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  • 1.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Machalická, Klara
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Eliášová, Martina
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vokáč, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Wüest, Thomas
    Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    Santos, Filipe
    LucerneUniversity of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Structural characterisation of adaptive facades in Europe - Part II: Validity of conventional experimental testing methods and key issues2019In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 25, article id 100797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given their intrinsic features, adaptive facades are required to satisfy rigid structural performances, in addition to typical insulation, thermal and energy requirements. These include a minimum of safety and serviceability levels under ordinary design loads, durability, robustness, fire resistance, capacity to sustain severe seismic events or other natural hazards, etc. The overall design process of adaptive facades may include further challenges and uncertainties especially in the case of complex assemblies, where multiple combinations of material-related phenomena, kinematic effects, geometrical and mechanical characteristics could take place. In this context, experimental testing at the component and/or at the full-scale assembly level has a fundamental role, to prove that all the expected performance parameters are properly fulfilled. Several standards and guideline documents are available in the literature, and provide recommendations and procedures in support of conventional testing approaches for the certification and performance assessment of facades. These documents, however, are specifically focused on ordinary, static envelopes, and no provisions are given for the experimental testing of dynamic, adaptive skins. In this regard, it is hence expected that a minimum of conventional experimental procedures may be directly extended from static to dynamic facades. However, the validity of standardized procedures for adaptive skins is still an open issue. Novel and specific experimental approaches are then necessarily required, to assess the structural characteristics of adaptive facades, depending on their properties and on the design detailing. In this paper, existing fundamental standards for testing traditional facades are first recalled and commented. Special care is spent for the validity and reliability of conventional testing methods for innovative, adaptive envelopes, including a discussion on selected experimental methods for facade components and systems. Non-conventional testing procedures which may be useful for adaptive skins are then also discussed in the paper, as resulting from the research efforts of the European COST Action TU1403 ‘Adaptive facades network’ - ‘Structural’ Task Group.

  • 2.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Machalická, Klára V.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Eliášová, Martina
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vokáč, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Wüest, Thomas
    Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    Santos, Filipe
    CERIS, Portugal.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Structural characterisation of adaptive facades in Europe – Part I: Insight on classification rules, performance metrics and design methods2019In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive facades are increasingly used in modern buildings, where they can take the form of complex systems and manifest their adaptivity in several ways. Adaptive envelopes must meet the requirements defined by structural considerations, which include structural safety, serviceability, durability, robustness and fire safety. For these novel skins, based on innovative design solutions, experimentation at the component and / or assembly level is required to prove that these requirements are fulfilled. The definition of appropriate metrics is hence also recommended. A more complex combination of material-related, kinematic, geometrical and mechanical aspects should in fact be properly taken into account, compared to traditional, static facades. Accordingly, specific experimental methods and regulations are required for these novel skins. As an outcome of the European COST Action TU1403 ‘Adaptive facades network’ - ‘Structural’ Task Group, this paper collects some recent examples and design concepts of adaptive systems, specifically including a new classification proposal and the definition of some possible metrics for their structural performance assessment. The aim is to provide a robust background and detailed state-of-the-art information for these novel structural systems, towards the development of standardised and reliable procedures for their mechanical and thermo-physical characterisation.

  • 3.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tensile behaviour of textile reinforcement under accelerated ageing conditions2016In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 5, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile reinforced concrete (TRC) has emerged as a promising alternative wherein corrosion is no longer an issue and much thinner and light-weight elements can be designed. Although TRC has been expansively researched, the formalization of experimental methods concerning durability arises when attempting to implement and design such innovative building materials. In this study, accelerated ageing tests paired with tensile tests were performed. The change in physico-mechanical properties of various commercially available textile reinforcements was documented and evaluated. The ability for the reinforcements to retain their tensile capacity was also quantified in the form of empirical degradation curves. It was observed that accelerated test parameters typically applied to fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars and grids are generally too aggressive for the textile reinforcement products and alternative boundary conditions are necessary. The developed degradation curves were found to have an overall good correlation with the experimental findings.

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