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  • 1.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Optical methods for the quantification of the fibrillation degree of bleached MFC materials2013In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Averianova, N.
    Gibadullin, M.
    Petrov, V.
    Leirset, Ingebjörg
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Micro-structural characterisation of homogeneous and layered MFC nano-composites2013In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Averianova, N
    Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia.
    Kondalenko, O
    Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia.
    Garaeva, M
    Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia.
    Petrov, V
    Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia.
    The effect of residual fibres on the micro-topography of cellulose nanopaper2014In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 56, p. 80-84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Gamelas, José A. F.
    et al.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Pedrosa, Jorge
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Lourenco, Ana F.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Mutjo, Peré
    University of Girona, Spain.
    Gonzalez, Israel
    University of Girona, Spain.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Singh, Gurvinder
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ferreira, Paulo J. T.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    On the morphology of cellulose nanofibrils obtained by TEMPO-mediated oxidation and mechanical treatment2015In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 72, p. 28-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The morphological properties of cellulose nanofibrils obtained from eucalyptus pulp fibres were assessed. Two samples were produced with the same chemical treatment (NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical) oxidation), but distinct mechanical treatment intensities during homogenization. It was shown that the nanofibrils production yield increases with the mechanical energy. The effect of mechanical treatment on the yield was confirmed by laser profilometry of air-dried nanocellulose films. However, no significant differences were detected regarding the nanofibrils width as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) of air-dried films. On the other hand, differences in size were found either by laser diffraction spectroscopy or by dynamic light scattering (DLS) of the cellulose nanofibrils suspensions as a consequence of the differences in the length distribution of both samples. The nanofibrils length of the more nanofibrillated sample was calculated based on the width measured by AFM and the hydrodynamic diameter obtained by DLS. A length value of ca. 600. nm was estimated. The DLS hydrodynamic diameter, as an equivalent spherical diameter, was used to estimate the nanofibrils length assuming a cylinder with the same volume and with the diameter (width) assessed by AFM. A simple method is thus proposed to evaluate the cellulose nanofibrils length combining microscopy and light scattering methods.

  • 5.
    Hamngren Blomqvist, C.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gebäck, T.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Gustafsson, S.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Olsson, E.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Interconnectivity imaged in three dimensions: Nano-particulate silica-hydrogel structure revealed using electron tomography2017In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 100, p. 91-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used Electron Tomography (ET) to reveal the detailed three-dimensional structure of particulate hydrogels, a material category common in e.g. controlled release, food science, battery and biomedical applications. A full understanding of the transport properties of these gels requires knowledge about the pore structure and in particular the interconnectivity in three dimensions, since the transport takes the path of lowest resistance. The image series for ET were recorded using High-Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM). We have studied three different particulate silica hydrogels based on primary particles with sizes ranging from 3.6 nm to 22 nm and with pore-size averages from 18 nm to 310 nm. Here, we highlight the nanostructure of the particle network and the interpenetrating pore network in two and three dimensions. The interconnectivity and distribution of width of the porous channels were obtained from the three-dimensional tomography studies while they cannot unambiguously be obtained from the two-dimensional data. Using ET, we compared the interconnectivity and accessible pore volume fraction as a function of pore size, based on direct images on the nanoscale of three different hydrogels. From this comparison, it was clear that the finest of the gels differentiated from the other two. Despite the almost identical flow properties of the two finer gels, they showed large differences concerning the accessible pore volume fraction for probes corresponding to their (two-dimensional) mean pore size. Using 2D pore size data, the finest gel provided an accessible pore volume fraction of over 90%, but for the other two gels the equivalent was only 10–20%. However, all the gels provided an accessible pore volume fraction of 30–40% when taking the third dimension into account.

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