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  • 1.
    Cavallaro, Sara
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hååg, Petra
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Viktorsson, Kristina
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Krozer, Anatol
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Fogel, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Lewensohn, Rolf
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dev, Apurba
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Comparison and optimization of nanoscale extracellular vesicle imaging by scanning electron microscopy for accurate size-based profiling and morphological analysis2021In: Nanoscale Advances, E-ISSN 2516-0230, Vol. 3, no 11, p. 3053-3063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanosized extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been found to play a key role in intercellular communication, offering opportunities for both disease diagnostics and therapeutics. However, lying below the diffraction limit and also being highly heterogeneous in their size, morphology and abundance, these vesicles pose significant challenges for physical characterization. Here, we present a direct visual approach for their accurate morphological and size-based profiling by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To achieve that, we methodically examined various process steps and developed a protocol to improve the throughput, conformity and image quality while preserving the shape of EVs. The study was performed with small EVs (sEVs) isolated from a non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line as well as from human serum, and the results were compared with those obtained from nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). While the comparison of the sEV size distributions showed good agreement between the two methods for large sEVs (diameter > 70 nm), the microscopy based approach showed a better capacity for analyses of smaller vesicles, with higher sEV counts compared to NTA. In addition, we demonstrated the possibility of identifying non-EV particles based on size and morphological features. The study also showed process steps that can generate artifacts bearing resemblance with sEVs. The results therefore present a simple way to use a widely available microscopy tool for accurate and high throughput physical characterization of EVs.

  • 2.
    González-Alonso, David
    et al.
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Espeso, Jose I.
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Gavilán, Helena
    ICMM/CSIC Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Spain.
    Zeng, Lunjie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernandez-Diaz, Maria Teresa
    Institut Laue-Langevin, France.
    Subías, Gloria
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain.
    de Pedro, Imanol
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Rogriguez, Jesus
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Bender, Philipp
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Fernandez Barquin, Luis
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Identifying the presence of magnetite in an ensemble of Iron-oxide nanoparticles: A comparative Neutron diffraction study between bulk and nanoscale.2021In: Nanoscale Advances, E-ISSN 2516-0230, Vol. 3, p. 3491-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific interest in iron–oxides and in particular magnetite has been renewed due to the broad scope of its fascinating properties, which are finding applications in electronics and biomedicine. Specifically, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are gathering attraction in biomedicine. Their cores are usually constituted by a mixture of maghemite/magnetite phases. In view of this, to fine-tune the properties of an ensemble of IONPs towards their applications, it is essential to enhance mass fabrication processes towards the production of monodispersed IONPs with controlled size, shape, and stoichiometry. We exploit the vacancy sensitivity of the Verwey transition to detect the presence of magnetite. Here we are providing a direct evidence of the Verwey transition in an ensemble of IONPs through neutron diffraction. This transition is observed as a variation in the Fe moment at the octahedral sites and, in turn, gives rise to a change of the net magnetic moment. Finally, we show this variation as the microscopic ingredient driving the characteristic kink that hallmarks the Verwey transition in thermal variation of magnetization.

  • 3.
    Kaur, Jasreen
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kelpsiene, Egle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gupta, Govind
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Dobryden, Illia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Cedervall, Tommy
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fadeel, Bengt
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Label-free detection of polystyrene nanoparticles in Daphnia magna using Raman confocal mapping2023In: Nanoscale Advances, E-ISSN 2516-0230, Vol. 5, no 13, p. 3453-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro- and nanoplastic pollution has emerged as a global environmental problem. Moreover, plastic particles are of increasing concern for human health. However, the detection of so-called nanoplastics in relevant biological compartments remains a challenge. Here we show that Raman confocal spectroscopy-microscopy can be deployed for the non-invasive detection of amine-functionalized and carboxy-functionalized polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (NPs) in Daphnia magna. The presence of PS NPs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of D. magna was confirmed by using transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we investigated the ability of NH2-PS NPs and COOH-PS NPs to disrupt the epithelial barrier of the GI tract using the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29. To this end, the cells were differentiated for 21 days and then exposed to PS NPs followed by cytotoxicity assessment and transepithelial electrical resistance measurements. A minor disruption of barrier integrity was noted for COOH-PS NPs, but not for the NH2-PS NPs, while no overt cytotoxicity was observed for both NPs. This study provides evidence of the feasibility of applying label-free approaches, i.e., confocal Raman mapping, to study PS NPs in a biological system. 

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