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  • 1.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sani, Negar
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Kawahara, Jun
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. LINTEC Corporation, Japan.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Sweden; Aix-Marseille University, France.
    Nissa, Josefin
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ferroelectric polarization induces electronic nonlinearity in ion-doped conducting polymers2017In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 6, article id e1700345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is an organic mixed ion-electron conducting polymer. The PEDOT phase transports holes and is redox-active, whereas the PSS phase transports ions. When PEDOT is redox-switched between its semiconducting and conducting state, the electronic and optical properties of its bulk are controlled. Therefore, it is appealing to use this transition in electrochemical devices and to integrate those into large-scale circuits, such as display or memory matrices. Addressability and memory functionality of individual devices, within these matrices, are typically achieved by nonlinear current-voltage characteristics and bistability—functions that can potentially be offered by the semiconductor-conductor transition of redox polymers. However, low conductivity of the semiconducting state and poor bistability, due to self-discharge, make fast operation and memory retention impossible. We report that a ferroelectric polymer layer, coated along the counter electrode, can control the redox state of PEDOT. The polarization switching characteristics of the ferroelectric polymer, which take place as the coercive field is overcome, introduce desired nonlinearity and bistability in devices that maintain PEDOT in its highly conducting and fast-operating regime. Memory functionality and addressability are demonstrated in ferro-electrochromic display pixels and ferro-electrochemical transistors. 

  • 2.
    Jonsson, A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Song, Z.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Meyerson, B. A.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Simon, D. T.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Linderoth, B.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Berggren, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Therapy using implanted organic bioelectronics2015In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, no 4, article id 1500039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many drugs provide their therapeutic action only at specific sites in the body, but are administered in ways that cause the drug’s spread throughout the organism. This can lead to serious side effects. Local delivery from an implanted device may avoid these issues, especially if the delivery rate can be tuned according to the need of the patient. We turned to electronically and ionically conducting polymers to design a device that could be implanted and used for local electrically controlled delivery of therapeutics. The conducting polymers in our device allow electronic pulses to be transduced into biological signals, in the form of ionic and molecular fluxes, which provide a way of interfacing biology with electronics. Devices based on conducting polymers and polyelectrolytes have been demonstrated in controlled substance delivery to neural tissue, biosensing, and neural recording and stimulation. While providing proof of principle of bioelectronic integration, such demonstrations have been performed in vitro or in anesthetized animals. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of an implantable organic electronic delivery device for the treatment of neuropathic pain in an animal model. Devices were implanted onto the spinal cord of rats, and 2 days after implantation, local delivery of the inhibitory neurotransmitter g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was initiated. Highly localized delivery resulted in a significant decrease in pain response with low dosage and no observable side effects. This demonstration of organic bioelectronics-based therapy in awake animals illustrates a viable alternative to existing pain treatments, paving the way for future implantable bioelectronic therapeutics. 2015 © The Authors.

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