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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekman, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment. Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Strid, Ingrid
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Review of methodological choices in LCA of biorefinery systems - key issues and recommendations2015In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 606-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend in biomass conversion technologies is toward more efficient utilization of biomass feedstock in multiproduct biorefineries. Many life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biorefinery systems have been performed but differ in how they use the LCA methodology. Based on a review of existing LCA standards and guidelines, this paper provides recommendations on how to handle key methodological issues when performing LCA studies of biorefinery systems. Six key issues were identified: (i) goal definition, (ii) functional unit, (iii) allocation of biorefinery outputs, (iv) allocation of biomass feedstock, (v) land use, and (vi) biogenic carbon and timing of emissions. Many of the standards and guidelines reviewed here provide only general methodological recommendations. Some make more specific methodological recommendations, but these often differ between standards. In this paper we present some clarifications (e.g. examples of research questions and suitable functional units) and methodological recommendations (e.g. on allocation).

  • 2.
    Xiros, C.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Bern University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Byström, Robert
    SEKAB, Sweden.
    Børresen, Borre T.
    Statoil ASA, Norway.
    Cannella, David
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jørgensen, Henning
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark; DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Koppram, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; ACIB Austrian Center of Industrial Biotechnology, Austria.
    Larsson, Christer
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lisbeth
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tillman, Ann-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wännström, Sune
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum. SEKAB, Sweden .
    Toward a sustainable biorefinery using high-gravity technology2017In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 15-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The realization of process solutions for a sustainable bioeconomy depends on the efficient processing of biomass. High-gravity technology is one important alternative to realizing such solutions. The aims of this work were to expand the knowledge-base on lignocellulosic bioconversion processes at high solids content, to advance the current technologies for production of second-generation liquid biofuels, to evaluate the environmental impact of the proposed process by using life cycle assessment (LCA), and to develop and present a technically, economically, and environmentally sound process at high gravity, i.e., a process operating at the highest possible concentrations of raw material. The results and opinions presented here are the result of a Nordic collaborative study within the framework of the HG Biofuels project. Processes with bioethanol or biobutanol as target products were studied using wheat straw and spruce as interesting Nordic raw materials. During the project, the main scientific, economic, and technical challenges of such a process were identified. Integrated solutions to these challenges were proposed and tested experimentally, using wheat straw and spruce wood at a dry matter content of 30% (w/w) as model substrates. The LCA performed revealed the environmental impact of each of the process steps, highlighting the importance of the enzyme dose used for the hydrolysis of the plant biomass, as well as the importance of the fermentation yield.

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