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  • 1.
    Ajpi, Cesario
    et al.
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leiva, Naviana
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Vargas, Max
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cabrera, Saul
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Synthesis and characterization of LiFePO4-PANI hybrid material as cathode for lithium-ion batteries2020In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on the synthesis of LiFePO4-PANI hybrid materials and studies their electrochem. properties (capacity, cyclability and rate capability) for use in lithium ion batteries. PANI synthesis and optimization was carried out by chem. oxidation (self-assembly process), using ammonium persulfate (APS) and H3PO4, obtaining a material with a high degree of crystallinity. For the synthesis of the LiFePO4-PANI hybrid, a thermal treatment of LiFePO4 particles was carried out in a furnace with polyaniline (PANI) and lithium acetate (AcOLi)-coated particles, using Ar/H2 atm. The pristine and synthesized powders were characterized by XRD, SEM, IR and TGA. The electrochem. characterizations were carried out by using CV, EIS and galvanostatic methods, obtaining a capacity of 95 mAhg-1 for PANI, 120 mAhg-1 for LiFePO4 and 145 mAhg-1 for LiFePO4-PANI, at a charge/discharge rate of 0.1 C. At a charge/discharge rate of 2 C, the capacities were 70 mAhg-1 for LiFePO4 and 100 mAhg-1 for LiFePO4-PANI, showing that the PANI also had a favorable effect on the rate capability.

  • 2.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gong, Guan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    Podcomp AB, Sweden.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Characterization of Wood and Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) Reinforced Polymer Composites.2020In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 9, article id E2089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the utilization of commercial masterbatches of graphene nanoplatelets to improve the properties of neat polymer and wood fiber composites manufactured by conventional processing methods. The effect of aspect ratio of the graphene platelets (represented by the different number of layers in the nanoplatelet) on the properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is discussed. The composites were characterized for their mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, impact) and physical characteristics (morphology, crystallization, and thermal stability). The effect of the addition of nanoplatelets on the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the reinforced polymer with different contents of reinforcement was also investigated. In general, the mechanical performance of the polymer was enhanced at the presence of either of the reinforcements (graphene or wood fiber). The improvement in mechanical properties of the nanocomposite was notable considering that no compatibilizer was used in the manufacturing. The use of a masterbatch can promote utilization of nano-modified polymer composites on an industrial scale without modification of the currently employed processing methods and facilities.

  • 3.
    Bartkowiak, Tomasz
    et al.
    Poznan University of Technology, Poland.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brown, Christopher
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA.
    Multiscale characterizations of surface anisotropies2020In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 13, article id 3028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anisotropy can influence surface function and can be an indication of processing. These influences and indications include friction, wetting, and microwear. This article studies two methods for multiscale quantification and visualization of anisotropy. One uses multiscale curvature tensor analysis and shows anisotropy in horizontal coordinates i.e., topocentric. The other uses multiple bandpass filters (also known as sliding bandpass filters) applied prior to calculating anisotropy parameters, texture aspect ratios (Str) and texture directions (Std), showing anisotropy in horizontal directions only. Topographies were studied on two milled steel surfaces, one convex with an evident large scale, cylindrical form anisotropy, the other nominally flat with smaller scale anisotropies; a EDMed surface, an example of an isotropic surface; and an additively manufactured surface with pillar-like features. Curvature tensors contain the two principal curvatures, i.e., maximum and minimum curvatures, which are orthogonal, and their directions, at each location. Principal directions are plotted for each calculated location on each surface, at each scale considered. Histograms in horizontal coordinates show altitude and azimuth angles of principal curvatures, elucidating dominant texture directions at each scale. Str and Std do not show vertical components, i.e., altitudes, of anisotropy. Changes of anisotropy with scale categorically failed to be detected by traditional characterization methods used conventionally. These multiscale methods show clearly in several representations that anisotropy changes with scale on actual surface measurements with markedly different anisotropies.

  • 4.
    Blomberg, Sara
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US.
    Johansson, Niclas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kokkonen, Esko
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Kollberg, Linnea
    SunCarbon, Sweden.
    Preger, Calle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Franzén, Sara
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Messing, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bimetallic nanoparticles as a model system for an industrial NiMo catalyst2019In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 22, article id 3727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An in-depth understanding of the reactionmechanismis required for the further development of Mo-based catalysts for biobased feedstocks. However, fundamental studies of industrial catalysts are challenging, and simplified systems are often used without direct comparison to their industrial counterparts. Here, we report on size-selected bimetallic NiMo nanoparticles as a candidate for a model catalyst that is directly compared to the industrial system to evaluate their industrial relevance. Both the nanoparticles and industrial supported NiMo catalysts were characterized using surface- and bulk-sensitive techniques. We found that the active Ni and Mo metals in the industrial catalyst are well dispersed and well mixed on the support, and that the interaction between Ni and Mo promotes the reduction of the Mo oxide. We successfully produced 25 nm NiMo alloyed nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. Characterization of the nanoparticles showed that they have a metallic core with a native oxide shell with a high potential for use as a model system for fundamental studies of hydrotreating catalysts for biobased feedstocks. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 5.
    Burkhardt, Felix
    et al.
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Harlass, Markus
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Vach, Kirstin
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Spies, Benedikt
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Kohal, Ralf-Joachim
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    A novel zirconia-based composite presents an aging resistant material for narrow-diameter ceramic implants2021In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 9, article id 2151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel ceria-stabilized zirconia-alumina-aluminate composite (Ce-TZP-comp) that is not prone to aging presents a potential alternative to yttrium-stabilized zirconia for ceramic oral implants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term stability of a one-piece narrow-diameter implant made of Ce-TZP-comp. Implant prototypes with a narrow (3.4 mm) and regular (4.0 mm) diameter were embedded according to ISO 14801, and subgroups (n = 8) were subsequently exposed to dynamic loading (107 cycles, 98N) and/or hydrothermal treatment (aging, 85◦C). Loading/aging was only applied as a combined protocol for the 4.0 mm diameter implants. One subgroup of each diameter remained untreated. One sample was cross-sectioned from each subgroup and evaluated with a scanning electron microscope for phase-transformation of the lattice. Finally, the remaining samples were loaded to fracture. A multivariate linear regression model was applied for statistical analyses (significance at p < 0.05). All samples withstood the different loading/aging protocols and no transformation propagation was observed. The narrow diameter implants showed the lowest fracture load after combined loading/aging (628 ± 56 N; p < 0.01), whereas all other subgroups exhibited no significantly reduced fracture resistance (between 762 ± 62 and 806 ± 73 N; p < 0.05). Therefore, fracture load values of Ce-TZP-comp implants suggest a reliable intraoral clinical application in the anterior jaw regions. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 6.
    Dobryden, Illia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Montanari, Celine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Bhattacharjya, DHRUBAJYOTI
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Aydin, Juhanes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Bio-Based Binder Development for Lithium-Ion Batteries.2023In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 16, article id 5553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of rechargeable lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology has facilitated the shift toward electric vehicles and grid storage solutions. This technology is currently undergoing significant development to meet industrial applications for portable electronics and provide our society with "greener" electricity. The large increase in LIB production following the growing demand from the automotive sector has led to the establishment of gigafactories worldwide, thus increasing the substantial consumption of fossil-based and non-sustainable materials, such as polyvinylidene fluoride and/or styrene-butadiene rubber as binders in cathode and anode formulations. Furthermore, the use of raw resources, such as Li, Ni, and Mn in cathode active materials and graphite and nanosilicon in anodes, necessitates further efforts to enhance battery efficiency. To foster a global sustainable transition in LIB manufacturing and reduce reliance on non-sustainable materials, the implementation of bio-based binder solutions for electrodes in LIBs is crucial. Bio-based binders such as cellulose, lignin, alginate, gums, starch, and others can address environmental concerns and can enhance LIBs' performance. This review aims to provide an overview of the current progress in the development and application of bio-based binders for LIB electrode manufacturing, highlighting their significance toward sustainable development.

  • 7.
    Eliasson, Sara
    et al.
    Scania CV AB, Sweden; Centre for ECO2 Vehicle Design, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson Hagnell, Mathilda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Wennhage, Per
    Centre for ECO2 Vehicle Design, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    Centre for ECO2 Vehicle Design, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A Statistical Porosity Characterization Approach of Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Material Using Optical Microscopy and Neural Network2022In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 15, no 19, article id 6540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intensified pursuit for lightweight solutions in the commercial vehicle industry increases the demand for method development of more advanced lightweight materials such as Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites (CFRP). The behavior of these anisotropic materials is challenging to understand and manufacturing defects could dramatically change the mechanical properties. Voids are one of the most common manufacturing defects; they can affect mechanical properties and work as initiation sites for damage. It is essential to know the micromechanical composition of the material to understand the material behavior. Void characterization is commonly conducted using optical microscopy, which is a reliable technique. In the current study, an approach based on optical microscopy, statistically characterizing a CFRP laminate with regard to porosity, is proposed. A neural network is implemented to efficiently segment micrographs and label the constituents: void, matrix, and fiber. A neural network minimizes the manual labor automating the process and shows great potential to be implemented in repetitive tasks in a design process to save time. The constituent fractions are determined and they show that constituent characterization can be performed with high accuracy for a very low number of training images. The extracted data are statistically analyzed. If significant differences are found, they can reveal and explain differences in the material behavior. The global and local void fraction show significant differences for the material used in this study and are good candidates to explain differences in material behavior. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 8.
    Eliasson, Sara
    et al.
    Scania, Sweden; Centre for ECO2 Vehicle Design, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson Hagnell, Mathilda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Wennhage, Per
    Centre for ECO2 Vehicle Design, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    Centre for ECO2 Vehicle Design, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    An Experimentally Based Micromechanical Framework Exploring Effects of Void Shape on Macromechanical Properties2022In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 15, no 12, article id 4361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A micromechanical simulation approach in a Multi-Scale Modeling (MSM) framework with the ability to consider manufacturing defects is proposed. The study includes a case study where the framework is implemented exploring a cross-ply laminate. The proposed framework highlights the importance of correct input regarding micromechanical geometry and void characteristics. A Representative Volume Element (RVE) model is developed utilizing true micromechanical geometry extracted from micrographs. Voids, based on statistical experimental data, are implemented in the RVE model, and the effects on the fiber distribution and effective macromechanical properties are evaluated. The RVE algorithm is robust and maintains a good surrounding fiber distribution around the implemented void. The local void fraction, void size, and void shape affect the effective micromechanical properties, and it is important to consider the phenomena of the effective mechanical properties with regard to the overall void fraction of an RVE and the actual laminate. The proposed framework has a good prediction of the macromechanical properties and shows great potential to be used in an industrial implementation. For an industrial implementation, weak spots and critical areas for a laminate on a macro-level are found through combining local RVEs. © 2022 by the authors. 

  • 9.
    Girardin, Bertrand
    et al.
    University of Lille, France.
    Fontaine, Gaelle
    University of Lille, France.
    Duquesne, Sophie
    University of Lille, France.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bourbigot, Serge
    University of Lille, France.
    Characterization of thermo-physical properties of EVA/ATH: Application to gasification experiments and pyrolysis modeling2015In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 7837-7863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pyrolysis of solid polymeric materials is a complex process that involves both chemical and physical phenomena such as phase transitions, chemical reactions, heat transfer, and mass transport of gaseous components. For modeling purposes, it is important to characterize and to quantify the properties driving those phenomena, especially in the case of flame-retarded materials. In this study, protocols have been developed to characterize the thermal conductivity and the heat capacity of an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) flame retarded with aluminum tri-hydroxide (ATH). These properties were measured for the various species identified across the decomposition of the material. Namely, the thermal conductivity was found to decrease as a function of temperature before decomposition whereas the ceramic residue obtained after the decomposition at the steady state exhibits a thermal conductivity as low as 0.2 W/m/K. The heat capacity of the material was also investigated using both isothermal modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and the standard method (ASTM E1269). It was shown that the final residue exhibits a similar behavior to alumina, which is consistent with the decomposition pathway of EVA/ATH. Besides, the two experimental approaches give similar results over the whole range of temperatures. Moreover, the optical properties before decomposition and the heat capacity of the decomposition gases were also analyzed. Those properties were then used as input data for a pyrolysis model in order to predict gasification experiments. Mass losses of gasification experiments were well predicted, thus validating the characterization of the thermo-physical properties of the material. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 10.
    Helbert, Varvara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Nazarov, Andrei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Vucko, Flavien
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Larché, Nicolas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Effect of cathodic polarisation switch-off on the passivity and stability to crevice corrosion of aisi 304l stainless steel2021In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 11, article id 2921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of cathodic polarisation switch-off on the passivation of AISI 304L stainless steel in air and its crevice corrosion susceptibility in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous electrolyte were investigated. Scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) data showed that the oxide film is significantly destabilised and the rate of steel passivation in air is slowed down. Thermal desorption analysis (TDA) highlighted that hydrogen absorption is proportional to the applied cathodic current density. A special crevice corrosion set-up was designed to realise simultaneous reproducible monitoring of potential and galvanic current to study the impact of prior cathodic polarisation on crevice corrosion onset. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 11.
    Hosseini, Vahid. A.
    et al.
    University West, Sweden ; Innovatum AB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Sweden.
    Wessman, Sten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB. University West, Sweden.
    Fuertes, Nuria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Effect of sigma phase morphology on the degradation of properties in a super duplex stainless steel2018In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sigma phase is commonly considered to be the most deleterious secondary phase precipitating in duplex stainless steels, as it results in an extreme reduction of corrosion resistance and toughness. Previous studies have mainly focused on the kinetics of sigma phase precipitation and influences on properties and only a few works have studied the morphology of sigma phase and its influences on material properties. Therefore, the influence of sigma phase morphology on the degradation of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of 2507 super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) was studied after 10 h of arc heat treatment using optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction analysis, corrosion testing, and thermodynamic calculations. A stationary arc was applied on the 2507 SDSS disc mounted on a water-cooled chamber, producing a steady-state temperature gradient covering the entire temperature range from room temperature to the melting point. Sigma phase was the major intermetallic precipitating between 630 °C and 1010 °C and its morphology changed from blocky to fine coral-shaped with decreasing aging temperature. At the same time, the average thickness of the precipitates decreased from 2.9 μm to 0.5 μm. The chemical composition of sigma was similar to that predicted by thermodynamic calculations when formed at 800-900 °C, but deviated at higher and lower temperatures. The formation of blocky sigma phase introduced local strain in the bulk of the primary austenite grains. However, the local strain was most pronounced in the secondary austenite grains next to the coral-shaped sigma phase precipitating at lower temperatures. Microstructures with blocky and coral-shaped sigma phase particles were prone to develop microscale cracks and local corrosion, respectively. Local corrosion occurred primarily in ferrite and in secondary austenite, which was predicted by thermodynamic calculations to have a low pitting resistance equivalent. To conclude, the influence of sigma phase morphology on the degradation of properties was summarized in two diagrams as functions of the level of static load and the severity of the corrosive environment.

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  • 12.
    Johansson, Emil
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lidström, Oscar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lyckfeldt, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jan, Johansson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Influence of Resin Composition on the Defect Formation in Alumina Manufactured by Stereolithography2017In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stereolithography (SL) is a technique allowing additive manufacturing of complex ceramic parts by selective photopolymerization of a photocurable suspension containing photocurable monomer, photoinitiator, and a ceramic powder. The manufactured three-dimensional object is cleaned and converted into a dense ceramic part by thermal debinding of the polymer network and subsequent sintering. The debinding is the most critical and time-consuming step, and often the source of cracks. In this study, photocurable alumina suspensions have been developed, and the influence of resin composition on defect formation has been investigated. The suspensions were characterized in terms of rheology and curing behaviour, and cross-sections of sintered specimens manufactured by SL were evaluated by SEM. It was found that the addition of a non-reactive component to the photocurable resin reduced polymerization shrinkage and altered the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix, which led to a reduction in both delamination and intra-laminar cracks. Using a non-reactive component that decomposed rather than evaporated led to less residual porosity.

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  • 13.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Compositional Effects on Indentation Mechanical Properties of Chemically Strengthened TiO2-Doped Soda Lime Silicate Glasses2022In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TiO2 is an important oxide for property modifications in the conventional soda lime silicate glass family. It offers interesting optical and mechanical properties, for instance, by substituting heavy metals such as lead in consumer glasses. The compositional effects on the hardness, reduced elastic modulus and crack resistance as determined by indentation of chemically strengthened (CS) TiO2-doped soda lime silicate glass was studied in the current paper. The CS, which was performed by a K+ for Na+ ion exchange in a molten KNO3 salt bath at 450 °C for 15 h, yielded significant changes in the indentation mechanical properties. The hardness of the glass samples increased, and this was notably dependent on the SiO2, CaO and TiO2 content. The reduced elastic modulus was less affected by the CS but showed decrease for most samples. The crack resistance, an important property in many applications where glasses are subjected to contact damage, showed very different behaviors among the series. Only one of the series did significantly improve the crack resistance where low CaO content, high TiO2 content, high molar volume and increased elastic deformation favored an increased crack resistance.

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  • 14.
    Karygianni, Lamprini
    et al.
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Jähnig, Andrea
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Schienle, Stefanie
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Bernsmann, Falk
    NTTF Coatings GmbH, Germany.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kohal, Ralf Joachim
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Chevalier, Jerome
    University of Lyon, France.
    Hellwig, Elmar
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Al-Ahmad, Ali
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Initial bacterial adhesion on different yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia implant surfaces in vitro2013In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 5659-5674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial adhesion to implant biomaterials constitutes a virulence factor leading to biofilm formation, infection and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to examine the initial bacterial adhesion on different implant materials in vitro. Four implant biomaterials were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans for 2h: 3mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal surface (B1a), B1a with zirconium oxide (ZrO2) coating (B2a), B1a with zirconia-based composite coating (B1b) and B1a with zirconia-based composite and ZrO2 coatings (B2b). Bovine enamel slabs (BES) served as control. The adherent microorganisms were quantified and visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); DAPI and live/dead staining. The lowest bacterial count of E. faecalis was detected on BES and the highest on B1a. The fewest vital C. albicans strains (42.22%) were detected on B2a surfaces, while most E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (approximately 80%) were vital overall. Compared to BES; coated and uncoated zirconia substrata exhibited no anti-adhesive properties. Further improvement of the material surface characteristics is essential.

  • 15.
    Khalili, Pooria
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blinzler, Brina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kádár, Roland
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Flammability, smoke, mechanical behaviours and morphology of flame retarded natural fibre/Elium® composite2019In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 2648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work involves fabrication of natural fibre/Elium® composites using resin infusion technique. The jute fabrics were treated using phosphorus-carbon based flame retardant (FR) agent, a phosphonate solution and graphene nano-platelet (GnP), followed by resin infusion, to produce FR and graphene-based composites. The properties of these composites were compared with those of the Control (jute fabric/Elium®). As obtained from the cone calorimeter and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the peak heat release rate reduced significantly after the FR and GnP treatments of fabrics whereas total smoke release and quantity of carbon monoxide increased with the incorporation of FR. The addition of GnP had almost no effect on carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide yield. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated that coating jute fabrics with GnP particles led to an enhanced glass transition temperature by 14%. Scanning electron microscopy showed fibre pull-out locations in the tensile fracture surface of the laminates after incorporation of both fillers, which resulted in reduced tensile properties. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 16.
    Kosmela, Paulina
    et al.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Hejna, Aleksander
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Suchorzewski, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Piszczyk, Łukasz
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Haponiuk, Józef Tadeusz
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Study on the Structure-Property Dependences of Rigid PUR-PIR Foams Obtained from Marine Biomass-Based Biopolyol.2020In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 5, article id E1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the preparation and characterization of rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PUR-PIR) foams obtained with biopolyol synthesized in the process of liquefaction of biomass from the Baltic Sea. The obtained foams differed in the content of biopolyol in polyol mixture (0-30 wt%) and the isocyanate index (IISO = 200, 250, and 300). The prepared foams were characterized in terms of processing parameters (processing times, synthesis temperature), physical (sol fraction content, apparent density) and chemical structure (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), microstructure (computer microtomography), as well as mechanical (compressive strength, dynamic mechanical analysis), and thermal properties (thermogravimetric analysis, thermal conductivity coefficient). The influence of biopolyol and IISO content on the above properties was determined. The addition of up to 30 wt% of biopolyol increased the reactivity of the polyol mixture, and the obtained foams showed enhanced mechanical, thermal, and insulating properties compared to foams prepared solely with petrochemical polyol. The addition of up to 30 wt% of biopolyol did not significantly affect the chemical structure and average cell size. With the increase in IISO, a slight decrease in processing times and mechanical properties was observed. As expected, foams with higher IISO exhibited a higher relative concentration of polyisocyanurate groups in their chemical structure, which was confirmed using principal component analysis (PCA).

  • 17.
    Kosmela, Paulina
    et al.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Suchorzewski, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Formela, Krzysztof
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Kazimierski, Pawel
    Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Poland.
    Haponiuk, Jozef
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Piszczyk, Lukasz
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Microstructure–property relationship of polyurethane foams modified with baltic sea biomass: Microcomputed tomography vs. scanning electron microscopy2020In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 24, article id 5734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, novel rigid polyurethane foams modified with Baltic Sea biomass were compared with traditional petro-based polyurethane foam as reference sample. A special attention was focused on complex studies of microstructure, which was visualized and measured in 3D with high-resolution microcomputed tomography (microCT) and, as commonly applied for this purpose, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The impact of pore volume, area, shape and orientation on appearance density and thermal insulation properties of polyurethane foams was determined. The results presented in the paper confirm that microcomputed tomography is a useful tool for relatively quick estimation of polyurethane foams’ microstructure, what is crucial especially in the case of thermal insulation materials. © 2020 by the authors. 

  • 18.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    et al.
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Bedon, Chiara
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Numerical Analysis and 1D/2D Sensitivity Study for Monolithic and Laminated Structural Glass Elements under Thermal Exposure2018In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 8, article id E1447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is largely used in architectural and engineering applications (i.e., buildings and vehicles) as a structural material, especially in the form of laminated glass (LG) sections. To achieve adequate and controlled safety levels in these applications, the well-known temperature-dependent behavior of viscoelastic interlayers for LG sections should be properly accounted for during the design process. Furthermore, the materials' thermomechanical degradation with increases of temperature could severely affect the load-bearing performance of glass assemblies. In this context, uncoupled thermomechanical finite element (FE) numerical models could represent a robust tool and support for design engineers. Key input parameters and possible limits of the FE method, however, should be properly calibrated and assessed, so as to enable reliable estimations for the real behavior of glazing systems. In this paper, FE simulations are proposed for monolithic (MG) and LG specimens under radiant heating, based on one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) models. A special attention is focused on thermal effects, being representative of the first step for conventional uncoupled, thermomechanical analyses. Based on experimental results available in the literature, FE parametric studies are discussed, giving evidence of limits and issues due to several modeling assumptions. In particular, careful consideration is paid for various thermal material properties (conductivity, specific heat) and thermal boundaries (conductivity, emissivity), but also for other influencing parameters like the geometrical features of samples (thickness tolerances, cross-sectional properties, etc.), the composition of LG sections (interlayer type, thickness), the loading pattern (heat transfer distribution) and the presence of additional mechanical restraints (i.e., supports of different materials). Comparative FE results are hence critically discussed, highlighting the major effects of such influencing parameters.

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  • 19.
    Lu, Huiran
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alvarado, Fernando
    RISE, Innventia.
    Behm, Mårten
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    RISE, Swerea. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jiebing
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lignin as a binder material for eco-friendly Li-ion batteries2016In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial lignin used here is a byproduct from Kraft pulp mills, extracted from black liquor. Since lignin is inexpensive, abundant and renewable, its utilization has attracted more and more attention. In this work, lignin was used for the first time as binder material for LiFePO4 positive and graphite negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. A procedure for pretreatment of lignin, where low-molecular fractions were removed by leaching, was necessary to obtain good battery performance. The lignin was analyzed for molecular mass distribution and thermal behavior prior to and after the pretreatment. Electrodes containing active material, conductive particles and lignin were cast on metal foils, acting as current collectors and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. Good reversible capacities were obtained, 148 mAh·g-1 for the positive electrode and 305 mAh·g-1 for the negative electrode. Fairly good rate capabilities were found for both the positive electrode with 117 mAh·g-1 and the negative electrode with 160 mAh·g-1 at 1C. Low ohmic resistance also indicated good binder functionality. The results show that lignin is a promising candidate as binder material for electrodes in eco-friendly Li-ion batteries.

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  • 20.
    Marques, Ana
    et al.
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Mocanu, Alexandra
    University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania.
    Tomić, Natasa
    Innovation Center of Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy Belgrade Ltd, Serbia.
    Balos, Sebastian
    University of Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Stammen, Elisabeth
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Lundevall, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Abrahami, Shoshan
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Günther, Roman
    Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland; ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    de Kok, John
    GKN Fokker Aerostructures BV, Netherlands.
    de Freitas, Sofia
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Review on adhesives and surface treatments for structural applications: Recent developments on sustainability and implementation for metal and composite substrates2020In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 24, article id 5590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using adhesives for connection technology has many benefits. It is cost-efficient, fast, and allows homogeneous stress distribution between the bonded surfaces. This paper gives an overview on the current state of knowledge regarding the technologically important area of adhesive materials, as well as on emergent related technologies. It is expected to fill some of the technological gaps between the existing literature and industrial reality, by focusing at opportunities and challenges in the adhesives sector, on sustainable and eco-friendly chemistries that enable bio-derived adhesives, recycling and debonding, as well as giving a brief overview on the surface treatment approaches involved in the adhesive application process, with major focus on metal and polymer matrix composites. Finally, some thoughts on the connection between research and development (R&D) efforts, industry standards and regulatory aspects are given. It contributes to bridge the gap between industry and research institutes/academy. Examples from the aeronautics industry are often used since many technological advances in this industry are innovation precursors for other industries. This paper is mainly addressed to chemists, materials scientists, materials engineers, and decision-makers. © 2020 by the authors. 

  • 21.
    Neikter, Magnus
    et al.
    University West, Sweden.
    Edin, Emil
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Proper, Sebastian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Bhaskar, Pahvan
    University West, Sweden.
    Nekkalapudi, Goper
    University West, Sweden.
    Linde, Oscar
    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Hansson, Thomas
    University West, Sweden; GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Pederson, Robert
    University West, Sweden.
    Tensile properties of 21-6-9 austenitic stainless steel built using laser powder-bed fusion2021In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 15, article id 4280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alloy 21-6-9 is an austenitic stainless steel with high strength, thermal stability at high temperatures, and retained toughness at cryogenic temperatures. This type of steel has been used for aerospace applications for decades, using traditional manufacturing processes. However, limited research has been conducted on this alloy manufactured using laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF). Therefore, in this work, a design of experiment (DOE) was performed to obtain optimized process parameters with regard to low porosity. Once the optimized parameters were established, horizontal and vertical blanks were built to investigate the mechanical properties and potential anisotropic behavior. As this alloy is exposed to elevated temperatures in industrial applications, the effect of elevated temperatures (room temperature and 750◦C) on the tensile properties was investigated. In this work, it was shown that alloy 21-6-9 could be built successfully using LPBF, with good properties and a density of 99.7%, having an ultimate tensile strength of 825 MPa, with an elongation of 41%, and without any significant anisotropic behavior. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 22.
    Opedal, Mihaela Tanase
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Espinosa, E.
    Universidad de Córdoba, Spain.
    Rodríguez, A.
    Universidad de Córdoba, Spain.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Lignin: A biopolymer from forestry biomass for biocomposites and 3D printing2019In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 18, article id 3006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biopolymers from forestry biomass are promising for the sustainable development of new biobased materials. As such, lignin and fiber-based biocomposites are plausible renewable alternatives to petrochemical-based products. In this study, we have obtained lignin from Spruce biomass through a soda pulping process. The lignin was used for manufacturing biocomposite filaments containing 20% and 40% lignin and using polylactic acid (PLA) as matrix material. Dogbones for mechanical testing were 3D printed by fused deposition modelling. The lignin and the corresponding biocomposites were characterized in detail, including thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), antioxidant capacity, mechanical properties, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although lignin led to a reduction of the tensile strength and modulus, the reduction could be counteracted to some extent by adjusting the 3D printing temperature. The results showed that lignin acted as a nucleating agent and thus led to further crystallization of PLA. The radical scavenging activity of the biocomposites increased to roughly 50% antioxidant potential/cm2, for the biocomposite containing 40 wt % lignin. The results demonstrate the potential of lignin as a component in biocomposite materials, which we show are adequate for 3D printing operations. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 23.
    Raza, Mohsin
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Bachinger, Angelika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Zahn, Nina
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Kickelbick, Guido
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Interaction and UV-stability of various organic capping agents on the surface of anatase nanoparticles2014In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 2890-2912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anatase nanoparticles synthesized by the sol-gel method were surface-functionalized with long alkyl chain coupling agents as compatibilizers for a nonpolar environment, containing different anchor groups for surface interaction namely phosphonate (dodecyl phosphonate), carboxylate (dodecanoic acid), sulfate (sodium dodecyl sulphate), and amine (dodecyl amine). It was shown that the surface of the nanoparticles can be functionalized with the various surface groups applying similar reaction conditions. The kind of surface interaction was analyzed applying FTIR spectroscopy. The phosphonate and the carboxylate groups interact with the surface via quite strong covalent or coordinative interactions, respectively. The sulfate and amine based coupling agents on the other hand exhibit electrostatic interactions. UV stability studies of the surface bound groups revealed different degradation mechanisms for the various functionalities and moreover showed that phosphonates are the most stable among the investigated surface capping groups.

  • 24.
    Rubia-Rodríguez, Irene
    et al.
    IMDEA, Spain.
    Santana-Otero, Antonio
    IMDEA, Spain.
    Spassov, Simo
    Geophysical Centre of the Royal Meteorological Institute, Belgium.
    Tombácz, Etelka
    University of Pannonia, Hungary.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    De La Presa, Patricia
    Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, Spain; Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Teran, Francisco J.
    IMDEA, Spain; Nanotech Solutions, Spain.
    del Puerto Morales, María
    Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Spain.
    Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino
    Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Spain.
    Thanh, Nguyen T. K.
    UCL Healthcare Biomagnetics and Nanomaterials Laboratories, UK; Biophysics Group, UK.
    Besenhard, Maximilian O.
    University College London, UK.
    Wilhelm, Claire
    Université de Paris, France.
    Gazeau, Florence
    Université de Paris, France.
    Harmer, Quentin
    Endomag, UK.
    Mayes, Eric
    Endomag, UK.
    Manshian, Bella B.
    Translational Cell and Tissue Research Unit, Belgium.
    Soenen, Stefaan J.
    Translational Cell and Tissue Research Unit, Belgium.
    Gu, Yuanyu
    INMA Instituto de Nanociencia de Materiales de Aragón, Spain.
    Millán, Ángel
    INMA Instituto de Nanociencia de Materiales de Aragón, Spain.
    Efthimiadou, Eleni K.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Gaudet, Jeff
    Magnetic Insight, USA.
    Goodwill, Patrick
    Magnetic Insight, USA.
    Mansfield, James
    Magnetic Insight, USA.
    Steinhoff, Uwe
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Wells, James
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Wiekhorst, Frank
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Ortega, Daniel
    Institute of Research and Innovation in Biomedical Sciences of the Province of Cádiz, Spain; Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, Spain; IMDEA, Spain.
    Whither Magnetic Hyperthermia?: A Tentative Roadmap2021In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scientific community has made great efforts in advancing magnetic hyperthermia for the last two decades after going through a sizeable research lapse from its establishment. All the progress made in various topics ranging from nanoparticle synthesis to biocompatibilization and in vivo testing have been seeking to push the forefront towards some new clinical trials. As many, they did not go at the expected pace. Today, fruitful international cooperation and the wisdom gain after a careful analysis of the lessons learned from seminal clinical trials allow us to have a future with better guarantees for a more definitive takeoff of this genuine nanotherapy against cancer. Deliberately giving prominence to a number of critical aspects, this opinion review offers a blend of state-of-the-art hints and glimpses into the future of the therapy, considering the expected evolution of science and technology behind magnetic hyperthermia.

  • 25.
    Sadagopan, M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Malaga, Katarina
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Nagy, A.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Improving recycled aggregate quality by mechanical pre-processing2020In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 19, article id 4342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete with crushed concrete aggregates (CCA) shows lesser compressive strength than reference concrete with natural aggregates. The goal of this study is to improve the strength of structural concrete with 53% and 100% CCA replacements without increasing the cement content. Thus, improvements in CCA quality are induced by combining mechanical and pre-soaking pre-processing techniques. Mechanical pre-processing by rotating drum is separately pursued on fine and coarse CCA for 10 and 15 min respectively. Results show, adhered mortar content and CCA water absorption reduces as pre-processing duration increases. Pre-processing influences CCA particle grading, flakiness index, shape index, void-content, unit-weight and density, jointly seen as packing density, which increases with pre-processing duration. Water amount to pre-soak CCA before concrete mixing is stable despite grading modifications, due to reduced water absorption resulting from mechanical pre-processing. Compressive strength and workability for pre-processed CCA50 and CCA100 concrete are comparable to reference concrete and show similar trends of improvement with packing density. Packing density markedly shows the quality improvements induced by pre-processing on CCA, maybe considered as one of the quality assessment indexes for CCA. Packing density should be investigated for other recipes to see the stability of the trend with workability and compressive strength. © 2020 by the authors. 

  • 26.
    Sadagopan, Madumita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Oliva Rivera, Alexander
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Nagy, Agnes
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Recycled Fine and Coarse Aggregates’ Contributions to the Fracture Energy and Mechanical Properties of Concrete2023In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 19, article id 6437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the fracture mechanical properties of concrete, using crushed concrete aggregates (CCA) and granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) for partial cement replacement. CCAs made from prefabricated concrete replace 100% of the fine and coarse fractions in concrete recipes with w/c ratios of 0.42 and 0.48. Two pre-treatment methods, mechanical pre-processing (MPCCA) and accelerated carbonation (CO2CCA), are investigated for quality improvements in CCA. The resulting aggregates show an increased density, contributing to an increase in the concrete’s compressive strength. The novelty of this paper is the superposition of the effects of the composite parts of concrete, the aggregate and the cement mortar, and their contributions to concrete fracture. Investigations are directed toward the influence of fine aggregates on mortar samples and the influence of the combination of coarse and fine aggregates on concrete samples. The physical and mechanical properties of the aggregates are correlated with mortar and concrete fracture properties. The results show that CCA concrete achieves 70% of the fracture energy values of concrete containing natural aggregates, and this value increases to 80% for GGBS mixes. At lower w/c ratios, MPCCA and CO2CCA concretes show similar fracture energies. CO2CCA fine aggregates are the most effective at strengthening the mortar phase, showing ductile concrete behavior at a w/c ratio of 0.48. MPCCA aggregates contribute to higher compressive strengths for w/c ratios of 0.42 and 0.48. Thus, mechanical pre-processing can be improved to produce CCA, which contributes to more ductile concrete behavior.

  • 27.
    Sepehri, Sobhan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Trey, Stacy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Lake, Kajsa
    2dFab AB, Sweden.
    Cumming, Carl
    Trelleborg Mixing Forsheda AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Aging in EPDM Rubber Using Electromagnetic Techniques2023In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 15, p. 5471-5471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the use of eddy-current technology and impedance spectroscopy in sensing the change in rubber properties after it is exposed to accelerated thermal aging. The thermal aging process, by application of temperature and pressure over time, of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubbers containing both carbon black (CB) and graphene are investigated. Both eddy-current sensing and electrical impedance measurement techniques were used for electromagnetic analysis. Both methods measure the in- and out-of-phase responses as a function of excitation frequency at room temperature. The measurements were performed before and after the aging process. The electrical percolation threshold was detected in the rubber samples by varying the CB content from 0 to 40 wt%. In the rubber sample containing 30 wt% CB, 0–5 wt% of the CB was replaced with graphene flakes. The substitution of graphene for CB in the EPDM rubber formulation provided an enhanced eddy-current and electrical impedance response. The findings demonstrate the feasibility of employing electromagnetic analysis techniques to investigate the extent of aging.

  • 28.
    Tidblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Kreislová, Katerina
    Svuom Ltd, Czech Republic.
    Faller, Markus
    Empa, Switzerland.
    de la Fuente, Daniel
    CENIM National Centre for Metallurgical Research, Spain.
    Yates, Tim
    BRE Building Research Establishment Ltd, UK.
    Verney-Carron, Aurelie
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Grøntoft, Terje
    NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Gordon, Andrew
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Hans, Ulrik
    Empa, Switzerland.
    ICP materials trends in corrosion, soiling and air pollution (1987-2014)2017In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from the international cooperative programme on effects on materials including historic and cultural monuments are presented from the period 1987-2014 and include pollution data (SO2, NO2, O3, HNO3 and PM10), corrosion data (carbon steel, weathering steel, zinc, copper, aluminium and limestone) and data on the soiling of modern glass for nineteen industrial, urban and rural test sites in Europe. Both one-year and four-year corrosion data are presented. Corrosion and pollution have decreased significantly and a shift in the magnitude is generally observed around 1997: from a sharp decrease to a more modest decrease or to a constant level without any decrease. SO2 levels, carbon steel and copper corrosion have decreased even after 1997, which is more pronounced in urban areas, while corrosion of the other materials shows no decrease after 1997, when looking at one-year values. When looking at four-year values, however, there is a significant decrease after 1997 for zinc, which is not evident when looking at the one-year values. This paper also presents results on corrosion kinetics by comparison of one- and four-year values. For carbon steel and copper, kinetics is relatively independent of sites while other materials, especially zinc, show substantial variation in kinetics for the first four years, which needs to be considered when producing new and possibly improved models for corrosion. © 2017 by the authors.

  • 29.
    Wemmer, Judith
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Malafronte, Loredana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Foschini, Socrates
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Schneider, Alina
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Schlepütz, Christian
    Swiss Light Source, Switzerland.
    Leser, Martin
    Société des Produits Nestlé SA, Switzerland.
    Michel, Martin
    Société des Produits Nestlé SA, Switzerland.
    Burbigde, Adam
    Société des Produits Nestlé SA, Switzerland.
    Windhab, Erich
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fabrication of a novel protein sponge with dual-scale porosity and mixed wettability using a clean and versatile microwave-based process2021In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 9, article id 2298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An open-porous protein sponge with mixed wettability is presented made entirely from whey proteins and with promising applications in biomedicine, pharmaceutical, and food industry. The fabrication relies on an additive-free, clean and scalable process consisting of foaming followed by controlled microwave-convection drying. Volumetric heating throughout the matrix induced by microwaves causes fast expansion and elongation of the foam bubbles, retards crust formation and promotes early protein denaturation. These effects counteract collapse and shrinkage typically encountered in convection drying of foams. The interplay of high protein content, tailored gas incorporation and controlled drying result in a dried structure with dual-scale porosity composed of open macroscopic elongated foam bubbles and microscopic pores in the surrounding solid lamellae induced by water evaporation. Due to the insolubility and mixed wettability of the denatured protein network, polar and non-polar liquids are rapidly absorbed into the interconnected capillary system of the sponge without disintegrating. While non-watery liquids penetrate the pores by capillary suction, water diffuses also into the stiff protein matrix, inducing swelling and softening. Consequently, the water-filled soft sponge can be emptied by compression and re-absorbs any wetting liquid into the free capillary space. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 30.
    Zavalis, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Ström, Mats
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Wendel, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Törne, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Taxén, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Rendahl, Bo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Voltaire, Joakim
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Katarina
    Gestamp HardTech AB, Sweden.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Mechanistic Model with Empirical Pitting Onset Approach for Detailed and Efficient Virtual Analysis of Atmospheric Bimetallic Corrosion2023In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 3, article id 923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mechanistic model of atmospheric bimetallic corrosion with a simplified empirical approach to the onset of localized corrosion attacks is presented. The model was built for a typical bimetallic sample containing aluminum alloy 1050 and stainless steel 316L sheets. A strategy was developed that allowed the model to be calibrated against the measured galvanic current, geometrical corrosion attack properties, and corrosion products. The pitting-onset simplification sets all pits to be formed at a position near the nobler metal and treated all pits as being of the same shape and size. The position was based on the location of the highest pitting events and the pit attributes on an average of the deepest pits. For 5 h exposure at controlled RH (85%, 91%, and 97%) and salt load (86 μg NaCl/cm2), the model was shown to be promising: both for analysis of local bimetallic corrosion chemistry, such as pH and corrosion products, and for efficient assessment of pitting damage by computing a single largest pit depth. Parametric studies indicated that the pitting-onset approximation deviated the most at the beginning of exposure and when RH was below 91%. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 31.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karasev, Andrey
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The effect of different non-metallic inclusions on the machinability of steels2015In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 751-783Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non-metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc.) are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

1 - 31 of 31
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