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  • 1.
    Agnihotri, Swarnima
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Johnsen, Ingvild A.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Böe, Maren S.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Öyaas, Karin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Moe, Størker
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ethanol organosolv pretreatment of softwood (Picea abies) and sugarcane bagasse for biofuel and biorefinery applications2015In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 881-896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol derived from biomass has the potential to be a renewable transportation fuel that can replace gasoline. This work was carried out to establish an optimized ethanol organosolv pretreatment of Norway spruce (Picea abies) for bioethanol production (63 wt% EtOH, pH ~3.5 in aqueous phase, 170–240 °C, 90 min) utilizing hydrolytic enzymes in the saccharification step. To test the generality of the method, a series of ethanol organosolv pretreatments were also performed on sugarcane bagasse (50 wt% EtOH, pH ~3.5 in aqueous phase, 155–210 °C, 90–120 min). The degree of delignification increased with increasing temperature during pretreatment, and the fastest increase was observed with sugarcane bagasse. The pretreatments were carried out in a batch mode. The maximum degree of delignification of ~65 % was reached at ~235 °C for Norway spruce, while sugarcane bagasse reached ~80 % at ~210 °C. Cellulose was subjected to degradation (5–10 % points) at these temperatures. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (30 FPU/g cellulose, 32 pNPGU/g cellulose, 50 °C, 48 h) of ethanol organosolv-pretreated biomass achieved complete conversion for both raw materials at the highest degrees of delignification.

  • 2.
    Dong, F.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, Anne-Mari
    RISE, Innventia.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Fibre morphological effects on mechano-sorptive creep2010In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 475-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased creep rate of paper under load during moisture cycling conditions as compared to that at high constant humidity is a problem in the use of packaging materials. In order to investigate the influence of morphological factors of the fibres on the occurrence and magnitude of this phenomenon, i.e. the occurrence of mechano-sorptive creep, studies on wood fibres isolated from different parts of spruce wood were performed. Thus, creep properties were studied on earlywood and latewood fibres from both juvenile wood and mature wood. In general, latewood fibres showed a higher degree of mechano-sorptive creep than earlywood fibres, and mature wood showed a higher degree of mechano-sorptive creep than juvenile fibres. The difference in mechano-sorptive creep rate between different fibres was shown to be correlated to the differences in fibril angle. The smaller the fibril angle the higher was the mechano-sorptive creep ratio. It was suggested that at fibril angles approaching 45° wood fibres do not exhibit mechano-sorptive creep.

  • 3. Eder, M.
    et al.
    Arnould, O.
    Dunlop, J.W.C.
    Hornatowska, J.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Experimental micromechanical characterisation of wood cell walls2013In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, no 1, p. 163-182Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Guo, Juan
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Zhou, Haibin
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Dong, Mengyu
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Yu, Min
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Yin, Yafang
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Effects of ageing on the cell wall and its hygroscopicity of wood in ancient timber construction2018In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 131-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important traditional load bearing member in oriental ancient timber structure buildings, i.e. Huagong (flower arm), was selected to explore the alterations in cell wall components and hygroscopic properties of wood during long time ageing. This archaeological poplar (Populus spp.) wood with cal. BP 690: BP 790 was studied from the wood surface and inwards by means of imaging FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and dynamic vapour sorption. The deterioration of the archaeological wood mainly displayed a depolymerization of glucomannan and lignin as well as a hydrolysis of the glucuronic acid of xylan and of the aromatic C–O groups in the condensed lignins or lignin–carbohydrate complexes. Furthermore, the degradation promoted the rearrangement of the cellulose molecules in adjacent microfibrils. The cellulose crystallites in the archaeological wood were therefore packed more tightly and had larger diameter. The structural alterations of wood cell wall components and a decrease in crystallinity contributed to an increase in the number of moisture bonding sites and led to an increase in both the equilibrium moisture content of the archaeological wood in the entire RH range as well as an increase in hysteresis.

  • 5.
    Hegnar, Olav
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Goodell, Barry
    University of Massachusetts, US.
    Felby, Claus
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Johansson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Labbé, Nicole
    University of Tennessee, US.
    Kim, Keonhee
    University of Tennessee, US.
    Eijsink, Vincent
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Várnai, Aniko
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Challenges and opportunities in mimicking non-enzymatic brown-rot decay mechanisms for pretreatment of Norway spruce2019In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 291-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recalcitrance bottleneck of lignocellulosic materials presents a major challenge for biorefineries, including second-generation biofuel production. Because of their abundance in the northern hemisphere, softwoods, such as Norway spruce, are of major interest as a potential feedstock for biorefineries. In nature, softwoods are primarily degraded by basidiomycetous fungi causing brown rot. These fungi employ a non-enzymatic oxidative system to depolymerize wood cell wall components prior to depolymerization by a limited set of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes. Here, it is shown that Norway spruce pretreated with two species of brown-rot fungi yielded more than 250% increase in glucose release when treated with a commercial enzyme cocktail and that there is a good correlation between mass loss and the degree of digestibility. A series of experiments was performed aimed at mimicking the brown-rot pretreatment, using a modified version of the Fenton reaction. A small increase in digestibility after pretreatment was shown where the aim was to generate reactive oxygen species within the wood cell wall matrix. Further experiments were performed to assess the possibility of performing pretreatment and saccharification in a single system, and the results indicated the need for a complete separation of oxidative pretreatment and saccharification. A more severe pretreatment was also completed, which interestingly did not yield a more digestible material. It was concluded that a biomimicking approach to pretreatment of softwoods using brown-rot fungal mechanisms is possible, but that there are additional factors of the system that need to be known and optimized before serious advances can be made to compete with already existing pretreatment methods.

  • 6.
    Kvist, Patric
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rasmuson, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using fluorescent probes and FRAP to investigate macromolecule diffusion in steam-exploded wood2018In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 1395-1410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion of fluorescently labeled dextran of varying molecular weight in wood pretreated by steam explosion was studied with a confocal microscope. The steam explosion experiments were conducted at relatively mild conditions relevant for materials biorefinery at a pressure of 14 bars for 10 min. The method of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was used to perform diffusion measurements locally in the wood microstructure. It was found that the FRAP methodology can be used to observe differences in the diffusion coefficient based on localization in the microstructure, i.e., earlywood, latewood, and cell wall. Microscopic changes due to steam explosion were seen to increase diffusion of the smaller 3-kDa dextran diffusion probe in the earlywood, while the latewood structure was not affected in any significant way. Macroscopic changes to the structure in the form of ruptures due to the steam explosion pretreatment were observed to increase the rate of diffusion for the larger 40-kDa dextran probe.

  • 7.
    Källander, Björn
    AB Trätek.
    Climate control in vacuum dryers for convective heat transfer. Partt 1: Demands on climate control2002In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 477-486Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Laine, Kristiina
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rautkari, Lauri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Hughes, Mark
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Wood densification and thermal modification: hardness, set-recovery and micromorphology2016In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 883-894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The density of wood can be increased by compressing the porous structure under suitable moisture and temperature conditions. One aim of such densification is to improve surface hardness, and therefore, densified wood might be particularly suitable for flooring products. After compression, however, the deformed wood material is sensitive to moisture, and in this case, recovered up to 60 % of the deformation in water-soaking. This phenomenon, termed set-recovery, was reduced by thermally modifying the wood after densification. This study presents the influence of compression ratio (CR = 40, 50, 60 %) and thermal modification time (TM = 2, 4, 6 h) on the hardness and set-recovery of densified wood. Previously, set-recovery has mainly been studied separately from other properties of densified wood, while in this work, set-recovery was also studied in relation to hardness. The results show that set-recovery was almost eliminated with TM 6 h in the case of CR 40 and 50 %. Hardness significantly increased due to densification and even doubled compared to non-densified samples with a CR of 50 %. Set-recovery reduced the hardness of densified (non-TM) wood back to the original level. TM maintained the hardness of densified wood at an increased level after set-recovery. However, some reduction in hardness was recorded even if set-recovery was almost eliminated.

  • 9.
    Meyer-Veltrup, Linda
    et al.
    Leibniz University, Germany.
    Brischke, Christian
    Leibniz University, Germany.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    NIBIO The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Humar, Miha
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Flæte, Per-Otto
    Norwegian Institute of Wood Technology, Norway.
    Isaksson, Tord
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Brelid, Pia L.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Jermer, Jöran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    The combined effect of wetting ability and durability on outdoor performance of wood: development and verification of a new prediction approach2017In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 615-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive approaches to predict performance of wood products are requested by international standards, and the first attempts have been made in the frame of European research projects. However, there is still an imminent need for a methodology to implement the durability and moisture performance of wood in an engineering design method and performance classification system. The aim of this study was therefore to establish an approach to predict service life of wood above ground taking into account the combined effect of wetting ability and durability data. A comprehensive data set was obtained from laboratory durability tests and still ongoing field trials in Norway, Germany and Sweden. In addition, four different wetting ability tests were performed with the same material. Based on a dose–response concept, decay rates for specimens exposed above ground were predicted implementing various indicating factors. A model was developed and optimised taking into account the resistance of wood against soft, white and brown rot as well as relevant types of water uptake and release. Decay rates from above-ground field tests at different test sites in Norway were predicted with the model. In a second step, the model was validated using data from laboratory and field tests performed in Germany and Sweden. The model was found to be fairly reliable, and it has the advantage to get implemented into existing engineering design guidelines. The approach at hand might furthermore be used for implementing wetting ability data into performance classification as requested by European standardisation bodies.

  • 10.
    Nussbaum, Ralph
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Oxidative activation of wood surfaces by flame treatment1993In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 27, p. 183-193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Olsson, A.-M.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mechano-sorptive creep in pulp fibres and paper2014In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 569-580Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Olsson, Anders
    et al.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Johansson, Marie
    Källsner, Bo
    SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Prediction of timber bending strength on basis of bending stiffness and material homogeneity assessed from dynamic excitation2012In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 667-683Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Olsson, Anders
    et al.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Serrano, Erik
    Källsner, Bo
    Johansson, Marie
    Enquist, Bertil
    Prediction of timber bending strength and in-member cross-sectional stiffness variation on the basis of local wood fibre orientation2013In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 319-333Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    et al.
    SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Olsson, Anders
    Enquist, Bertil
    Strain fields around knots in Norway spruce specimens exposed to tensile forces2012In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 593-610Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Pahlberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Förädling och processer (TRf). Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thurley, Matthew
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wood fingerprint recognition using knot neighborhood K-plet descriptors2015In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 7-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wood industry, there is a wish to recognize and track wood products through production chains. Traceability would facilitate improved process control and extraction of quality measures of various production steps. In this paper, a novel wood surface recognition system that uses scale and rotationally invariant feature descriptors called K-plets is described and evaluated. The idea behind these descriptors is to use information of how knots are positioned in relation to each other. The performance and robustness of the proposed system were tested on 212 wood panel images with varying levels of normally distributed errors applied to the knot positions. The results showed that the proposed method is able to successfully identify 99–100 % of all panel images with knot positional error levels that can be expected in practical applications.

  • 16.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Kölle, Martina
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Brischke, Christian
    Leibniz University Hannover, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Effects of thermal modification on Postia placenta wood degradation dynamics: measurements of mass loss, structural integrity and gene expression2016In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 385-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism by which modified wood resists decay has long been discussed, but is still not fully understood. A better understanding of decay resistance mechanisms could improve wood protection processes and product properties. In this study, the dynamics of brown rot decay in thermally modified wood was examined through measurements of mass loss, strength loss and gene expression. Close monitoring of mass loss over 120 days in thermally modified wood exposed to Postia placenta showed a delay in the onset of degradation compared to untreated wood, and once the degradation had started, the rate was lower. Thermally modified wood did not inhibit expression of wood degradation-related genes before mass loss and was similar to that in untreated wood once mass loss could be detected. Comparing gene expression as well as strength loss at the same stage of decay rather than at the same time after exposure showed smaller differences in decay patterns between thermally modified and untreated wood than previous results indicate. It is concluded that the key to understanding degradation resistance in thermally modified wood is to compare the decay patterns in thermally modified wood and untreated wood before mass loss occurs.

  • 17.
    Salmen, Lennart
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, Anne-Mari
    RISE, Innventia.
    Physical properties of cellulosic materials related to moisture changes2016In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 81-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moisture affects the mechanical properties of paper to a high degree. Moreover, the creep properties of paper may be highly affected while the relative humidity is changing, exhibiting mechano-sorptive creep. The reasons for the great sensitivity to moisture changes of papers are not fully explained. In this study, thin papers were examined during sorption processes and the moisture content within the paper, paper length and dynamic elastic modulus during RH changes were measured. It is demonstrated that the dimensional changes of the paper exactly reflected the changes in moisture content within the sample. During both absorption and desorption, the elastic modulus changed so that it was lower than the equilibrium value corresponding to its moisture content. This was especially evident during absorption where the modulus dropped below the equilibrium value at the end RH, i.e. the value was approached from below. The modulus drop was highly related to RH changes made at higher RH and could possibly be related to the softening of carbohydrates.

  • 18.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Salin, Jarl-Gunnar
    Liquid water absorption in dried Norway spruce timber measured with CT scanning and viewed as a percolation process2012In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 46, no 1-3, p. 207-219Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Sedighi Moghaddam, Maziar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Claesson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wålinder, M. E. P.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wettability and liquid sorption of wood investigated by Wilhelmy plate method2014In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 161-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wettability of Scots pine veneers was investigated with different approaches using the Wilhelmy plate method. The probe liquids were water and octane, which differ; in that, water is able to swell the wood sample, whereas octane does not. Novel approaches based on the Wilhelmy plate method to study wettability, liquid penetration, and swelling behavior of wood veneers are introduced. First, immersion to constant depth was performed, and liquid uptake with time was evaluated. Different kinetic regimes, the fastest one associated with contact angle changes and the slowest regime associated with liquid sorption by capillary and diffusion, were observed. Two other approaches, imbibition at constant depth (with initial deeper immersion) and full immersion, were utilized in order to keep the contact angle constant during measurements. Dynamic wettability studies were done by a multi-cycle (10-20 cycles) Wilhelmy method. Based on this, the time-dependent swelling of wood and changes in sample perimeter could be obtained. Generally, water showed higher absorption than octane. In all wettability studies, and for both probe liquids, the penetration process starts with a fast initial sorption, which is followed by swelling in the case of water.

  • 20.
    Östman, Birgit
    Trätek..
    Wood tensile strength at temperatures and moisture contents simulating fire conditions1985In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 103-116Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 20 of 20
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