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  • 1.
    Alm, Frithiof
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Effect of Acetic Acid on the Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables1952In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 169, no 4309, p. 934-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IT has been established by earlier investigators that acetic acid has a destructive effect on the ascorbic acid in raw cabbage. This effect is somewhat surprising, since the lower the pH in the medium, the more stable is the ascorbic acid and, therefore, one would expect the acetic acid to have a preservative effect on the ascorbic acid in cabbage. However, in experiments carried out in the early months of 1951, we found that, in many fruits and vegetables, the ascorbic acid is to a remarkable degree oxidized into dehydroascorbic acid if slices are sprinkled with 5 per cent acetic acid and allowed to stand for two hours. This oxidation does not take place if water is used instead of acetic acid. Other lower fatty acids have a similar effect. The action of lactic acid is very slow and that of citric and tartaric acid practically negligible. © 1952 Nature Publishing Group.

  • 2.
    Fray, Nicolas
    et al.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Bardyn, Anaïs
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Cottin, Hervé
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Altwegg, Kathrin
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Baklouti, Donia
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, Christelle
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Colangeli, Luigi
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Engrand, Cécile
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Saclay, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Glasmachers, Albrecht
    University of Wuppertal, Germany.
    Grün, Eberhard
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Haerendel, Gerhard
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Henkel, Hartmut
    Von Hoerner und Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Höfner, Herwig
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Hornung, Klaus
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Jessberger, Elmar K.
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Koch, Andreas
    Von Hoerner und Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Krüger, Harald
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Langevin, Yves
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Lehto, Harry
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Lehto, Kirsi
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Le Roy, Léna
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Modica, Paola
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Paquette, John
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Raulin, François
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Schulz, Rita
    ESA European Space Agency, Netherlands.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Steiger, Wolfgang
    RC Seibersdorf Research GmbH Business Field Aerospace Technology, Austria.
    Stenzel, Oliver
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Stephan, Thomas
    University of Chicago, US.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Thomas, Roger
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Torkar, Klaus
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Varmuza, Kurt
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Wanczek, Karl-Peter
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Zaprudin, Boris
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kissel, Jochen
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    High-molecular-weight organic matter in the particles of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko2016In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 538, no 7623, p. 72-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of solid carbonaceous matter in cometary dust was established by the detection of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen in particles from comet 1P/Halley1, 2. Such matter is generally thought to have originated in the interstellar medium3, but it might have formed in the solar nebula—the cloud of gas and dust that was left over after the Sun formed4. This solid carbonaceous material cannot be observed from Earth, so it has eluded unambiguous characterization5. Many gaseous organic molecules, however, have been observed6, 7, 8, 9; they come mostly from the sublimation of ices at the surface or in the subsurface of cometary nuclei8. These ices could have been formed from material inherited from the interstellar medium that suffered little processing in the solar nebula10. Here we report the in situ detection of solid organic matter in the dust particles emitted by comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko; the carbon in this organic material is bound in very large macromolecular compounds, analogous to the insoluble organic matter found in the carbonaceous chondrite meteorites11, 12. The organic matter in meteorites might have formed in the interstellar medium and/or the solar nebula, but was almost certainly modified in the meteorites’ parent bodies11. We conclude that the observed cometary carbonaceous solid matter could have the same origin as the meteoritic insoluble organic matter, but suffered less modification before and/or after being incorporated into the comet.

  • 3.
    Lindeberg, Gösta
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Lævan-forming halophilic bacteria [33]1957In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 180, no 4595, p. 1141-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Lindgren, J.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Carney, R. M.
    Brown University, USA.
    Uvdal, P. D.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gren, J. A.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Schultz, B. P.
    Muserum, Denmark.
    Shawkey, M. D.
    University of Akron, USA.
    Barnes, K. R.
    Mosasaur Ranch Museum, USA.
    Polcyn, M. J.
    Southern Methodist University, USA.
    Skin pigmentation provides evidence of convergent melanism in extinct marine reptiles2014In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 506, no 7489, p. 484-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the animal kingdom, adaptive colouration serves critical functions ranging from inconspicuous camouflage to ostentatious sexual display, and can provide important information about the environment and biology of a particular organism. The most ubiquitous and abundant pigment, melanin, also has a diverse range of non-visual roles, including thermoregulation in ectotherms. However, little is known about the functional evolution of this important biochrome through deep time, owing to our limited ability to unambiguously identify traces of it in the fossil record. Here we present direct chemical evidence of pigmentation in fossilized skin, from three distantly related marine reptiles: a leatherback turtle, a mosasaur and an ichthyosaur. We demonstrate that dark traces of soft tissue in these fossils are dominated by molecularly preserved eumelanin, in intimate association with fossilized melanosomes. In addition, we suggest that contrary to the countershading of many pelagic animals, at least some ichthyosaurs were uniformly dark-coloured in life. Our analyses expand current knowledge of pigmentation in fossil integument beyond that of feathers, allowing for the reconstruction of colour over much greater ranges of extinct taxa and anatomy. In turn, our results provide evidence of convergent melanism in three disparate lineages of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Based on extant marine analogues, we propose that the benefits of thermoregulation and/or crypsis are likely to have contributed to this melanisation, with the former having implications for the ability of each group to exploit cold environments.

  • 5.
    Lindgren, Johan
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Dan Eric
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Jarenmark, Martin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ito, Shosuke
    Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Japan.
    Wakamatsu, Kazumasa
    Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Japan.
    Kear, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Schultz, Bo
    Fur Museum, Denmark.
    Sylvestersen, Rene
    Fur Museum, Denmark.
    Madsen, Henrik
    Mo-clay Museum, Denmark.
    LaFountain, James
    University at Buffalo, US.
    Alwmark, Carl
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hall, Stephen
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Paula
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rodríguez-Meizoso, Irene
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahlberg, Per
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fossil insect eyes shed light on trilobite optics and the arthropod pigment screen2019In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fossilized eyes permit inferences of the visual capacity of extinct arthropods1–3. However, structural and/or chemical modifications as a result of taphonomic and diagenetic processes can alter the original features, thereby necessitating comparisons with modern species. Here we report the detailed molecular composition and microanatomy of the eyes of 54-million-year-old crane-flies, which together provide a proxy for the interpretation of optical systems in some other ancient arthropods. These well-preserved visual organs comprise calcified corneal lenses that are separated by intervening spaces containing eumelanin pigment. We also show that eumelanin is present in the facet walls of living crane-flies, in which it forms the outermost ommatidial pigment shield in compound eyes incorporating a chitinous cornea. To our knowledge, this is the first record of melanic screening pigments in arthropods, and reveals a fossilization mode in insect eyes that involves a decay-resistant biochrome coupled with early diagenetic mineralization of the ommatidial lenses. The demonstrable secondary calcification of lens cuticle that was initially chitinous has implications for the proposed calcitic corneas of trilobites, which we posit are artefacts of preservation rather than a product of in vivo biomineralization4–7. Although trilobite eyes might have been partly mineralized for mechanical strength, a (more likely) organic composition would have enhanced function via gradient-index optics and increased control of lens shape.

  • 6.
    Lindgren, Johan
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Thiel, Volker
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Zheng, Wenxia
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Ito, Shosuke
    Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Japan.
    Wakamatsu, Kazumasa
    Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Japan.
    Hauff, Rolf Bernhard
    Urweltmuseum Hauff, Germany.
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Engdahl, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Alwmark, Carl
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mats Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jarenmark, Martin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sachs, Sven
    Naturkunde-Museum Bielefeld, Germany.
    Ahlberg, Per Erik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Marone, Federica
    Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.
    Kuriyama, Takeo
    University of Hyogo, Japan; Wildlife Management Research Center, Japan.
    Gustafsson, Ola S.E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Per
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thomen, Aurélien
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rodríguez-Meizoso, Irene
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Uvdal, Per E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ojika, Makoto
    Nagoya University, Japan.
    Schweitzer, Mary Higby
    Lund University, Sweden; North Carolina State University, USA; North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, USA.
    Soft-tissue evidence for homeothermy and crypsis in a Jurassic ichthyosaur2018In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 564, no 7736, p. 359-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ichthyosaurs are extinct marine reptiles that display a notable external similarity to modern toothed whales. Here we show that this resemblance is more than skin deep. We apply a multidisciplinary experimental approach to characterize the cellular and molecular composition of integumental tissues in an exceptionally preserved specimen of the Early Jurassic ichthyosaur Stenopterygius. Our analyses recovered still-flexible remnants of the original scaleless skin, which comprises morphologically distinct epidermal and dermal layers. These are underlain by insulating blubber that would have augmented streamlining, buoyancy and homeothermy. Additionally, we identify endogenous proteinaceous and lipid constituents, together with keratinocytes and branched melanophores that contain eumelanin pigment. Distributional variation of melanophores across the body suggests countershading, possibly enhanced by physiological adjustments of colour to enable photoprotection, concealment and/or thermoregulation. Convergence of ichthyosaurs with extant marine amniotes thus extends to the ultrastructural and molecular levels, reflecting the omnipresent constraints of their shared adaptation to pelagic life.

  • 7.
    Marcuse, Reinhard
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Antioxidative effect of amino-acids1960In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 186, no 4728, p. 886-887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AMINO-ACIDS are often mentioned as synergisbic antioxidants. Their mechanism of enhancing the effect, of primary antioxidants can be explained in different ways: by chelation of pro-oxidative metal traces1 and by regeneration of oxidized primary antioxidants2-4. It has also been shown that amino-acids may play the part of synergistic antioxidants as natural constituents of food material5. On the other hand, there is a lack of systematic survey on a more general basis of this effect of amino-acids. Certain results have been published, which, however, refer to special conditions6,7. No data are available on the effect of amino-acids in absence of other anti-oxidative substances. © 1960 Nature Publishing Group.

  • 8.
    Margulis, Walter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Integration of optoelectronics into fibres enhances textiles2018In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 560, no 7717, p. 170-171Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Schulz, Rita
    et al.
    ESA European Space Agency, Netherlands.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Langevin, Yves
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Kissel, Jochen
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Briois, Christelle
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Engrand, Cécile
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Hornung, Klaus
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Baklouti, Donia
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Bardyn, Anaïs
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France; LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Cottin, Hervé
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Fray, Nicolas
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Godard, Marie
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Lehto, Harry J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Le Roy, Léna
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Orthous-Daunay, François Régis
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Paquette, John A.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Stenzel, Oliver
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Varmuza, Kurt
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Zaprudin, Boris
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko sheds dust coat accumulated over the past four years2015In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 518, no 7538, p. 216-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comets are composed of dust and frozen gases. The ices are mixed with the refractory material either as an icy conglomerate, or as an aggregate of pre-solar grains (grains that existed prior to the formation of the Solar System), mantled by an ice layer. The presence of water-ice grains in periodic comets is now well established. Modelling of infrared spectra obtained about ten kilometres from the nucleus of comet Hartley 2 suggests that larger dust particles are being physically decoupled from fine-grained water-ice particles that may be aggregates, which supports the icy-conglomerate model. It is known that comets build up crusts of dust that are subsequently shed as they approach perihelion. Micrometre-sized interplanetary dust particles collected in the Earth's stratosphere and certain micrometeorites are assumed to be of cometary origin. Here we report that grains collected from the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko come from a dusty crust that quenches the material outflow activity at the comet surface. The larger grains (exceeding 50 micrometres across) are fluffy (with porosity over 50 per cent), and many shattered when collected on the target plate, suggesting that they are agglomerates of entities in the size range of interplanetary dust particles. Their surfaces are generally rich in sodium, which explains the high sodium abundance in cometary meteoroids. The particles collected to date therefore probably represent parent material of interplanetary dust particles. This argues against comet dust being composed of a silicate core mantled by organic refractory material and then by a mixture of water-dominated ices. At its previous recurrence (orbital period 6.5 years), the comet's dust production doubled when it was between 2.7 and 2.5 astronomical units from the Sun, indicating that this was when the nucleus shed its mantle. Once the mantle is shed, unprocessed material starts to supply the developing coma, radically changing its dust component, which then also contains icy grains, as detected during encounters with other comets closer to the Sun.

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