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  • 1.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Roos, Åke
    Boliden AB, Sweden.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    A Method for Synthesizing Iron Silicate Slags to Evaluate Their Performance as Supplementary Cementitious Materials2023Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 13, nr 14, artikkel-id 8357Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilizing iron silicate copper slag as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) is a means to improve resource efficiency and lower the carbon dioxide emissions from cement production. Despite multiple studies on the performance of these slags in SCM applications, the variations in cooling procedure, grinding, and methods for evaluating reactivity limit the ability to assess the influence of chemical composition on reactivity from the literature data. In this study, a methodology was developed to synthesize iron silicate slags, which were then evaluated for their inherent reactivity using the R3 calorimeter-based experiments. The results demonstrated that laboratory-scale granulation produced the same reactivity as industrially granulated slag. Furthermore, a synthesized triplicate sample showed high repeatability. Based on these two aspects, this method can be used to systematically study the influence of chemical composition on the inherent reactivity of iron silicate slags while producing results that are directly translatable to industrial slags. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 2.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Bohlen, Haleh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    de Krom, Iris
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Heikens, Dita
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    van Wijk, Janneke
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Hydrogen purity analysis: Suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds2020Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 14687-2 standard sets requirements for the purity of the hydrogen that is delivered at refuelling stations. These specifications cover a wide range of impurities and include challenging measurements, mainly due to the very low levels of the required detection limits and the need for "total" measurements (total hydrocarbons, total sulphur compounds, halogenated compounds). Most of the compounds belonging to the species are organic. Thermal desorption often coupled with gas chromatography is a common speciation method used to determine the content of organic impurities. However, no existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal to trap all possible impurities; depending on the sorbents and the sampling volume, some compounds may irreversibly adsorb or may break through. It is therefore necessary to evaluate sorbents for the compounds targeted at the level required. In this study, the suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping organic impurities in hydrogen was investigated. Suitable sorbents were selected based on a literature review of suitable sorbent materials. Short-term stability studies for compounds among hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds and sulphurcompounds on the selected sorbents have then been performed for storage periods of two weeks since this is the period typically required to complete the collection, transport and analysis of hydrogen samples. The study clearly shows that the method is promising for total species, even through the results show that not all of the compounds belonging to the three total species to be analysed when performing hydrogen purity analysis can be quantified on one unique sorbent. A multibed sorbent consisting of Tenax TA (weak), Carboxen 1003 (medium), Carbograph 1 (strong) is shown to be a versatile sorbent suitable for the three "total species"; only a few compounds from each family would need to be analysed using other analytical methods. This method proposed here for total species will not only provide a sum of concentrations, but also an identification of which compound(s) is/are actually present in the hydrogen.

  • 3.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Methods for sampling biogas and biomethane on adsorbent tubes after collection in gas bags2019Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 6, artikkel-id 1171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is a renewable energy source with many different production pathways and numerous excellent opportunities for use; for example, as vehicle fuel after upgrading (biomethane). Reliable analytical methodologies for assessing the quality of the gas are critical for ensuring that the gas can be used technically and safely. An essential part of any procedure aimed at determining the quality is the sampling and transfer to the laboratory. Sampling bags and sorbent tubes are widely used for collecting biogas. In this study, we have combined these two methods, i.e., sampling in a gas bag before subsequent sampling onto tubes in order to demonstrate that this alternative can help eliminate the disadvantages associated with the two methods whilst combining their advantages; with expected longer storage stability as well as easier sampling and transport. The results of the study show that two parameters need to be taken into account when transferring gas from a bag on to an adsorbent; the water content of the gas and the flow rate used during transfer of the gas on to the adsorbent. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 4.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Stochino, Flavio
    University of Cagliari, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Special issue on "buildings and structures under extreme loads"2020Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, nr 16, artikkel-id 5676Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exceptional loads on buildings and structures may have different causes, including high-strain dynamic effects due to natural hazards, man-made attacks, and accidents, as well as extreme operational conditions (severe temperature variations, humidity, etc.). All these aspects can be critical for specific structural typologies and/or materials that are particularly sensitive to unfavorable external conditions. In this regard, dedicated and refined methods are required for their design, analysis, and maintenance under the expected lifetime. However, major challenges are usually related to the structural typology and materials object of study, with respect to the key features of the imposed design loads. Further issues can be derived from the need for the mitigation of adverse effects or retrofit of existing structures, as well as from the optimal and safe design of innovative materials/systems. Finally, in some cases, no appropriate design recommendations are currently available in support of practitioners, and thus experimental investigations (both on-site or on laboratory prototypes) can have a key role within the overall structural design and assessment process. This Special Issue presents 19 original research studies and two review papers dealing with the structural performance of buildings and structures under exceptional loads, and can represent a useful answer to the above-mentioned problems.

  • 5.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    RISE Test Facilities for the Measurement of Ultra-Low Flow Rates and Volumes with a Focus on Medical Applications2022Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, nr 16, artikkel-id 8332Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the framework of the ongoing EMPIR JRP 18HLT08 Metrology for Drug Delivery (MeDDII), a main task is to improve dosing accuracy and enable traceable measurements of volume, flow and pressure of existing drug delivery devices and in-line sensors operating, in some cases, at ultra-low flow rates. This can be achieved by developing new calibration methods and by expanding existing metrological infrastructure. The MeDDII project includes, among other issues, investigations on fast changing flow rates, physical properties of liquid mixtures and occlusion phenomena to avoid inaccurate measurement results and thus improve patient safety. This paper describes the extension of an existing measurement facility at RISE and the design and construction of a new measurement facility to be able to carry out such investigations. The new measurement facility, which is based on the dynamic gravimetric method, is unique worldwide in respect of the lowest measurable flow rate. The gravimetric measuring principle is pushed to the limits of what is feasible. Here, the smallest changes in the ambient conditions have a large influence on the measurement accuracy. The new infrastructure can be used to develop and validate novel calibration procedures for existing drug delivery devices over a wide flow rate range. The extension of the measurement facilities also enables inline measurement of the pressure and the dynamic viscosity of Newtonian liquids. For this purpose, it is ensured that all measurements are traceable to primary standards. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 6.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Verification of the structural performance of textile reinforced reactive powder concrete sandwich facade elements2019Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikkel-id 456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of the SESBE (Smart Elements for Sustainable Building Envelopes) project, non-load bearing sandwich elements were developed with Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete (TRRPC) for outer and inner facings, Foam Concrete (FC) for the insulating core and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) continuous connectors. The structural performance of the developed elements was verified at various levels by means of a thorough experimental program coupled with numerical analysis. Experiments were conducted on individual materials (i.e., tensile and compressive tests), composites (i.e., uniaxial tensile, flexural and pull-out tests), as well as components (i.e., local anchorage failure, shear, flexural and wind loading tests). The experimentally yielded material properties were used as input for the developed models to verify the findings of various component tests and to allow for further material development. In this paper, the component tests related to local anchorage failure and wind loading are presented and coupled to a structural model of the sandwich element. The validated structural model provided a greater understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the element's structural behavior and its structural performance under various dead and wind load cases. Lastly, the performance of the sandwich elements, in terms of composite action, was shown to be greatly correlated to the properties of the GFRP connectors, such as stiffness and strength

  • 7.
    Kiuru, Risto
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Király, Dorka
    Budapest University, Hungary.
    Dabi, Gergely
    University of Szeged, Hungary.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillämpad mekanik.
    Comparison of dfn modelled microfracture systems with petrophysical data in excavation damaged zone2021Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikkel-id 2899Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical and petrographic properties of drill core specimens were determined as a part of investigations into excavation damage in the dedicated study area in the ONKALO® research facility in Olkiluoto, Western Finland. Microfractures in 16 specimens from two drillholes were analysed and used as a basis for fractal geometry-based discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling. It was concluded that the difference in resistivity between pegmatoid granite (PGR) and veined gneiss (VGN) specimens of similar porosity was likely due to differences in the types of microfractures. This hypothesis was confirmed from microfracture analysis and simulation: fractures in gneiss were short and mostly in one preferred orientation, whereas the fractures in granite were longer and had two preferred orientations. This may be due to microstructure differences of the rock types or could suggests that gneiss and granite may suffer different types of excavation damage. No dependencies on depth from the excavated surface were observed in the geometric parameters of the microfractures. This suggests that the excavation damaged zone cannot be identified based on the changes in the parameters of the microfracture networks, and that the disturbed layer observed by geophysical methods may be caused by macro-scale fractures. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 8.
    Kostić, Milos
    et al.
    Tecnalia Serbia Ltd, Serbia.
    Kojić, Vladimir
    Soultronic International Ltd, Serbia.
    Ičagić, Savo
    Tecnalia Serbia Ltd, Serbia.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Keller, Thierry
    TECNALIA, Spain.
    Štrbac, Matija
    Tecnalia Serbia Ltd, Serbia.
    Design and Development of OECT Logic Circuits for Electrical Stimulation Applications2022Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, nr 8, artikkel-id 3985Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first successful implementation of fully printed electronics for flexible and wearable smart multi-pad stimulation electrodes intended for use in medical, sports and lifestyle applications. The smart multi-pad electrodes with the electronic circuits based on organic electrochemical transistor (OECT)-based electronic circuits comprising the 3–8 decoder for active pad selection and high current throughput transistors for switching were produced by multi-layer screen printing. Devices with different architectures of switching transistors were tested in relevant conditions for electrical stimulation applications. An automated testbed with a configurable stimulation source and an adjustable human model equivalent circuit was developed for this purpose. Three of the proposed architectures successfully routed electrical currents of up to 15 mA at an output voltage of 30 V, while one was reliably performing even at 40 V. The presented results demonstrate feasibility of the concept in a range of conditions relevant to several applications of electrical stimulation. © 2022 by the authors

  • 9.
    Lavassani, Mehrzad
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    From brown-field to future industrial networks, a case study2021Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikkel-id 3231Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The network infrastructures in the future industrial networks need to accommodate, manage and guarantee performance to meet the converged Internet technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) traffics requirements. The pace of IT-OT networks development has been slow despite their considered benefits in optimizing the performance and enhancing information flows. The hindering factors vary from general challenges in performance management of the diverse traffic for green-field configuration to lack of outlines for evolving from brown-fields to the converged network. Focusing on the brown-field, this study provides additional insight into a brown-field characteristic to set a baseline that enables the subsequent step development towards the future’s expected converged networks. The case study highlights differences between real-world network behavior and the common assumptions for analyzing the network traffic covered in the literature. Considering the unsatisfactory performance of the existing methods for characterization of brownfield traffic, a performance and dynamics mixture measurement is proposed. The proposed method takes both IT and OT traffic into consideration and reduces the complexity, and consequently improves the flexibility, of performance and configuration management of the brown-field. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 10.
    Lavassani, Mehrzad
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Modeling and Profiling of Aggregated Industrial Network Traffic2022Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 667-667Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial network infrastructures are transforming to a horizontal architecture to enable data availability for advanced applications and enhance flexibility for integrating new technologies. The uninterrupted operation of the legacy systems needs to be ensured by safeguarding their requirements in network configuration and resource management. Network traffic modeling is essential in understanding the ongoing communication for resource estimation and configuration management. The presented work proposes a two-step approach for modeling aggregated traffic classes of brownfield installation. It first detects the repeated work-cycles and then aims to identify the operational states to profile their characteristics. The performance and influence of the approach are evaluated and validated in two experimental setups with data collected from an industrial plant in operation. The comparative results show that the proposed method successfully captures the temporal and spatial dynamics of the network traffic for characterization of various communication states in the operational work-cycles

  • 11.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Spolitis, Sandis
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Jacobsen, Gunnar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    100 gbaud on–off keying/pulse amplitude modulation links in c-band for short-reach optical interconnects2021Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikkel-id 4284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally evaluate the high-speed on–off keying (OOK) and four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) transmitter’s performance in C-band for short-reach optical interconnects. We demonstrate up to 100 Gbaud OOK and PAM4 transmission over a 400 m standard single-mode fiber with a monolithically integrated externally modulated laser (EML) having 100 GHz 3 dB bandwidth with 2 dB ripple. We evaluate its capabilities to enable 800 GbE client-side links based on eight, and even four, optical lanes for optical interconnect applications. We study the equalizer’s complexity when increasing the baud rate of PAM4 signals. Furthermore, we extend our work with numerical simulations showing the required received optical power (ROP) for a certain bit error rate (BER) for the different combinations of the effective number of bits (ENOB) and extinction ratio (ER) at the transmitter. We also show a possibility to achieve around 1 km dispersion uncompensated transmission with a simple decision feedback equalizer (DFE) for a 100 Gbaud OOK, PAM4, and eight-level PAM (PAM8) link having the received power penalty of around 1 dB. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 12.
    Rosa, P.
    et al.
    National Institute of Telecommunications, Poland.
    Rizzelli, G.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Tan, M.
    Aston University, UK.
    Jaworski, M.
    National Institute of Telecommunications, Poland.
    Marciniak, M.
    National Institute of Telecommunications, Poland.
    Sergeyev, S.
    Aston University, UK.
    Schatz, R.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jacobsen, G
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Popov, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ania-Castañón, J. D.
    CSIC The Spanish National Research Council, Spain.
    Unrepeatered 240-km 64-QAM transmission using distributed raman amplification over SMF fiber2020Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, nr 4, artikkel-id 1433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a theoretical and experimental investigation of unrepeatered transmission over standard single-mode fiber (SMF-28) using several schemes of distributed Raman amplification, including first, second, and dual order. In order to further extend the transmission distance, we utilize advanced bidirectional higher-order ultra-long Raman fiber laser-based amplification, where we use fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to reflect Stokes-shifted light from the secondary pumps. Our work demonstrates the possibility of transmission up to 240-km span length with a total span loss of 52.7 dB. Here, we use a 28-Gbaud signal using a 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) modulation format. Our results highlight the contribution of nonlinear compensation using digital back propagation in a digital signal processor (DSP) code at the receiver. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 13.
    Salgals, Toms
    et al.
    AFFOC Solutions Ltd, Latvia; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Alnis, Janis
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. Riga Technical University, Latvia; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Andrianov, Alexey
    Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Anashkina, Elena
    Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Brice, Inga
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Berkis, Roberts
    University of Latvia, Latvia; University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Porins, Jurgis
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Spolitis, Sandis
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bobrovs, V
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Silica Microsphere WGMR-Based Kerr-OFC Light Source and Its Application for High-Speed IM/DD Short-Reach Optical Interconnects2022Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, nr 9, artikkel-id 4722Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Kerr optical frequency combs (OFCs) based on silica microsphere whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR) have various applications where they are used as a light source. For telecommunication purposes, WGMR-based Kerr-OFC comb generators can be physically realized using silica microsphere resonators and can be used to replace multiple laser arrays. In such a realization, these novel light sources have the potential to demonstrate an attractive solution for intradatacenter interconnects (DCI). In this paper, we show an experimental demonstration of a silica microsphere WGMR-based Kerr OFC light source where newly generated 400 GHz spaced carriers together with powerful linear equalization techniques, such as a linear symbol-spaced adaptive decision-feedback equalizer (DFE) with feed-forward (FF) and feedback (FB) taps, provide an alternative to individual lasers ensuring low-cost and low-complexity IM/DD scheme for the transmission of NRZ-OOK modulated signals at data rates up to 50 Gbps/λ over 2 km SMF link. Finally, we demonstrate a record 50 Gbps per λ transmission of NRZ-OOK modulated signals with a novel silica microsphere WGMR-based Kerr-OFC as a light source operating in the optical C-band, surpassing the previously demonstrated data rate record by five times. © 2022 by the authors. 

  • 14.
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Salgals, Toms
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Zhang, Lu
    Zhejiang University, China; Zhejiang Lab, China.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Spolitis, Sandis
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Optical power budget of 25+ Gbps IM/DD PON with digital signal post-equalization2020Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, nr 17, artikkel-id 6106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While infrastructure providers are expanding their portfolio to offer sustainable solutions for beyond 10 Gbps in the access segment of optical networks, we experimentally compare several modulation format alternatives for future passive optical networks (PONs) aiming to deliver 25+ Gbps net-rates. As promising candidates, we consider the intensity modulation direct detection (IM/DD) schemes such as electrical duobinary (EDB) and 4-level and 8-level pulse amplitude modulations (PAM-4/8). They are more spectrally efficient than the conventional non-return-to-zero on-off-keying (NRZ-OOK) used in current 10G PONs. As we move to higher rates, digital equalization enhances the performance by smoothening the systems imperfection. However, the impact that such equalization has on the optical power budget remains unclear. Therefore, in this article, we fairly compare the optical power budget values of a time division multiplexed PON (TDM-PON) exploiting a linear digital signal equalization at the receiver side. We consider the conventional PON configuration (20 km of single-mode fiber (SMF), 1:N optical power splitting) with IM/DD and net-rates above 25 Gbps. Furthermore, we focus on a downstream transmission imposing the bandwidth limitations of 10G components using a digital filter before the detection. The obtained results show that the use of a digital post-equalization with 43 feed-forward (FF) and 21 feedback (FB) taps can significantly improve the signal quality enabling new alternatives and enhancing the optical power budget. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 15.
    Vera, Carlos
    et al.
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Garnacho, Fernando
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain; Fundación para el Fomento de la Innovación Industrial, Spain.
    Klüss, Joni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Mier, Christian
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Álvarez, Fernando
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Lahti, Kari
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Khamlichi, A
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain; Fundación para el Fomento de la Innovación Industrial, Spain.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Rodrigo Mor, Armando
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Arcones, Eduardo
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Camuñas, Álvaro
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Pakonen, Pertti
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Ortego, Javier
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain; AMPACIMON SLU, Spain.
    Ramón Vidal, Jose
    Fundación para el Fomento de la Innovación Industrial, Spain.
    Haider, Miran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Rovira, Jorge
    Fundación para el Fomento de la Innovación Industrial, Spain.
    Simon, Pascual
    Fundación para el Fomento de la Innovación Industrial, Spain.
    Squicciarini, Antonio
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Validation of a Qualification Procedure Applied to the Verification of Partial Discharge Analysers Used for HVDC or HVAC Networks2023Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 13, nr 14, artikkel-id 8214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The insulation condition of HVDC grids consisting of cable systems, GIS, and converters should be monitored by partial discharge (PD) analysers using artificial intelligence (AI) tools for efficient insulation diagnosis. Although there are many experiences of PD monitoring solutions developed for the supervision of the insulation condition of HVAC grids using PD analysers, there are no standardised requirements for their qualification available yet. The international technical specification TS IEC 62478 provides general rules for PD measurements using electromagnetic methods but does not define performance requirements for qualification tests. HVDC and HVAC PD analysers must be tested by unambiguous test procedures. This paper compiles experiences of using PD analysers with HFCT sensors in HVAC grids (cable systems, GIS, and AIS) to define a qualification procedure for HVAC systems. This procedure is applicable to HVDC grids (cable systems, GIS, AIS, and converters) because the particularities related to the insulation behaviour under HVDC voltage are also considered. Representative PD sources are discussed in HVAC and HVDC positive and negative polarity. The PD pulse trend of representative insulation defects in HVDC cable systems is quite different from that of HVAC grids. Special attention should be paid to the acquisition of PD signals in HVDC grids since few pulses appear in solid insulations, mainly during voltage changes (polarity reversals or surges), but rarely in continuous operation with constant direct voltage. A synthetic PD simulator has been developed to reproduce trains of PD pulses or noise signals, similar to those that can appear in the power network. A set of three functionality tests has been developed for qualification of the diagnostic capabilities of PD analysers working up to 30 MHz addressed to HVDC or HVAC grids: (1) PD recognition test, (2) PD clustering test, and (3) PD location test. This qualification procedure has been validated by means of a round-robin test performed by five research institutes (RISE, FFII, TUDelft, TAU, and UPM) using commercial and in-development AI PD recognition and clustering tools to demonstrate its robustness and applicability. Applying this qualification procedure, two PD methods for electrical detection and prevention of insulation defects have been approved, one for HVAC and the other for HVDC grids. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 16.
    Xu, Tianhua
    et al.
    Tianjin University, China; University of Warwick, UK; University College London, UK.
    Jin, Cenqin
    University of Warwick, UK.
    Zhang, Shuqing
    Harbin Institute of Technology, China.
    Jacobsen, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leeson, Mark
    University of Warwick, UK.
    Liu, Tiegen
    Tianjin University, China.
    Phase noise cancellation in coherent communication systems using a radio frequency pilot tone2019Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 21, artikkel-id 4717Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-haul optical fiber communication employing digital signal processing (DSP)-based dispersion compensation can be distorted by the phenomenon of equalization-enhanced phase noise (EEPN), due to the reciprocities between the dispersion compensation unit and the local oscillator (LO) laser phase noise (LPN). The impact of EEPN scales increases with the increase of the fiber dispersion, laser linewidths, symbol rates, signal bandwidths, and the order of modulation formats. In this work, the phase noise cancellation (PNC) employing a radio frequency (RF) pilot tone in coherent optical transmission systems has been investigated. A 28-Gsym/s QPSK optical transmission system with a significant EEPN has been implemented, where the carrier phase recovery (CPR) was realized using the one-tap normalized least-mean-square (NLMS) estimation and the differential phase detection (DPD), respectively. It is shown that the RF pilot tone can entirely eliminate the LPN and efficiently suppress the EEPN when it is applied prior to the CPR. © 2019 by the authors. 

  • 17.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Johan
    Westermo Network Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Gade, Jorgen
    ABB AB, Sweden.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Mälardalen University, Sweden; ABB AB, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lavassani, Mehrzad
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Gore, Raul
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lindh, Thomas
    Iggesund Paperboard, Sweden.
    Jiang, Xaolin
    ABB AB, Sweden.
    Future industrial networks in process automation: Goals, challenges, and future directions2021Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, nr 8, artikkel-id 3345Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many initiatives and technologies working towards implementing factories of the future. One consensus is that the classical hierarchical automation system design needs to be flattened while supporting the functionality of both Operation Technology (OT) and Information Technology (IT) within the same network infrastructure. To achieve the goal of IT/OT convergence in process automation, an evolutionary transition is preferred. Challenges are foreseen during the transition, mainly caused by the traditional automation architecture, and the main challenge is to identify the gap between the current and future network architectures. To address the challenges, in this paper, we describe one desired future scenario for process automation and carry out traffic measurements from a pulp and paper mill. The measured traffic is further analyzed, which reveals representative traffic characteristics in the process automation. Finally, the key challenges and future directions towards a system architecture for factories of the future are presented. © 2021 by the authors. 

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