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  • 1.
    Blomberg, Sara
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US.
    Johansson, Niclas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kokkonen, Esko
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Kollberg, Linnea
    SunCarbon, Sweden.
    Preger, Calle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Franzén, Sara
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Messing, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bimetallic nanoparticles as a model system for an industrial NiMo catalyst2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 22, article id 3727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An in-depth understanding of the reactionmechanismis required for the further development of Mo-based catalysts for biobased feedstocks. However, fundamental studies of industrial catalysts are challenging, and simplified systems are often used without direct comparison to their industrial counterparts. Here, we report on size-selected bimetallic NiMo nanoparticles as a candidate for a model catalyst that is directly compared to the industrial system to evaluate their industrial relevance. Both the nanoparticles and industrial supported NiMo catalysts were characterized using surface- and bulk-sensitive techniques. We found that the active Ni and Mo metals in the industrial catalyst are well dispersed and well mixed on the support, and that the interaction between Ni and Mo promotes the reduction of the Mo oxide. We successfully produced 25 nm NiMo alloyed nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. Characterization of the nanoparticles showed that they have a metallic core with a native oxide shell with a high potential for use as a model system for fundamental studies of hydrotreating catalysts for biobased feedstocks. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 2.
    Girardin, Bertrand
    et al.
    University of Lille, France.
    Fontaine, Gaelle
    University of Lille, France.
    Duquesne, Sophie
    University of Lille, France.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bourbigot, Serge
    University of Lille, France.
    Characterization of thermo-physical properties of EVA/ATH: Application to gasification experiments and pyrolysis modeling2015In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 7837-7863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pyrolysis of solid polymeric materials is a complex process that involves both chemical and physical phenomena such as phase transitions, chemical reactions, heat transfer, and mass transport of gaseous components. For modeling purposes, it is important to characterize and to quantify the properties driving those phenomena, especially in the case of flame-retarded materials. In this study, protocols have been developed to characterize the thermal conductivity and the heat capacity of an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) flame retarded with aluminum tri-hydroxide (ATH). These properties were measured for the various species identified across the decomposition of the material. Namely, the thermal conductivity was found to decrease as a function of temperature before decomposition whereas the ceramic residue obtained after the decomposition at the steady state exhibits a thermal conductivity as low as 0.2 W/m/K. The heat capacity of the material was also investigated using both isothermal modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and the standard method (ASTM E1269). It was shown that the final residue exhibits a similar behavior to alumina, which is consistent with the decomposition pathway of EVA/ATH. Besides, the two experimental approaches give similar results over the whole range of temperatures. Moreover, the optical properties before decomposition and the heat capacity of the decomposition gases were also analyzed. Those properties were then used as input data for a pyrolysis model in order to predict gasification experiments. Mass losses of gasification experiments were well predicted, thus validating the characterization of the thermo-physical properties of the material. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 3.
    Hosseini, Vahid. A.
    et al.
    University West, Sweden ; Innovatum AB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Sweden.
    Wessman, Sten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB. University West, Sweden.
    Fuertes, Nuria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Effect of sigma phase morphology on the degradation of properties in a super duplex stainless steel2018In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sigma phase is commonly considered to be the most deleterious secondary phase precipitating in duplex stainless steels, as it results in an extreme reduction of corrosion resistance and toughness. Previous studies have mainly focused on the kinetics of sigma phase precipitation and influences on properties and only a few works have studied the morphology of sigma phase and its influences on material properties. Therefore, the influence of sigma phase morphology on the degradation of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of 2507 super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) was studied after 10 h of arc heat treatment using optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction analysis, corrosion testing, and thermodynamic calculations. A stationary arc was applied on the 2507 SDSS disc mounted on a water-cooled chamber, producing a steady-state temperature gradient covering the entire temperature range from room temperature to the melting point. Sigma phase was the major intermetallic precipitating between 630 °C and 1010 °C and its morphology changed from blocky to fine coral-shaped with decreasing aging temperature. At the same time, the average thickness of the precipitates decreased from 2.9 μm to 0.5 μm. The chemical composition of sigma was similar to that predicted by thermodynamic calculations when formed at 800-900 °C, but deviated at higher and lower temperatures. The formation of blocky sigma phase introduced local strain in the bulk of the primary austenite grains. However, the local strain was most pronounced in the secondary austenite grains next to the coral-shaped sigma phase precipitating at lower temperatures. Microstructures with blocky and coral-shaped sigma phase particles were prone to develop microscale cracks and local corrosion, respectively. Local corrosion occurred primarily in ferrite and in secondary austenite, which was predicted by thermodynamic calculations to have a low pitting resistance equivalent. To conclude, the influence of sigma phase morphology on the degradation of properties was summarized in two diagrams as functions of the level of static load and the severity of the corrosive environment.

  • 4.
    Karygianni, L.
    et al.
    University of Freiburg.
    Jähnig, A.
    University of Freiburg.
    Schienle, S.
    University of Freiburg.
    Bernsmann, F.
    NTTF Coatings GmbH.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kohal, R.J.
    University of Freiburg.
    Chevalier, J.
    University of Lyon.
    Hellwig, E.
    University of Freiburg.
    Al-Ahmad, A.
    University of Freiburg.
    Initial bacterial adhesion on different yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia implant surfaces in vitro2013In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 5659-5674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial adhesion to implant biomaterials constitutes a virulence factor leading to biofilm formation, infection and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to examine the initial bacterial adhesion on different implant materials in vitro. Four implant biomaterials were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans for 2h: 3mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal surface (B1a), B1a with zirconium oxide (ZrO2) coating (B2a), B1a with zirconia-based composite coating (B1b) and B1a with zirconia-based composite and ZrO2 coatings (B2b). Bovine enamel slabs (BES) served as control. The adherent microorganisms were quantified and visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); DAPI and live/dead staining. The lowest bacterial count of E. faecalis was detected on BES and the highest on B1a. The fewest vital C. albicans strains (42.22%) were detected on B2a surfaces, while most E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (approximately 80%) were vital overall. Compared to BES; coated and uncoated zirconia substrata exhibited no anti-adhesive properties. Further improvement of the material surface characteristics is essential. © 2013 by the authors.

  • 5.
    Khalili, Pooria
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blinzler, Brina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kádár, Roland
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Flammability, smoke, mechanical behaviours and morphology of flame retarded natural fibre/Elium® composite2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 2648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work involves fabrication of natural fibre/Elium® composites using resin infusion technique. The jute fabrics were treated using phosphorus-carbon based flame retardant (FR) agent, a phosphonate solution and graphene nano-platelet (GnP), followed by resin infusion, to produce FR and graphene-based composites. The properties of these composites were compared with those of the Control (jute fabric/Elium®). As obtained from the cone calorimeter and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the peak heat release rate reduced significantly after the FR and GnP treatments of fabrics whereas total smoke release and quantity of carbon monoxide increased with the incorporation of FR. The addition of GnP had almost no effect on carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide yield. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated that coating jute fabrics with GnP particles led to an enhanced glass transition temperature by 14%. Scanning electron microscopy showed fibre pull-out locations in the tensile fracture surface of the laminates after incorporation of both fillers, which resulted in reduced tensile properties. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 6.
    Kosmela, Paulina
    et al.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Hejna, Aleksander
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Suchorzewski, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Piszczyk, Łukasz
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Haponiuk, Józef Tadeusz
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Study on the Structure-Property Dependences of Rigid PUR-PIR Foams Obtained from Marine Biomass-Based Biopolyol.2020In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 5, article id E1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the preparation and characterization of rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PUR-PIR) foams obtained with biopolyol synthesized in the process of liquefaction of biomass from the Baltic Sea. The obtained foams differed in the content of biopolyol in polyol mixture (0-30 wt%) and the isocyanate index (IISO = 200, 250, and 300). The prepared foams were characterized in terms of processing parameters (processing times, synthesis temperature), physical (sol fraction content, apparent density) and chemical structure (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), microstructure (computer microtomography), as well as mechanical (compressive strength, dynamic mechanical analysis), and thermal properties (thermogravimetric analysis, thermal conductivity coefficient). The influence of biopolyol and IISO content on the above properties was determined. The addition of up to 30 wt% of biopolyol increased the reactivity of the polyol mixture, and the obtained foams showed enhanced mechanical, thermal, and insulating properties compared to foams prepared solely with petrochemical polyol. The addition of up to 30 wt% of biopolyol did not significantly affect the chemical structure and average cell size. With the increase in IISO, a slight decrease in processing times and mechanical properties was observed. As expected, foams with higher IISO exhibited a higher relative concentration of polyisocyanurate groups in their chemical structure, which was confirmed using principal component analysis (PCA).

  • 7.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    et al.
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Bedon, Chiara
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Numerical Analysis and 1D/2D Sensitivity Study for Monolithic and Laminated Structural Glass Elements under Thermal Exposure2018In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 8, article id E1447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is largely used in architectural and engineering applications (i.e., buildings and vehicles) as a structural material, especially in the form of laminated glass (LG) sections. To achieve adequate and controlled safety levels in these applications, the well-known temperature-dependent behavior of viscoelastic interlayers for LG sections should be properly accounted for during the design process. Furthermore, the materials' thermomechanical degradation with increases of temperature could severely affect the load-bearing performance of glass assemblies. In this context, uncoupled thermomechanical finite element (FE) numerical models could represent a robust tool and support for design engineers. Key input parameters and possible limits of the FE method, however, should be properly calibrated and assessed, so as to enable reliable estimations for the real behavior of glazing systems. In this paper, FE simulations are proposed for monolithic (MG) and LG specimens under radiant heating, based on one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) models. A special attention is focused on thermal effects, being representative of the first step for conventional uncoupled, thermomechanical analyses. Based on experimental results available in the literature, FE parametric studies are discussed, giving evidence of limits and issues due to several modeling assumptions. In particular, careful consideration is paid for various thermal material properties (conductivity, specific heat) and thermal boundaries (conductivity, emissivity), but also for other influencing parameters like the geometrical features of samples (thickness tolerances, cross-sectional properties, etc.), the composition of LG sections (interlayer type, thickness), the loading pattern (heat transfer distribution) and the presence of additional mechanical restraints (i.e., supports of different materials). Comparative FE results are hence critically discussed, highlighting the major effects of such influencing parameters.

  • 8.
    Lu, Huiran
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alvarado, Fernando
    RISE, Innventia.
    Behm, Mårten
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    RISE, Swerea. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jiebing
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lignin as a binder material for eco-friendly Li-ion batteries2016In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial lignin used here is a byproduct from Kraft pulp mills, extracted from black liquor. Since lignin is inexpensive, abundant and renewable, its utilization has attracted more and more attention. In this work, lignin was used for the first time as binder material for LiFePO4 positive and graphite negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. A procedure for pretreatment of lignin, where low-molecular fractions were removed by leaching, was necessary to obtain good battery performance. The lignin was analyzed for molecular mass distribution and thermal behavior prior to and after the pretreatment. Electrodes containing active material, conductive particles and lignin were cast on metal foils, acting as current collectors and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. Good reversible capacities were obtained, 148 mAh·g-1 for the positive electrode and 305 mAh·g-1 for the negative electrode. Fairly good rate capabilities were found for both the positive electrode with 117 mAh·g-1 and the negative electrode with 160 mAh·g-1 at 1C. Low ohmic resistance also indicated good binder functionality. The results show that lignin is a promising candidate as binder material for electrodes in eco-friendly Li-ion batteries.

  • 9.
    Opedal, Mihaela Tanase
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Espinosa, E.
    Universidad de Córdoba, Spain.
    Rodríguez, A.
    Universidad de Córdoba, Spain.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Lignin: A biopolymer from forestry biomass for biocomposites and 3D printing2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 18, article id 3006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biopolymers from forestry biomass are promising for the sustainable development of new biobased materials. As such, lignin and fiber-based biocomposites are plausible renewable alternatives to petrochemical-based products. In this study, we have obtained lignin from Spruce biomass through a soda pulping process. The lignin was used for manufacturing biocomposite filaments containing 20% and 40% lignin and using polylactic acid (PLA) as matrix material. Dogbones for mechanical testing were 3D printed by fused deposition modelling. The lignin and the corresponding biocomposites were characterized in detail, including thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), antioxidant capacity, mechanical properties, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although lignin led to a reduction of the tensile strength and modulus, the reduction could be counteracted to some extent by adjusting the 3D printing temperature. The results showed that lignin acted as a nucleating agent and thus led to further crystallization of PLA. The radical scavenging activity of the biocomposites increased to roughly 50% antioxidant potential/cm2, for the biocomposite containing 40 wt % lignin. The results demonstrate the potential of lignin as a component in biocomposite materials, which we show are adequate for 3D printing operations. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 10.
    Raza, M.
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology.
    Bachinger, Angelika
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Zahn, N.
    Saarland University.
    Kickelbick, G.
    Saarland University.
    Interaction and UV-stability of various organic capping agents on the surface of anatase nanoparticles2014In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 2890-2912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anatase nanoparticles synthesized by the sol-gel method were surface-functionalized with long alkyl chain coupling agents as compatibilizers for a nonpolar environment, containing different anchor groups for surface interaction namely phosphonate (dodecyl phosphonate), carboxylate (dodecanoic acid), sulfate (sodium dodecyl sulphate), and amine (dodecyl amine). It was shown that the surface of the nanoparticles can be functionalized with the various surface groups applying similar reaction conditions. The kind of surface interaction was analyzed applying FTIR spectroscopy. The phosphonate and the carboxylate groups interact with the surface via quite strong covalent or coordinative interactions, respectively. The sulfate and amine based coupling agents on the other hand exhibit electrostatic interactions. UV stability studies of the surface bound groups revealed different degradation mechanisms for the various functionalities and moreover showed that phosphonates are the most stable among the investigated surface capping groups. © 2014 by the authors.

  • 11.
    Tidblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Kreislová, Katerina
    Svuom Ltd, Czech Republic.
    Faller, Markus
    Empa, Switzerland.
    de la Fuente, Daniel
    CENIM National Centre for Metallurgical Research, Spain.
    Yates, Tim
    BRE Building Research Establishment Ltd, UK.
    Verney-Carron, Aurelie
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Grøntoft, Terje
    NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Gordon, Andrew
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Hans, Ulrik
    Empa, Switzerland.
    ICP materials trends in corrosion, soiling and air pollution (1987-2014)2017In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from the international cooperative programme on effects on materials including historic and cultural monuments are presented from the period 1987-2014 and include pollution data (SO2, NO2, O3, HNO3 and PM10), corrosion data (carbon steel, weathering steel, zinc, copper, aluminium and limestone) and data on the soiling of modern glass for nineteen industrial, urban and rural test sites in Europe. Both one-year and four-year corrosion data are presented. Corrosion and pollution have decreased significantly and a shift in the magnitude is generally observed around 1997: from a sharp decrease to a more modest decrease or to a constant level without any decrease. SO2 levels, carbon steel and copper corrosion have decreased even after 1997, which is more pronounced in urban areas, while corrosion of the other materials shows no decrease after 1997, when looking at one-year values. When looking at four-year values, however, there is a significant decrease after 1997 for zinc, which is not evident when looking at the one-year values. This paper also presents results on corrosion kinetics by comparison of one- and four-year values. For carbon steel and copper, kinetics is relatively independent of sites while other materials, especially zinc, show substantial variation in kinetics for the first four years, which needs to be considered when producing new and possibly improved models for corrosion. © 2017 by the authors.

  • 12.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karasev, Andrey
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The effect of different non-metallic inclusions on the machinability of steels2015In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 751-783Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non-metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc.) are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

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