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  • 1.
    Arinder, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Johannessson, Pär
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Karlsson, Ingela
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Transfer and Decontamination of S. aureus in Transmission Routes Regarding Hands and Contact Surfaces2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 6, artikkel-id e0156390Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection are pre-requirements for hygiene management in hospital settings and the food industry. In order to facilitate risk management, different contamination scenarios and interventions need to be evaluated. In the present study data on transfer rates and reductions of Staphylococcus aureus were provided in an experimental set-up using artificial skin. Using this methodology, test persons were not exposed with pathogenic bacteria. An exposure assessment model was developed and applied to evaluate different contamination routes and hygiene interventions. The transfer rates of Saureus from inoculated VITRO-SKIN® to fomites were calculated from blotting series. The VITRO-SKIN® was more prone to spread bacteria than fomites. When different surfaces were cleaned, the reduction of Saureus varied between <1 and 7 log CFU. It could not be concluded that a certain coupon material, cleaning agent, cleaning wipe, soiling or humidity consistently resulted in a high or low reduction of Saureus. The reduction of Saureus and Ecoli during hand washing was evaluated on artificial skin, VITRO-SKIN®. The reduction of Ecoli on VITRO-SKIN® was similar to the log reduction obtained when washing human hands. The Saureus count on a human hand was both calculated in different scenarios describing different contamination routes starting from a contaminated hand using the exposure assessment model, and measured on an experimental setup using VITRO-SKIN® for validation. A linear relationship was obtained between the analysed level of Saureus and the calculated level. However, the calculated levels of Saureus on the VITRO-SKIN® in the scenarios were 1–1.5 log lower than the analysed level. One of the scenarios was used to study the effect of interventions like hand washing and cleaning of surfaces.

  • 2.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Padiolleau, Laurence
    Linköping University, Sweden; Cranfield University, UK.
    Chen, Xi
    Linköping University, Sweden; University of Dundee, UK.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sheikhzadeh, Elham
    Linköping University, Sweden; Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Doping polypyrrole films with 4-N-Pentylphenylboronic acid to enhance affinity towards bacteria and dopamine2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 11, artikkel-id e0166548Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we demonstrate the use of a functional dopant as a fast and simple way to tune the chemical affinity and selectivity of polypyrrole films. More specifically, a boronic-functionalised dopant, 4-N-Pentylphenylboronic Acid (PBA), was used to provide to polypyrrole films with enhanced affinity towards diols. In order to prove the proposed concept, two model systems were explored: (i) the capture and the electrochemical detection of dopamine and (ii) the adhesion of bacteria onto surfaces. The chemisensor, based on overoxidised polypyrrole boronic doped film, was shown to have the ability to capture and retain dopamine, thus improving its detection; furthermore the chemisensor showed better sensitivity in comparison with overoxidised perchlorate doped films. The adhesion of bacteria, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, onto the boric doped polypyrrole film was also tested. The presence of the boronic group in the polypyrrole film was shown to favour the adhesion of sugar-rich bacterial cells when compared with a control film (Dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS) doped film) with similar morphological and physical properties. The presented single step synthesis approach is simple and fast, does not require the development and synthesis of functional monomers, and can be easily expanded to the electrochemical, and possibly chemical, fabrication of novel functional surfaces and interfaces with inherent pre-defined sensing and chemical properties.

  • 3.
    Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hellmér, Maria
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Timoneda, Natàlia
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Lukjancenko, Oksana
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Seidel, Michael
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Elsässer, Dennis
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Aarestrup, Frank M
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bofill-Mas, Sílvia
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Abril, Josep F
    University of Barcelona,Spain.
    Girones, Rosina
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Schultz, Anna Charlotte
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Evaluation of Methods for the Concentration and Extraction of Viruses from Sewage in the Context of Metagenomic Sequencing.2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Viral sewage metagenomics is a novel field of study used for surveillance, epidemiological studies, and evaluation of waste water treatment efficiency. In raw sewage human waste is mixed with household, industrial and drainage water, and virus particles are, therefore, only found in low concentrations. This necessitates a step of sample concentration to allow for sensitive virus detection. Additionally, viruses harbor a large diversity of both surface and genome structures, which makes universal viral genomic extraction difficult. Current studies have tackled these challenges in many different ways employing a wide range of viral concentration and extraction procedures. However, there is limited knowledge of the efficacy and inherent biases associated with these methods in respect to viral sewage metagenomics, hampering the development of this field. By the use of next generation sequencing this study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of four commonly applied viral concentrations techniques (precipitation with polyethylene glycol, organic flocculation with skim milk, monolithic adsorption filtration and glass wool filtration) and extraction methods (Nucleospin RNA XS, QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit, NucliSENS® miniMAG®, or PowerViral® Environmental RNA/DNA Isolation Kit) to determine the viriome in a sewage sample. We found a significant influence of concentration and extraction protocols on the detected viriome. The viral richness was largest in samples extracted with QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit or PowerViral® Environmental RNA/DNA Isolation Kit. Highest viral specificity were found in samples concentrated by precipitation with polyethylene glycol or extracted with Nucleospin RNA XS. Detection of viral pathogens depended on the method used. These results contribute to the understanding of method associated biases, within the field of viral sewage metagenomics, making evaluation of the current literature easier and helping with the design of future studies.

  • 4.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Skogby, Henrik
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Phichaikamjornwut, Bongkot
    Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Yta, process och formulering.
    Ounchanum, Prayote
    Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
    Boonsoong, Apichet
    Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
    Kruachanta, Mingkhwan
    Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
    Marone, Federica
    Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.
    Belivanova, Veneta
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Holmström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Intricate tunnels in garnets from soils and river sediments in Thailand - Possible endolithic microborings2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 8, artikkel-id e0200351Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Garnets from disparate geographical environments and origins such as oxidized soils and river sediments in Thailand host intricate systems of microsized tunnels that significantly decrease the quality and value of the garnets as gems. The origin of such tunneling has previously been attributed to abiotic processes. Here we present physical and chemical remains of endolithic microorganisms within the tunnels and discuss a probable biological origin of the tunnels. Extensive investigations with synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) reveal morphological indications of biogenicity that further support a euendolithic interpretation. We suggest that the production of the tunnels was initiated by a combination of abiotic and biological processes, and that at later stages biological processes came to dominate. In environments such as river sediments and oxidized soils garnets are among the few remaining sources of bio-available Fe2+, thus it is likely that microbially mediated boring of the garnets has trophic reasons. Whatever the reason for garnet boring, the tunnel system represents a new endolithic habitat in a hard silicate mineral otherwise known to be resistant to abrasion and chemical attack.

  • 5.
    Lind, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Järvå, Michael
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosenblad, Magnus A.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pingitore, Piero
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Emil
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Kamdal, Emelie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundell, Kristina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    André, Carl
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Per R.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Havenhand, Jon
    Eriksson, Leif A.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hedfalk, Kristina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Anders
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Analysis of aquaporins from the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus reveals differential expression in response to changes in salinity2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikkel-id e0181192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Barnacles are sessile macro-invertebrates, found along rocky shores in coastal areas worldwide. The euryhaline bay barnacle Balanus improvisus (Darwin, 1854) (= Amphibalanus improvisus) can tolerate a wide range of salinities, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the osmoregulatory capacity of this truly brackish species are not well understood. Aquaporins are pore-forming integral membrane proteins that facilitate transport of water, small solutes and ions through cellular membranes, and that have been shown to be important for osmoregulation in many organisms. The knowledge of the function of aquaporins in crustaceans is, however, limited and nothing is known about them in barnacles. We here present the repertoire of aquaporins from a thecostracan crustacean, the barnacle B. improvisus, based on genome and transcriptome sequencing. Our analyses reveal that B. improvisus contains eight genes for aquaporins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they represented members of the classical water aquaporins (Aqp1, Aqp2), the aquaglyceroporins (Glp1, Glp2), the unorthodox aquaporin (Aqp12) and the arthropod-specific big brain aquaporin (Bib). Interestingly, we also found two big brain-like proteins (BibL1 and BibL2) constituting a new group of aquaporins not yet described in arthropods. In addition, we found that the two water-specific aquaporins were expressed as C-terminal splice variants. Heterologous expression of some of the aquaporins followed by functional characterization showed that Aqp1 transported water and Glp2 water and glycerol, agreeing with the predictions of substrate specificity based on 3D modeling and phylogeny. To investigate a possible role for the B. improvisus aquaporins in osmoregulation, mRNA expression changes in adult barnacles were analysed after long-term acclimation to different salinities. The most pronounced expression difference was seen for AQP1 with a substantial (>100-fold) decrease in the mantle tissue in low salinity (3 PSU) compared to high salinity (33 PSU). Our study provides a base for future mechanistic studies on the role of aquaporins in osmoregulation. © 2017 Lind et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 6.
    Myhr, Anders
    et al.
    Pure Logic AS, Norway.
    Röyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Brandtsegg, Andreas.
    Pure Logic AS, Norway.
    Bjerkseter, Catho
    Pure Logic AS, Norway.
    Throne-Holst, Harald
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Borch, Anita
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Wentzel, Alexander
    SINTEF Industry, Norway.
    Røyne, Anja
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Towards a low CO 2 emission building material employing bacterial metabolism (2/2): Prospects for global warming potential reduction in the concrete industry2019Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 4, artikkel-id e0208643Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of concrete is one of the most significant contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions. This work focuses on bio-cementation-based products and their potential to reduce global warming potential (GWP). In particular, we address a proposed bio-cementation method employing bacterial metabolism in a two-step process of limestone dissolution and recrystallisation (BioZEment). A scenario-based techno-economic analysis (TEA) is combined with a life cycle assessment (LCA), a market model and a literature review of consumers’ willingness to pay, to compute the expected reduction of global GWP. Based on the LCA, the GWP of 1 ton of BioZEment is found to be 70–83% lower than conventional concrete. In the TEA, three scenarios are investigated: brick, precast and onsite production. The results indicate that brick production may be the easiest way to implement the products, but that due to high cost, the impact on global GWP will be marginal. For precast production the expected 10% higher material cost of BioZEment only produces a marginal increase in total cost. Thus, precast production has the potential to reduce global GWP from concrete production by 0–20%. Significant technological hurdles remain before BioZEment-based products can be used in onsite construction scenarios, but in this scenario, the potential GWP reduction ranges from 1 to 26%. While the potential to reduce global GWP is substantial, significant efforts need to be made both in regard to public acceptance and production methods for this potential to be unlocked. © 2019 Myhr et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 7. Pin, C.
    et al.
    Hansen, T.
    Muñoz-Cuevas, M.
    de Jonge, R.
    Rosenkrantz, J. T.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Aarts, H.
    Olsen, J. E.
    The Transcriptional Heat Shock Response of Salmonella Typhimurium Shows Hysteresis and Heated Cells Show Increased Resistance to Heat and Acid Stress2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 12, artikkel-id e51196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated if the transcriptional response of Salmonella Typhimurium to temperature and acid variations was hysteretic, i.e. whether the transcriptional regulation caused by environmental stimuli showed memory and remained after the stimuli ceased. The transcriptional activity of non-replicating stationary phase cells of S. Typhimurium caused by the exposure to 45°C and to pH 5 for 30 min was monitored by microarray hybridizations at the end of the treatment period as well as immediately and 30 minutes after conditions were set back to their initial values, 25°C and pH 7. One hundred and two out of 120 up-regulated genes during the heat shock remained up-regulated 30 minutes after the temperature was set back to 25°C, while only 86 out of 293 down regulated genes remained down regulated 30 minutes after the heat shock ceased. Thus, the majority of the induced genes exhibited hysteresis, i.e., they remained up-regulated after the environmental stress ceased. At 25°C the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding for heat shock proteins was determined by the previous environment. Gene networks constructed with up-regulated genes were significantly more modular than those of down-regulated genes, implying that down-regulation was significantly less synchronized than up-regulation. The hysteretic transcriptional response to heat shock was accompanied by higher resistance to inactivation at 50°C as well as cross-resistance to inactivation at pH 3; however, growth rates and lag times at 43°C and at pH 4.5 were not affected. The exposure to pH 5 only caused up-regulation of 12 genes and this response was neither hysteretic nor accompanied of increased resistance to inactivation conditions. Cellular memory at the transcriptional level may represent a mechanism of adaptation to the environment and a deterministic source of variability in gene regulation. © 2012 Pin et al.

  • 8.
    Pradhan, Sulena
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rosenqvist, Jörgen
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Caroline M.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wold, Susanna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Yta, process och formulering. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallinder, Inger O.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of humic acid and dihydroxy benzoic acid on the agglomeration, adsorption, sedimentation and dissolution of copper, manganese, aluminum and silica nanoparticles-A tentative exposure scenario2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 2, artikkel-id e0192553Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on kinetic aspects of stability, mobility, and dissolution of bare Cu, Al and Mn, and SiO2 NPs in synthetic freshwater (FW) with and without the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). This includes elucidation of particle and surface interactions, metal dissolution kinetics, and speciation predictions of released metals in solution. Dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHBA) and humic acid adsorbed rapidly on all metal NPs (&lt;1 min) via multiple surface coordinations, followed in general by rapid agglomeration and concomitant sedimentation for a large fraction of the particles. In contrast, NOM did not induce agglomeration of the SiO2 NPs during the test duration (21 days). DHBA in concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mM was unable to stabilize the metal NPs for time periods longer than 6 h, whereas humic acid, at certain concentrations (20 mg/L) was more efficient (&gt;24 h). The presence of NOM increased the amount of released metals into solution, in particular for Al and Cu, whereas the effect for Mn was minor. At least 10% of the particle mass was dissolved within 24 h and remained in solution for the metal NPs in the presence of NOM. Speciation modeling revealed that released Al and Cu predominantly formed complexes with NOM, whereas less complexation was seen for Mn. The results imply that potentially dispersed NPs of Cu, Al and Mn readily dissolve or sediment close to the source in freshwater of low salinity, whereas SiO2 NPs are more stable and therefore more mobile in solution. © 2018 Pradhan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 9.
    Röding, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. University of South Australia, Australia; University College London, Australia.
    Bradley, Siobhan J.
    University of South Australia, Australia; Victoria University of Wellington, New Zeeland.
    Williamson, Nathan H.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Dewi, Melissa R.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Nann, Thomas
    University of South Australia, Australia; Victoria University of Wellington, New Zeeland.
    Nydén, Magnus
    University College London, Australia.
    The power of heterogeneity: Parameter relationships from distributions2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 5, artikkel-id e0155718Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex scientific data is becoming the norm, many disciplines are growing immensely data-rich, and higher-dimensional measurements are performed to resolve complex relationships between parameters. Inherently multi-dimensional measurements can directly provide information on both the distributions of individual parameters and the relationships between them, such as in nuclear magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. However, when data originates from different measurements and comes in different forms, resolving parameter relationships is a matter of data analysis rather than experiment. We present a method for resolving relationships between parameters that are distributed individually and also correlated. In two case studies, we model the relationships between diameter and luminescence properties of quantum dots and the relationship between molecular weight and diffusion coefficient for polymers. Although it is expected that resolving complicated correlated relationships require inherently multi-dimensional measurements, our method constitutes a useful contribution to the modelling of quantitative relationships between correlated parameters and measurements. We emphasise the general applicability of the method in fields where heterogeneity and complex distributions of parameters are obstacles to scientific insight.

  • 10.
    Schweitzer, Mary
    et al.
    North Carolina State University, USA; North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, USA; Lund University, Sweden.
    Zheng, Wenxia
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Moyer, Alison
    Drexel University, USA.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Preservation potential of keratin in deep time2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple fossil discoveries and taphonomic experiments have established the durability of keratin. The utility and specificity of antibodies to identify keratin peptides has also been established, both in extant feathers under varying treatment conditions, and in feathers from extinct organisms. Here, we show localization of feather-keratin antibodies to control and heat-treated feathers, testifying to the repeatability of initial data supporting the preservation potential of keratin. We then show new data at higher resolution that demonstrates the specific response of these antibodies to the feather matrix, we support the presence of protein in heat-treated feathers using ToF-SIMS, and we apply these methods to a fossil feather preserved in the unusual environment of sinter hot springs. We stress the importance of employing realistic conditions such as sediment burial when designing experiments intended as proxies for taphonomic processes occurring in the fossil record. Our data support the hypothesis that keratin, particularly the β-keratin that comprises feathers, has potential to preserve in fossil remains.

  • 11.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Metabolic effects of n-3 PUFA as phospholipids are superior to triglycerides in mice fed a high-fat diet: Possible role of endocannabinoids2011Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. e38834-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Skoglund, Sara
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yunda, Elena
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia.
    Godymchuk, Anna
    National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia; National University of Science and Technology, Russia.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Difficulties and flaws in performing accurate determinations of zeta potentials of metal nanoparticles in complex solutions - Four case studies2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikkel-id e0181735Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The zeta potential (ZP) is a parameter commonly used to characterize metal nanoparticles (NPs) in solution. Such determinations are for example performed in nanotoxicology since the ZP influences e.g. the interaction between cells and different biomolecules. Four case studies on different metal NPs (Cu and Zn NPs, and citrate capped Ag NPs) are presented in this study in order to provide guidance on how to accurately interpret and report ZP data. Solutions of high ionic strength (150 mM NaCl) induce a higher extent of particle agglomeration (elucidated with Ag NPs) when compared with conditions in 10 mM NaCl, which further complicates the prediction of the ZP due to e.g. sedimentation and broadening of the zeta potential distribution. The particle size is seldom included specifically in the standard ways of determining ZP (Hückel and Smoluchowski approximations). However corrections are possible when considering approximations of the Henry function. This was seen to improve the analysis of NPs, since there are cases when both the Hückel and the Smulochowski approximations are invalid. In biomolecule-containing cell media (BEGM), the signal from e. g. proteins may interfere with the measured ZP of the NPs. The intensity distribution of the ZP of both the blank solution and the solution containing NPs should hence be presented in addition to the mean value. Due to an increased ionic strength for dissolving of metal NPs (exemplified by Zn NPs), the released metal ions must be considered when interpreting the zeta potential measurements. In this work the effect was however negligible, as the particle size was several hundred nm, conditions that made the Smoluchowski approximation valid despite an increased ionic strength. However, at low ionic strengths (mM range) and small-sized NPs (tens of nm), the effect of released metal ions can influence the choice of model for determining the zeta potential. Sonication of particle dispersions influences not only the extent of metal release but also the outermost surface oxide composition, which often results in an increased ZP. Surface compositional changes were illustrated for sonicated and non-sonicated Cu NPs. In all, it can be concluded that accurate measurements and interpretations are possible in most cases by collecting and reporting complementary data on characteristics such as particle size, ZP distributions, blank sample information, and particle oxide composition. © 2017, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

  • 13.
    Solstad, Runar Gjerp
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Li, Chun
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Isaksson, Johan
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Johansen, Jostein
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Stensvåg, Klara
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Haug, Tor
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Novel antimicrobial peptides EeCentrocins 1, 2 and EeStrongylocin 2 from the Edible sea urchin Echinus esculentus have 6-br-trp post-translational modifications2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id e0151820Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The global problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics has resulted in an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial agents. Natural antimicrobial peptides are considered promising candidates for drug development. Echinoderms, which rely on innate immunity factors in the defence against harmful microorganisms, are sources of novel antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed to isolate and characterise antimicrobial peptides from the Edible sea urchin Echinus esculentus. Using bioassay-guided purification and cDNA cloning, three antimicrobial peptides were characterised from the haemocytes of the sea urchin; two heterodimeric peptides and a cysteine-rich peptide. The peptides were named EeCentrocin 1 and 2 and EeStrongylocin 2, respectively, due to their apparent homology to the published centrocins and strongylocins isolated from the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. The two centrocin-like peptides EeCentrocin 1 and 2 are intramolecularly connected via a disulphide bond to form a heterodimeric structure, containing a cationic heavy chain of 30 and 32 amino acids and a light chain of 13 amino acids. Additionally, the light chain of EeCentrocin 2 seems to be N-terminally blocked by a pyroglutamic acid residue. The heavy chains of EeCentrocins 1 and 2 were synthesised and shown to be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the natural peptides. EeStrongylocin 2 contains 6 cysteines engaged in 3 disulphide bonds. A fourth peptide (Ee4635) was also discovered but not fully characterised. Using mass spectrometric and NMR analyses, EeCentrocins 1 and 2, EeStrongylocin 2 and Ee4635 were all shown to contain post-translationally brominated Trp residues in the 6 position of the indole ring.

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