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  • 1.
    Beurey, Claire
    et al.
    Air Liquide Paris Innovation Campus, France .
    Gozlan, Bruno
    Air Liquide Paris Innovation Campus, France .
    Carré, Martine
    Air Liquide Paris Innovation Campus, France .
    Bacquart, Thomas
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Morris, Abigail
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Moore, Niamh
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Meuzelaar, Heleen
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Persijn, Stefan
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Rojo, Andres
    Centro Español de Metrología, Spain.
    Murugan, Arul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Review and Survey of Methods for Analysis of Impurities in Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Vehicles According to ISO 14687:20192021Ingår i: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 8, artikel-id 615149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaseous hydrogen for fuel cell electric vehicles must meet quality standards such as ISO 14687:2019 which contains maximal control thresholds for several impurities which could damage the fuel cells or the infrastructure. A review of analytical techniques for impurities analysis has already been carried out by Murugan et al. in 2014. Similarly, this document intends to review the sampling of hydrogen and the available analytical methods, together with a survey of laboratories performing the analysis of hydrogen about the techniques being used. Most impurities are addressed, however some of them are challenging, especially the halogenated compounds since only some halogenated compounds are covered, not all of them. The analysis of impurities following ISO 14687:2019 remains expensive and complex, enhancing the need for further research in this area. Novel and promising analyzers have been developed which need to be validated according to ISO 21087:2019 requirements.  © 2021 Beurey, Gozlan, Carré, Bacquart, Morris, Moore, Arrhenius, Meuzelaar, Persijn, Rojo and Murugan.

  • 2.
    Ilanidis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Stagge, Stefan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Cavka, Adnan
    SEKAB E-Technology AB, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Leif
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Comparison of Efficiency and Cost of Methods for Conditioning of Slurries of Steam-Pretreated Softwood2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 9, artikel-id 701980Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhibitors formed during pretreatment impair lignocellulose bioconversion by making enzymatic saccharification and microbial fermentation less efficient, but conditioning of slurries and hydrolysates can improve fermentability and sometimes also enzymatic digestibility. Conditioning of pretreated softwood using four industrial reducing agents (sodium sulfite, sodium dithionite, sodium borohydride, and hydrogen) was compared with standard methods, such as overliming and treatment with activated charcoal. A dosage of approx. 1 mM sulfur oxyanion (sulfite or dithionite) per percent water-insoluble solids (WIS) in the slurry was found to result in good fermentability. Treatment of 10–20% WIS slurries with 15 mM sulfur oxyanion under mild reaction conditions (23°C, pH 5.5) resulted in sulfonation of the solid phase and saccharification improvements of 18–24% for dithionite and 13–16% for sulfite. Among the different conditioning methods studied, treatment of slurries with sodium sulfite was superior with respect to cost-efficient improvement of fermentability. Treatments of slurry or pretreatment liquid with 15 mM sulfite or dithionite resulted in 58–76% reduction of the content of formaldehyde. The comparison indicates that conditioning of pretreated biomass using sulfur oxyanions warrants further attention. 

  • 3.
    Jafri, Y.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Korrosion.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Harvey, S.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Svensson, E.
    CIT Industriell Energy AB, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; IIASA, Austria.
    Double Yields and Negative Emissions?: Resource, Climate and Cost Efficiencies in Biofuels With Carbon Capture, Storage and Utilization2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 10, artikel-id 797529Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As fossil-reliant industries turn to sustainable biomass for energy and material supply, the competition for biogenic carbon is expected to intensify. Using process level carbon and energy balance models, this paper shows how the capture of residual CO2 in conjunction with either permanent storage (CCS) or biofuel production (CCU) benefits fourteen largely residue-based biofuel production pathways. With a few noteworthy exceptions, most pathways have low carbon utilization efficiencies (30–40%) without CCS/U. CCS can double these numbers and deliver negative emission biofuels with GHG footprints below −50 g CO2 eq./MJ for several pathways. Compared to CCS with no revenue from CO2 sequestration, CCU can offer the same efficiency gains at roughly two-third the biofuel production cost (e.g., 99 EUR/MWh vs. 162 EUR/MWh) but the GHG reduction relative to fossil fuels is significantly smaller (18 g CO2 eq./MJ vs. −99 g CO2 eq./MJ). From a combined carbon, cost and climate perspective, although commercial pathways deliver the cheapest biofuels, it is the emerging pathways that provide large-scale carbon-efficient GHG reductions. There is thus some tension between alternatives that are societally best and those that are economically most interesting for investors. Biofuel pathways vent CO2 in both concentrated and dilute streams Capturing both provides the best environomic outcomes. Existing pathways that can deliver low-cost GHG reductions but generate relatively small quantities of CO2 are unlikely to be able to finance the transport infrastructure required for transformative bio-CCS deployment. CCS and CCU are accordingly important tools for simultaneously reducing biogenic carbon wastage and GHG emissions, but to unlock their full benefits in a cost-effective manner, emerging biofuel technology based on the gasification and hydrotreatment of forest residues need to be commercially deployed imminently. Copyright © 2022 Jafri, Ahlström, Furusjö, Harvey, Pettersson, Svensson and Wetterlund.

  • 4.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Engvall, Klas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Electrolysis Assisted Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuels Production2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 10, artikel-id 799553Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification is a promising pathway for converting biomass residues into renewable transportation fuels and chemicals needed to comply with the ambitious Swedish environmental targets. The paper investigates the integration of a molten carbonate electrolysis cell (MCEC) in biofuel production pathway from sawmill byproducts, to improve the performance of gas cleaning and conditioning steps prior to the final conversion of syngas into liquid biofuels. The energy, material, and economic performance of process configurations with different gasification technologies are simulated and compared. The results provide relevant information to develop the engineering of gas-to-liquid transportation fuels utilizing renewable electricity. The MCEC replaces the water-gas shift step of a conventional syngas conditioning process and enables increased product throughput by as much as 15%–31%. Depending on the process configuration and steam-methane reforming technology, biofuels can be produced to the cost range 140–155 €/MWh in the short-term. Copyright © 2022 Mesfun, Engvall and Toffolo.

  • 5.
    Nickel, David Benjamin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fornell, Rickard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Multi-Scale Variability Analysis of Wheat Straw-Based Ethanol Biorefineries Identifies Bioprocess Designs Robust Against Process Input Variations2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 8, artikel-id 55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioprocesses based on (ligno-)cellulosic biomass are highly prone to batch-to-batch variations. Varying raw material compositions and enzyme activities hamper the prediction of process yields, economic feasibility and environmental impacts. Commonly, these performance indicators are averaged over several experiments to select suitable process designs. The variabilities in performance indicators resulting from variable process inputs are often neglected, causing a risk for faulty performance predictions and poor process design choices during scale-up. In this paper, a multi-scale variability analysis framework is presented that quantifies the effects of process input variations on performance indicators. Using the framework, a kinetic model describing simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation was integrated with a flowsheet process model, techno-economic analysis and life cycle assessment in order to evaluate a wheat straw-based ethanol biorefinery. Hydrolytic activities reported in the literature for the enzyme cocktail Cellic® CTec2, ranging from 62 to 266 FPU·mL−1, were used as inputs to the multi-scale model to compare the variability in performance indicators under batch and multi-feed operation for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Bioprocess simulations were stopped at ethanol productivities ≤0.1 g·L−1·h−1. The resulting spreads in process times, hydrolysis yields, and fermentation yields were incorporated into flowsheet, techno-economic and life cycle scales. At median enzymatic activities the payback time was 7%, equal to 0.6 years, shorter under multi-feed conditions. All other performance indicators showed insignificant differences. However, batch operation is simpler to control and well-established in industry. Thus, an analysis at median conditions might favor batch conditions despite the disadvantage in payback time. Contrary to median conditions, analyzing the input variability favored multi-feed operation due to a lower variability in all performance indicators. Variabilities in performance indicators were at least 50% lower under multi-feed operation. Counteracting the variability in enzymatic activities by adjusting the amount of added enzyme instead resulted in higher uncertainties in environmental impacts. The results show that the robustness of performance indicators against input variations must be considered during process development. Based on the multi-scale variability analysis process designs can be selected which deliver more precise performance indicators at multiple system levels. 

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