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  • 1.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Bohlen, Haleh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    de Krom, Iris
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Heikens, Dita
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    van Wijk, Janneke
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Hydrogen purity analysis: Suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds2020Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 14687-2 standard sets requirements for the purity of the hydrogen that is delivered at refuelling stations. These specifications cover a wide range of impurities and include challenging measurements, mainly due to the very low levels of the required detection limits and the need for "total" measurements (total hydrocarbons, total sulphur compounds, halogenated compounds). Most of the compounds belonging to the species are organic. Thermal desorption often coupled with gas chromatography is a common speciation method used to determine the content of organic impurities. However, no existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal to trap all possible impurities; depending on the sorbents and the sampling volume, some compounds may irreversibly adsorb or may break through. It is therefore necessary to evaluate sorbents for the compounds targeted at the level required. In this study, the suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping organic impurities in hydrogen was investigated. Suitable sorbents were selected based on a literature review of suitable sorbent materials. Short-term stability studies for compounds among hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds and sulphurcompounds on the selected sorbents have then been performed for storage periods of two weeks since this is the period typically required to complete the collection, transport and analysis of hydrogen samples. The study clearly shows that the method is promising for total species, even through the results show that not all of the compounds belonging to the three total species to be analysed when performing hydrogen purity analysis can be quantified on one unique sorbent. A multibed sorbent consisting of Tenax TA (weak), Carboxen 1003 (medium), Carbograph 1 (strong) is shown to be a versatile sorbent suitable for the three "total species"; only a few compounds from each family would need to be analysed using other analytical methods. This method proposed here for total species will not only provide a sum of concentrations, but also an identification of which compound(s) is/are actually present in the hydrogen.

  • 2.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Methods for sampling biogas and biomethane on adsorbent tubes after collection in gas bags2019Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 6, artikkel-id 1171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is a renewable energy source with many different production pathways and numerous excellent opportunities for use; for example, as vehicle fuel after upgrading (biomethane). Reliable analytical methodologies for assessing the quality of the gas are critical for ensuring that the gas can be used technically and safely. An essential part of any procedure aimed at determining the quality is the sampling and transfer to the laboratory. Sampling bags and sorbent tubes are widely used for collecting biogas. In this study, we have combined these two methods, i.e., sampling in a gas bag before subsequent sampling onto tubes in order to demonstrate that this alternative can help eliminate the disadvantages associated with the two methods whilst combining their advantages; with expected longer storage stability as well as easier sampling and transport. The results of the study show that two parameters need to be taken into account when transferring gas from a bag on to an adsorbent; the water content of the gas and the flow rate used during transfer of the gas on to the adsorbent. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 3.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Verification of the structural performance of textile reinforced reactive powder concrete sandwich facade elements2019Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikkel-id 456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of the SESBE (Smart Elements for Sustainable Building Envelopes) project, non-load bearing sandwich elements were developed with Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete (TRRPC) for outer and inner facings, Foam Concrete (FC) for the insulating core and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) continuous connectors. The structural performance of the developed elements was verified at various levels by means of a thorough experimental program coupled with numerical analysis. Experiments were conducted on individual materials (i.e., tensile and compressive tests), composites (i.e., uniaxial tensile, flexural and pull-out tests), as well as components (i.e., local anchorage failure, shear, flexural and wind loading tests). The experimentally yielded material properties were used as input for the developed models to verify the findings of various component tests and to allow for further material development. In this paper, the component tests related to local anchorage failure and wind loading are presented and coupled to a structural model of the sandwich element. The validated structural model provided a greater understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the element's structural behavior and its structural performance under various dead and wind load cases. Lastly, the performance of the sandwich elements, in terms of composite action, was shown to be greatly correlated to the properties of the GFRP connectors, such as stiffness and strength

  • 4.
    Xu, Tianhua
    et al.
    Tianjin University, China; University of Warwick, UK; University College London, UK.
    Jin, Cenqin
    University of Warwick, UK.
    Zhang, Shuqing
    Harbin Institute of Technology, China.
    Jacobsen, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leeson, Mark
    University of Warwick, UK.
    Liu, Tiegen
    Tianjin University, China.
    Phase noise cancellation in coherent communication systems using a radio frequency pilot tone2019Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 21, artikkel-id 4717Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-haul optical fiber communication employing digital signal processing (DSP)-based dispersion compensation can be distorted by the phenomenon of equalization-enhanced phase noise (EEPN), due to the reciprocities between the dispersion compensation unit and the local oscillator (LO) laser phase noise (LPN). The impact of EEPN scales increases with the increase of the fiber dispersion, laser linewidths, symbol rates, signal bandwidths, and the order of modulation formats. In this work, the phase noise cancellation (PNC) employing a radio frequency (RF) pilot tone in coherent optical transmission systems has been investigated. A 28-Gsym/s QPSK optical transmission system with a significant EEPN has been implemented, where the carrier phase recovery (CPR) was realized using the one-tap normalized least-mean-square (NLMS) estimation and the differential phase detection (DPD), respectively. It is shown that the RF pilot tone can entirely eliminate the LPN and efficiently suppress the EEPN when it is applied prior to the CPR. © 2019 by the authors. 

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