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  • 1.
    Göhl, Johan
    et al.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre, Sweden.
    Markstedt, Kajsa
    Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden ; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mark, Andreas
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy. Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden ; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden ; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Edelvik, Fredrik
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre, Sweden.
    Simulations of 3D bioprinting: Predicting bioprintability of nanofibrillar inks2018In: Biofabrication, ISSN 1758-5082, E-ISSN 1758-5090, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 034105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3D bioprinting with cell containing bioinks show great promise in the biofabrication of patient specific tissue constructs. To fulfil the multiple requirements of a bioink, a wide range of materials and bioink composition are being developed and evaluated with regard to cell viability, mechanical performance and printability. It is essential that the printability and printing fidelity is not neglected since failure in printing the targeted architecture may be catastrophic for the survival of the cells and consequently the function of the printed tissue. However, experimental evaluation of bioinks printability is time-consuming and must be kept at a minimum, especially when 3D bioprinting with cells that are valuable and costly. This paper demonstrates how experimental evaluation could be complemented with computer based simulations to evaluate newly developed bioinks. Here, a computational fluid dynamics simulation tool was used to study the influence of different printing parameters and evaluate the predictability of the printing process. Based on data from oscillation frequency measurements of the evaluated bioinks, a full stress rheology model was used, where the viscoelastic behaviour of the material was captured. Simulation of the 3D bioprinting process is a powerful tool and will help in reducing the time and cost in the development and evaluation of bioinks. Moreover, it gives the opportunity to isolate parameters such as printing speed, nozzle height, flow rate and printing path to study their influence on the printing fidelity and the viscoelastic stresses within the bioink. The ability to study these features more extensively by simulating the printing process will result in a better understanding of what influences the viability of cells in 3D bioprinted tissue constructs.

  • 2.
    Ojansivu, Miina
    et al.
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Rashad, Ahmad
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Ahlinder, Astrid Elisabet
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Massera, Jonathan
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Mishra, Ayush
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Finne-Wistrand, Anna
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Miettinen, Susanna
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Mustafa, Kamal
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Wood-based nanocellulose and bioactive glass modified gelatin-alginate bioinks for 3D bioprinting of bone cells2019In: Biofabrication, ISSN 1758-5082, E-ISSN 1758-5090, Vol. 11, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A challenge in the extrusion-based bioprinting is to find a bioink with optimal biological and physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of wood-based cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and bioactive glass on the rheological properties of gelatin-alginate bioinks and the initial responses of bone cells embedded in these inks. CNF modulated the flow behavior of the hydrogels, thus improving their printability. Chemical characterization by SEM-EDX and ion release analysis confirmed the reactivity of the BaG in the hydrogels. The cytocompatibility of the hydrogels was shown to be good, as evidenced by the viability of human osteoblast-like cells (Saos-2) in cast hydrogels. For bioprinting, 4-layer structures were printed from cell-containing gels and crosslinked with CaCl2. Viability, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) were monitored over 14 days. In the BaG-free gels, Saos-2 cells remained viable, but in the presence of BaG the viability and proliferation decreased in correlation with the increased viscosity. Still, there was a constant increase in the ALP activity in all the hydrogels. Further bioprinting experiments were conducted using human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), a clinically relevant cell type. Interestingly, hBMSCs tolerated the printing process better than Saos-2 cells and the ALP indicated BaG-stimulated early osteogenic commitment. The addition of CNF and BaG to gelatin-alginate bioinks hold great potential for bone tissue engineering applications.

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