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  • 1.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Aström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Heim, Christine
    Georg-August University, Germany.
    Broman, Curt
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Aström, Jan
    CSC-IT Center for Science, Finland.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Extreme 13 C depletion of carbonates formed during oxidation of biogenic methane in fractured granite2015In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 6, article id 7020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation of exceptionally 13C-depleted authigenic carbonate is a result of, and thus a tracer for, sulphate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation, particularly in marine sediments. Although these carbonates typically are less depleted in 13C than in the source methane, because of incorporation of C also from other sources, they are far more depleted in 13C (δ13C as light as -69% V-PDB) than in carbonates formed where no methane is involved. Here we show that oxidation of biogenic methane in carbon-poor deep groundwater in fractured granitoid rocks has resulted in fracture-wall precipitation of the most extremely 13Cdepleted carbonates ever reported, δ13C down to -125% V-PDB. A microbial consortium of sulphate reducers and methane oxidizers has been involved, as revealed by biomarker signatures in the carbonates and S-isotope compositions of co-genetic sulphide. Methane formed at shallow depths has been oxidized at several hundred metres depth at the transition to a deep-seated sulphate-rich saline water. This process is so far an unrecognized terrestrial sink of methane.

  • 2.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnæus University, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Heim, Christine
    Georg-August University, Germany.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Broman, Curt
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Belivanova, Veneta
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnæus University, Sweden.
    Anaerobic consortia of fungi and sulfate reducing bacteria in deep granite fractures2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deep biosphere is one of the least understood ecosystems on Earth. Although most microbiological studies in this system have focused on prokaryotes and neglected microeukaryotes, recent discoveries have revealed existence of fossil and active fungi in marine sediments and sub-seafloor basalts, with proposed importance for the subsurface energy cycle. However, studies of fungi in deep continental crystalline rocks are surprisingly few. Consequently, the characteristics and processes of fungi and fungus-prokaryote interactions in this vast environment remain enigmatic. Here we report the first findings of partly organically preserved and partly mineralized fungi at great depth in fractured crystalline rock (-740 m). Based on environmental parameters and mineralogy the fungi are interpreted as anaerobic. Synchrotron-based techniques and stable isotope microanalysis confirm a coupling between the fungi and sulfate reducing bacteria. The cryptoendolithic fungi have significantly weathered neighboring zeolite crystals and thus have implications for storage of toxic wastes using zeolite barriers. © 2017 The Author(s).

  • 3. Håkansson, K.M.O.
    et al.
    Fall, A.B.
    Lundell, F.
    Yu, S.
    Krywka, C.
    Roth, S.V.
    Santoro, G.
    Kvick, M.
    Prahl Wittberg, L.
    Soderberg, L.D.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hydrodynamic alignment and assembly of nanofibrils resulting in strong cellulose filaments2014In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 5, article id 4018Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Lindgren, J
    et al.
    Uvdal, P
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Nilsson, DE
    Engdahl, A
    Schultz, BP
    Molecular preservation of the pigment melanin in fossil melanosmoses2012In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 3, article id art no 824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil feathers, hairs and eyes are regularly preserved as carbonized traces comprised of masses of micrometre-sized bodies that are spherical, oblate or elongate in shape. For a long time, these minute structures were regarded as the remains of biofilms of keratinophilic bacteria, but recently they have been reinterpreted as melanosomes; that is, colour-bearing organelles. Resolving this fundamental difference in interpretation is crucial: if endogenous then the fossil microbodies would represent a significant advancement in the fields of palaeontology and evolutionary biology given, for example, the possibility to reconstruct integumentary colours and plumage colour patterns. It has previously been shown that certain trace elements occur in fossils as organometallic compounds, and hence may be used as biomarkers for melanin pigments. Here we expand this knowledge by demonstrating the presence of molecularly preserved melanin in intimate association with melanosome-like microbodies isolated from an argentinoid fish eye from the early Eocene of Denmark.

  • 5.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Molecular preservation of the pigment melanin in fossil melanosomes2012In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 3, p. 824-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Svedang, H.
    et al.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Selective fishing induces density-dependent growth2014In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 5, p. 4152-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades, views on fisheries management have oscillated between alarm and trust in management progress. The predominant policy for remedying the world fishing crisis aims at maximum sustainable yield (MSY) by adjusting gear selectivity and fishing effort. Here we report a case study on how striving for higher yields from the Eastern Baltic cod stock by increasing selectivity has become exceedingly detrimental for its productivity. Although there is a successive increase in numbers of undersized fish, growth potential is severely reduced, and fishing mortality in fishable size has increased. Once density-dependent growth is introduced, the process is self-enforcing as long as the recruitment remains stable. Our findings suggest that policies focusing on maximum yield while targeting greater sizes are risky and should instead prioritize catch rates over yield. Disregarding the underlying population structure may jeopardize stock productivity, with dire consequences for the fishing industry and ecosystem structure and function. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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