a surface is submerged in the sea, a conditioning film is generally formed by adsorption of organic molecules, such as polysaccharides. This could affect transport of molecules and ions between the seawater and the surface. An artificial seawater model system was developed to understand how adsorbed polysaccharides impact copper binding by glutaraldehyde-crosslinked polyethyleneimine coatings. Coating performance was also determined when competed against copper-chelating EDTA. Polysaccharide adsorption and copper binding and distribution were investigated using advanced analytical techniques, including depth-resolved time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In artificial seawater, the polysaccharides adsorbed in a swollen state that copper readily penetrated and the glutaraldehyde-polyethyleneimine coatings outcompeted EDTA for copper binding. Furthermore, the depth distribution of copper species was determined with nanometre precision. The results are highly relevant for copper-binding and copper-releasing materials in seawater. 

  • 10.
    Lindgren, J. Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Albin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Dahlström, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Dahl, Peter
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Dahlström, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Copper release rate needed to inhibit fouling on the west coast of Sweden and control of copper release using zinc oxide2018In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 453-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How zinc oxide influences copper release has been tested and the lowest release rate of copper from various combinations of copper and zinc in a paint matrix evaluated, whilst still deterring macrofouling, including barnacles and bryozoans. Copper (I) oxide was added to a generic AF paint in 0, 8.5, 11.7 or 16.3 wt% copper oxide in combination with 0, 10 or 20 wt% zinc oxide and applied on PMMA panels. The results show that zinc influences the release rate of copper. When 10 and 20 wt% zinc was added, the total amount of copper released significantly increased by on average 32 and 47% respectively. All treatments that included copper were successful in deterring macrofouling, including the treatment with the lowest average Cu release rate, ie 4.68 μg cm−2 day−1. 

  • 11. Lindh, L
    et al.
    Glantz, P-O
    Isberg, P-E
    Arnebrant, T
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    An in vitro study of adsorption from human parotid and submandibular/sublingual resting saliva at solid/liquid interfaces2001In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 17, p. 227-239Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Lindh, L
    et al.
    Glantz, P-O
    Strömberg, Niklas
    Arnebrant, T
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    On the adsorption of human acidic proline-rich proteins (PRP-1 and PRP-3) and statherin at solid/liquid interfaces2002In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 18, p. 87-94Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Pansch, Christian
    et al.
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Per R.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Pinori, Emiliano
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    A new flow-through bioassay for testing low-emission antifouling coatings2017In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 613-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current antifouling (AF) technologies are based on the continuous release of biocides into the water, and consequently discharge into the environment. Major efforts to develop more environmentally friendly coatings require efficient testing in laboratory assays, followed by field studies. Barnacles are important fouling organisms worldwide, increasing hydrodynamic drag on ships and damaging coatings on underwater surfaces, and thus are extensively used as models in AF research, mostly in static, laboratory-based systems. Reliable flow-through test assays for the screening of biocide-containing AF paints, however, are rare. Herein, a flow-through bioassay was developed to screen for diverse low-release biocide paints, and to evaluate their effects on pre- and post-settlement traits in barnacles. The assay distinguishes between the effects from direct surface contact and bulk-water effects, which are crucial when developing low-emission AF coatings. This flow-through bioassay adds a new tool for rapid laboratory-based first-stage screening of candidate compounds and novel AF formulations.

  • 14.
    Pinori, Emiliano
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    The impact of coating hardness on the anti-barnacle efficacy of an embedded antifouling biocide2013In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 763-773Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Trepos, Rozenn
    et al.
    University of Portsmouth, UK.
    Cervin, Gunnar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pile, Claire
    University of Portsmouth, UK.
    Pavia, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hellio, Claire
    University of Western Brittany, France.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Evaluation of cationic micropeptides derived from the innate immune system as inhibitors of marine biofouling2015In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 393-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of 13 short synthetic amphiphilic cationic micropeptides, derived from the antimicrobial iron-binding innate defence protein lactoferrin, have been evaluated for their capacity to inhibit the marine fouling process. The whole biofouling process was studied and microfouling organisms such as marine bacteria and microalgae were included as well as the macrofouling barnacle Balanus improvisus. In total 19 different marine fouling organisms (18 microfoulers and one macrofouler) were included and both the adhesion and growth of the microfoulers were investigated. It was shown that the majority of the peptides inhibited barnacle cyprid settlement via a reversible nontoxic mechanism, with IC50 values as low as 0.5 μg ml−1. Six peptides inhibited adhesion and growth of microorganisms. Two of these were particularly active against the microfoulers with MIC-values ranging between 0.01 and 1 μg ml−1, which is comparable with the commercial reference antifoulant SeaNine.

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