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  • 1.
    Bienert, Kathrin
    et al.
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Schumacher, Britt
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Arboleda, Martin
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany; Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Billig, Eric
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Shakya, Semiksha
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Rogstrand, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Zielinski, Marcin
    University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Debowski, Marcin
    University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Multi-indicator assessment of innovative small-scale biomethane technologies in Europe2019Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikel-id 1321Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative small-scale biogas plants, including upgrading solutions to affordable biomethane, are necessary to tap into the spatially distributed potentials of organic waste. This research identified and assessed novel small-scale technologies before market-entry maturity in the key process steps of the biomethane chain. We assessed technical, economic, and ecological indicators, and compared them to larger-scale references. The assessment included 7 pre-treatment, 13 digester, and 11 upgrading systems all at the small scale. We collected recently available data for Europe (2016–2018) for small-scale technologies (<200 m 3 ; raw biogas per hour). In the literature we did not find such a comprehensive assessment of actual European small-scale innovative non-market-ready technologies for the production of biomethane. Several conclusions were drawn for each of the individual process steps in the biomethane chain, e.g., the economic indicator calculated for the upgrading technologies shows that the upgrading costs, for some of them, are already close to the larger-scale reference (about 1.5 €ct/kWh raw biogas). Furthermore, biomethane production is absolutely context-specific, which dramatically limits the traditional way to evaluate technologies. Hence, new ways of integration of the technologies plays a major role on their future

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Hadin, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Hennessy, Jay
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi. University of Mälardalen, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Life cycle assessment of horse manure treatment2016Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikel-id 1011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1) unmanaged composting; (2) managed composting; (3) large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant; (4) drying and small-scale combustion; and (5) liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

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  • 3.
    Keucken, Alexander
    et al.
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Habagil, Moshe
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sludge and Organic FoodWaste — Performance, Inhibition, and Impact on theMicrobial Community2018Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikel-id 2325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion allows for under-utilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), i.e., food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper investigates the co-digestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment plants and OFMSW, through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling, and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process, and an increase of the biomethane production by 20% to 40%, when codigesting mixed sludge with OFMSW at a ratio of 1:1, based on the volatile solids (VS) content. The introduction of OFMSW also has an impact on the microbial community. With 50% co-substrate and constant loading conditions (1 kg VS/m3/d) the methanogenic activity increases and adapts towards acetate degradation, while the community in the reference reactor, without a co-substrate, remains unaffected. An elevated load (2 kg VS/m3/d) increases the methanogenic activity in both reactors, but the composition of the methanogenic population remains constant for the reference reactor. The modelling shows that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads, and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in the digester performance, due to varying inhibition. The paper demonstrates how modelling can be used for designing feed strategies and experimental setups for anaerobic co-digestion.

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  • 4.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Boork, Magdalena
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Barriers, driving forces and non-energy benefits for battery storage in photovoltaic (PV) systems in modern agriculture2019Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 18, artikel-id 3568Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Battery storage has been highlighted as one way to increase the share of renewables in energy systems. The use of local battery storage is also beneficial when reducing power variations in the grid, thereby contributing to more robust and cost-effective energy systems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits (NEB) for investments in battery storage in photovoltaic systems (PV) in the context of farmers with PV systems in Sweden. The study is based on a questionnaire about barriers, driving forces and NEB for investment in battery storage connected to PV. The questionnaire was sent to farmers in Sweden who already have photovoltaics installed and about 100 persons answered, a response rate of 59%. The major barriers found are related to the technical and economic risks of investing in battery storage. One of the main conclusions is that the highest-ranked driver, i.e., to use a larger part of the produced electricity oneself, turns out to be the highest priority for the grid-owner seeking to reduce the need for extensive investments in the grid. The primary NEBs found were the possibility of becoming independent from grid electricity. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 5.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Matsakas, Leonidis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Technoeconomic assessment of hybrid organosolv-steam explosion pretreatment of woody biomass2019Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 21, artikel-id en12214206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates technoeconomic performance of standalone biorefinery concepts that utilize hybrid organic solvent and steam explosion pretreatment technique. The assessments were made based on a mathematical process model developed in UniSim Design software using inhouse experimental data. The work was motivated by successful experimental applications of the hybrid pretreatment technique on lignocellulosic feedstocks that demonstrated high fractionation efficiency into a cellulose-rich, a hemicellulose-rich and lignin streams. For the biorefinery concepts studied here, the targeted final products were ethanol, organosolv lignin and hemicellulose syrup. Minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) and Internal rate of return (IRR) were evaluated as economic indicators of the investigated biorefinery concepts. Depending on the configuration, and allocating all costs to ethanol, MESP in the range 0.53-0.95 €/L were required for the biorefinery concepts to break even. Under the assumed ethanol reference price of 0.55 €/L, the corresponding IRR were found to be in the range -1.75-10.7%. Hemicellulose degradation and high steam demand identified as major sources of inefficiencies for the process and economic performance, respectively. Sensitivity of MESP and IRR towards the most influential technical, economic and market parameters performed. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 6.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad. Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dennis
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bagge, Hans
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The Effect of High Occupancy Density on IAQ, Moisture Conditions and Energy Use in Apartments2019Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 23, artikel-id 4454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Apartments built in Sweden during the record years 1961–1975 with the aim to remedy thehousing shortage and abolish poor standards, were designed for a normal-sized family of 2–4 persons.The mechanical ventilation system, if existing, was primarily designed to ensure an air exchange inthe apartment according to Swedish building regulations. During the last few years, the number ofovercrowded apartments has increased due to housing shortage in general but also due to migration.Another aspect is that the ventilation in many apartments built during the record years is alreadyinsucient at normal occupant load. The question is how doubling or tripling the number ofoccupants and thus, the moisture load will aect the risk of bad air quality and moisture damage.To find out, simulations were made to estimate whether it is possible to obtain sucient air qualityand low risk of moisture damage by only increasing the ventilation rates in existing systems orintroducing new ventilation systems with and without heat recovery and what the consequencewould be in terms of the additional energy demand. Measurements from earlier studies of CO2 andmoisture supply in Swedish apartment buildings were used as input data.

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  • 7. Svens, P.
    et al.
    Kjell, M.H.
    Tengstedt, C.
    Flodberg, Göran
    RISE., Innventia.
    Lindbergh, G.
    Li-ion pouch cells for vehicle applications-studies of water transmission and packing materials2013Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, nr 1, s. 400-410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Ylmen, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Life Cycle Assessment of an Office Building Based on Site-Specific Data2019Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 13, artikel-id 2588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an established method to assess the various environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a building. The goal of this project was to calculate the environmental releases for a whole office building and investigate the contribution in terms of environmental impact for different parts of the building, as well as the impact from different stages of the life cycle. The construction process was followed up during production and the contractors provided real-time data on the input required in terms of building products, transport, machinery, energy use, etc. The results are presented for five environmental impact categories and, as expected, materials that constitute the main mass of the building and the energy used during operation contribute the largest share of environmental impact. It is usually difficult to evaluate the environmental impact of the materials in technical installations due to the lack of data. However, in this study, the data were provided by the contractors directly involved in the construction and can, therefore, be considered highly reliable. The results show that materials for installations have a significant environmental impact for four of the environmental impact categories studied, which is a noteworthy finding.

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