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  • 1. Johnson, O.
    et al.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Roos, A.
    Hugosson, M.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Consumer perceptions and preferences on solid wood, wood-based panels, and composites: A repertory grid study2008In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 663-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about consumer perception and preferences on solid wood, wood-based panels, and wood-based composites is important for product development and marketing. The aim of this study was to identify attributes and associations that people use to describe different types of wood materials and to explore how they relate to preferences. The study involved nine samples that were evaluated with the Kelly’s repertory grid technique and content analysis. Based on respondents’ answers, 19 core categories reflecting sample attributes were extracted. General preferences for each sample were also recorded. Principal component analysis generated two factors describing 1) naturalness, wood-likeness, softness, unprocessed origin, living, pleasant, and high value; and 2) solid and homogeneous impression. A third, preliminary factor included categories describing irregular pattern, sleekness, and smoothness. The wood samples were most liked, whereas composites and panels were not appreciated. Preferred core categories were naturalness, wood-likeness, smoothness, living impression, and value. The least liked core categories were processed, hard, and high weight. The implications of the results for product development and marketing are discussed. © 2008 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology.

  • 2.
    Källbom, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jones, Dennis
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Surface energy characterization of thermally modified spruce using inverse gas chromatography under cyclic humidity conditions2015In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 410-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface energy of unmodified and thermally modified spruce wood components was researched at dry and moist conditions using inverse gas chromatography. The results indicate a more pronounced heterogeneous nature of the thermally modified wood surfaces in terms of the dispersive (nonpolar) component of the surface energy, compared with that of the unmodified wood surfaces. The dispersive component of the surface energy of the thermally modified wood ranged between 44 and 38 mJ/m2 corresponding to an increase in surface coverage from a low level and up to about 10%. Suggested explanations for the more distinct heterogeneity of the thermally modified wood sample arerelated to chemical changes of the wood substance which seem to result in certain micromorphological features observed by scanning electron microscopy as alternated fracture surfaces created in the grinding process; and also possible changes or redistribution of the wood extractives. An increase of the MC, representing a change from a dry condition of approximately 0% RH to ca 75% RH, of both the unmodified and thermally modified samples seemed to have a marginal influence on the dispersive component of the surface energy. Possible implications of the results in this study can be found in the tailoring of new compatible and durable material combinations, for example, when using thermally modified wood residuals as a component in new types of biocomposites.

  • 3. Lundgren, Nils
    et al.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Hagman, Olle
    Oja, Johan
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Predicting the strength of Norway spruce by microwave scanning: A comparison with other scanning techniques2007In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Mandalika, A.
    et al.
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, US; Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, US.
    Bragg, D.
    USDA Forest Service, US.
    Schuler, J.
    West Virginia University, US.
    Baker, Darren
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Elder, T.
    USDA Forest Service, US.
    Groom, L.
    USDA Forest Service, US.
    Potential of natural-origin loblolly pine tree fractions as a bioenergy feedstock2019In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 26-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical characterization was performed on 10 different samples of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), representing the various woody components of trees (bole, slab, tops and branches, and precommercial stem-only) harvested from two naturally regenerated forests in southern Arkansas. Ultimate analysis, proximate analysis using thermogravimetry, and the energy content of the samples were determined to help evaluate their bioenergy utility. Elemental analysis revealed no significant differences between the pine tree fractions, whereas differences were observed in the proximate analysis, particularly in regard to the fixed carbon content. Generally, proximate analyses did not show significant differences between the slabwood and bolewood samples, although the “tops and branches” and “whole stem” samples contained the lowest volatile matter amounts and the greatest amounts of fixed carbon and ash content. In terms of the calorific value, the “tops and limbs” sample reported the lowest energy content, whereas the “whole stem” sample was among the highest reported value with statistical significance. These results indicate that whole stem samples may be an attractive prospect for bioenergy applications such as gasification, pelletization, and combustion, owing to favorable heating content values and relatively low ash content. Although a number of logistical challenges exist in their acquisition and processing, slabs, topwood, and branches offer opportunities for bioenergy applications that can increase the utilization of forest residues without threatening more traditional uses of wood in lumber, panels, and paper. Finally, we then briefly consider the silvicultural implications of these results for naturally regenerated southern pine €“dominated forests.

  • 5. Nussbaum, Ralph M
    et al.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    AB Trätek.
    The effect of wood extractive content on glude adhesion and surface wettability of wood2002In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 57-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Olsson, Anders
    Enquist, Bertil
    Localized modulus of elasticity in timber and its significance for the accuracy of machine strength grading2014In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 489-501Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Roos, A.
    et al.
    Lindberg, S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Kihlstedt, A.
    RISE, Innventia.
    A product semantic study of the influence of vision on wood evaluation2013In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, no 4, p. 353-362Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Vellekoop, Stefan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Process-Related Mechanical Degradation of the Wood Component in High-Wood-Content Wood-Plastic Composites2012In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 145-154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Oja, Johan
    Antti, Lena
    Moisture content measurement in Scots pine by microwave and X-rays2012In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 280-285Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Schmid, Joakim
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. TUT Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Werther, Norman
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire design of CLT in Europe2018In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 50, p. 68-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fire safety design of cross-laminated timber (CLT or X-Lam) in Europe is governed by the Construction Products Regulation and its essential requirements, as for all other building products. These requirements are mandatory, to be used in all European countries. They include classification systems for reaction to fire of building products, fire resistance of building elements, and structural Eurocodes. The reaction-to-fire performance of CLT in accordance with the European classification system is specified. Higher classes can be reached by chemical treatments, but the durability of the reaction-to-fire performance needs to be fulfilled according to a new European system. The fire resistance design of CLT building elements is not included in Eurocode 5, the structural Eurocode for timber, but can be either tested according to European standards or calculated by using design methods being developed recently. This article provides information about both reaction to fire and fire resistance of CLT in Europe. Furthermore, the importance of proper detailing in building design and in practice is stressed. Finally, performance-based design is introduced and some further research needs suggested.

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