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  • 1.
    Gonzalo Peces, Carlos
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Sleepy Devices Versus Radio Duty Cycling: The Case of Lightweight M2M2019In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 2550-2562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard protocols for wireless Internet of Things (IoT) communication must be energy-efficient in order to prolong the lifetimes of IoT devices. Two energy-saving strategies for wireless communication are prevalent within the IoT domain: 1) sleepy devices and 2) radio duty cycling. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive evaluation as to what types of application scenarios benefit the most from either type of energy-saving strategy. We select the lightweight machine to machine (LwM2M) protocol for this purpose because it operates atop the standard constrained application protocol, and has support for sleepy devices through its Queue Mode. We implement the Queue Mode at both the server side and client side, and design enhancements of Queue Mode to further improve the performance. In our experimental evaluation, we compare the performance and characteristics of Queue Mode with that of running LwM2M in a network stack with the standard time-slotted channel hopping as the duty cycling medium access control protocol. By analyzing the results with the support of an empirical model, we find that each energy-saving strategy has different advantages and disadvantages depending on the scenario and traffic pattern. Hence, we also produce guidelines that can help developers to select the appropriate energy-saving strategy based on the application scenario.

  • 2.
    Hahm, Oliver
    et al.
    Inria, France.
    Baccelli, Emmanuel
    Inria, France.
    Petersen, Hauke
    Free University of Berlin, Germany.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Operating Systems for Low-End Devices in the Internet of Things: a Survey2015In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 720-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is projected to soon interconnect tens of billions of new devices, in large part also connected to the Internet. IoT devices include both high-end devices which can use traditional go-to operating systems (OSs) such as Linux, and low-end devices which cannot, due to stringent resource constraints, e.g., very limited memory, computational power, and power supply. However, large-scale IoT software development, deployment, and maintenance requires an appropriate OS to build upon. In this paper, we thus analyze in detail the specific requirements that an OS should satisfy to run on low-end IoT devices, and we survey applicable OSs, focusing on candidates that could become an equivalent of Linux for such devices, i.e., a one-size-fits-most, open source OS for low-end IoT devices.

  • 3.
    Liu, Ye
    et al.
    Nanjing Agricultural University and Southeast University, China.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wirstrom, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hoglund, Joel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    ECOVIBE: On-Demand Sensing for Railway Bridge Structural Health Monitoring2019In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1068-1078, article id 8445576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficient sensing is one of the main objectives in the design of networked embedded monitoring systems. However, existing approaches such as duty cycling and ambient energy harvesting face challenges in railway bridge health monitoring applications due to the unpredictability of train passages and insufficient ambient energy around bridges. This paper presents ECOVIBE (Eco-friendly Vibration), an on-demand sensing system that automatically turns on itself when a train passes on the bridge and adaptively powers itself off after finishing all tasks. After that, it goes into an inactive state with near-zero power dissipation. ECOVIBE achieves these by: Firstly, a novel, fully passive event detection circuit to continuously detect passing trains without consuming any energy. Secondly, combining train-induced vibration energy harvesting with a transistor-based load switch, a tiny amount of energy is sufficient to keep ECOVIBE active for a long time. Thirdly, a passive adaptive off control circuit is introduced to quickly switch off ECOVIBE. Also this circuit does not consume any energy during inactivity periods. We present the prototype implementation of the proposed system using commercially available components and evaluate its performance in real-world scenarios. Our results show that ECOVIBE is effective in railway bridge health monitoring applications.

  • 4.
    Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Magnusson, Runar M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    TinyIKE: Lightweight IKEv2 for Internet of Things2019In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 856-866, article id 8424816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is unanimous consensus that cyber security in the IoT is necessary. In cyber security, key establishment is one of the toughest problems. It is even more challenging in resource-constrained but Internet-connected IoT devices that use low-power wireless communication. A number of IoT communication protocols define cryptographic mechanisms for confidentiality and integrity services but do not specify key management. For example, IEEE 802.15.4, RPL, and object security all rely on external key management protocols. Due to the lack of automatic key management support, IoT devices either end up using pre-shared keys or no security at all. In this paper we overcome these challenges and present TinyIKE, a lightweight adaptation of IKEv2 for the IoT. Using TinyIKE, we solve the key establishment problem for multiple IoT protocols using a single IKEv2-based solution. We implement TinyIKE for resource-constrained IoT devices that run the Contiki OS. The TinyIKE implementation supports full certificate-based IKEv2 that uses Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). In order to ensure the feasibility of TinyIKE in the IoT, we perform an extensive evaluation of TinyIKE using a setup consisting of real IoT hardware.

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