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  • 1.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Johnsson, H.
    Luleå Univ. of Technology.
    Flax fiber-reinforced glued-laminated timber in tension perpendicular to the grain: Experimental study and probabilistic analysis2010In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 827-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The weak mechanical properties of wood in tension perpendicular to the grain are often the origin of catastrophic brittle failure. In order to enhance the tension strength perpendicular to the grain and achieve a more ductile failure, flax fiber and glass fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites were used to strengthen glue-laminated (glulam) timber specimens. Three series of specimen of glulam timber (flax fiber reinforced, glass fiber reinforced, and unreinforced), with a grand total of 28 specimens, were tested in tension perpendicular to the grain. For an approximate amount of FRP reinforcement of 1.2% in volume (thickness of ∼0.7 mm), an increase of the tensile strength of up to 74% was shown, with a stiffness increase of up to 41%. For all reinforced specimens, semiductile failures were observed. A parametric study was carried out using both the Monte Carlo (MC) method and the first-order second moment (FOSM) method. It is shown that the mean values obtained during experiments are in agreement with those from the MC simulation. However, the standard deviations from the MC simulation are larger. From the FOSM analysis, it is demonstrated that the variation in glulam stiffness perpendicular to the grain is not the first parameter driving the variation for the reinforced system. The variation in mechanical properties of the flax fibers appeared to be the driving parameter for the strength of the system. © 2010 ASCE.

  • 2.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Relevance of hydrophobic and oleophobic properties of antigraffiti systems on their cleaning efficiency on concrete and stone surfaces2013In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 755-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of graffiti is not entirely restricted to urban areas, but also appears frequently in rural communities and along traffic infrastructure. Besides its aesthetic and societal effects, graffiti cause considerable removal costs and subsequent costs for repairing damages caused by improper graffiti removal. Over the last two decades, strategies have been developed to combat graffiti in the built environment, including the development of protective measures in the form of antigraffiti systems (AGSs). Antigraffiti systems promise to be affordable and easily applicable for a wide range of substrates, and many products have already been on the market for many years. In practice, however, successful application of AGS and removal of graffiti depend on many factors in which the type of coating and condition of the substrate play critical roles. The optimal environmental goal is to use AGS without any cleaning chemicals except for pure water. Available studies on the behavior of the same AGS on various substrates can show completely different results concerning the cleaning efficacy and the durability of the AGS under different climatic conditions. The question of which properties of an AGS are most essential for its efficiency has still not been fully investigated. The goal of this study was to investigate cleaning efficacy in conjunction with hydrophobic and oleophobic properties of the AGS on different substrates. The results showed that hydrophobicity and oleophobicity are important for dense substrates but have a low influence on porous substrates. In this case, cleaning efficiency is majorly determined by the physical properties of the substrates.

  • 3.
    Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Germany.
    Silva, Rui
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Oliveira, Daniel
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Static behavior of cob: Experimental testing and finite-element modeling2019In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 31, no 4, article id 04019021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to implement a numerical model to reproduce the nonlinear behavior of cob walls under shear loading. Axial compression, pull-off, and diagonal compression tests were carried out to derive the mechanical parameters. In addition, the stressstrain relationships, the nonlinear behavior, and the failure modes were defined. The experimental results were then used to calibrate a finiteelement model. The material behavior was simulated through a macromodeling approach adopting the total strain rotating crack model. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the effects of varying the parameters with higher uncertainty on the structural behavior. The numerical model achieved good correspondence with the experimental results in terms of simulation of the shear stress-shear strain relationship and of damage pattern.

  • 4.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallbaum, Holger
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Sustainable potential of textile-reinforced concrete2015In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 27, no 7, article id 4014207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The building construction industry is in need of sustainable materials and solutions. A novel building material, such as textile-reinforced concrete (TRC), could be used to meet this demand. Textile-reinforced concrete is a combination of fine-grained concrete and multiaxial textile fabrics that has been fundamentally researched over the past decade. TRC-based research has explored various facets of this composite material, such as its structural functionality, production, applicability, and design. One key aspect that is still missing, however, is a comprehensive review of the sustainable potential of this material in terms of its input–output and durability that suitably answers to requirement No. 7 of EU’s Construction Products Regulation. This article provides qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the sustainable potential and prospective development of TRC particularly reinforced by alkali-resistant (AR) glass, carbon, or basalt fibers. Based on the outcome of this evaluation, carbon textile fibers were observed to hold the optimal potential mechanical behavior; additionally, it was revealed through the conducted life-cycle assessment (LCA) that basalt had the least cumulative energy demand, whereas carbon had the least environmental impact.

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